Hezhe nationality is a minority nationality with a long history in Northeast China. Its language is Hezhe language. It belongs to Manchu branch of Altaic Manchu Tungusic language family (it is also believed that it should be included in Nanai sub branch). There is no script of its own nationality, so it uses Cyrillic alphabet to record the language. Because it has lived together with Han nationality for a long time, it is common in Chinese.
Because of the vast living area, Hezhe people call themselves more, such as "Nabei", "Nanai", "nanio", "Hezhe" as a family name first appeared in March of 1663, the second year of Kangxi. After the publication of Ling Chunsheng's "Hezhe people in the lower reaches of Songhua River" in 1934, "Hezhe" as a family name began to spread widely.
Hezhe people are mainly distributed in the Sanjiang Plain and Wandashan Yumai formed by the confluence of Heilongjiang, Songhua River and Wusuli River. They mainly live in three townships and two villages, namely Jiejinkou Hezhe Township, bacha Hezhe Township, Sipai Hezhe Township, Raohe County, Shuangyashan City, Aoqi Hezhe village, Aoqi Town, Jiamusi City and Zhuoji Hezhe village, Zhuoji Town, Fuyuan County. According to the sixth national census in 2010, the population of Hezhe is 5354.
Because of the vast living area, Hezhe people call themselves more.
In the past, people living along the Songhua River above today's Datun in Fujin city called themselves "Nabei"; people living in today's gaerdang Jiejinkou village in Fujin city called themselves "Nanai"; people living below Jiejinkou village in today's Tongjiang City and along the Wusuli River called themselves "nanio". In these three forms of address, "Na" means "local", "local", and "Nai", "Bei" and "Ni Ao" mean "human".
In addition, the people who originally lived below xiabacha and along the Wusuli River are called "Hezhen" or "hejisler", which means "downstream people" or "Oriental people"; the people who originally lived above Qindeli and along the huntong River and Songhua River also call themselves "Qiling".
"Hezhen" is a variant of "Hezhen", which is a homonym of "Heijin", "Heijin", "heizhe", "Hejin" and "Hejin". Hezhe, as a family name, first appeared in March of the second year of Kangxi (1663). After the publication of Ling Chunsheng's the Hezhe people in the lower reaches of Songhua River in 1934, "Hezhe" was widely spread as a family name.
The ancestors of Hezhen were a part of Sushen clan, which was historically included in Sushen, yilou, Wuji and other ancient nationalities.
In the Tang Dynasty and the Bohai State, the ancestors of Hezhe nationality had a close relationship with heishuipei, which was one of its components. In the 10th year of Kaiyuan (722), Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty appointed the leader of Heishui as the governor of Boli Prefecture. In the 12th year of Kaiyuan (724), the Tang Dynasty set up the Heishui army in the place of Heishui. In the 14th year of Kaiyuan (726), the Heishui Dudu was set up in Heishui. The local leader was the Dudu and the assassin, and the leader of the Tang School was the Shijian, who jointly managed the place. The Hezhe ancestors belonged to it.
In Liao Dynasty, it was a part of the northern branch of shengnuzhen. In the sixth year of the reign of emperor Chongxi of the Liao Dynasty (1037), there were five ministries of the state, and the ancestors of the Hezhe Nationality belonged to them.
Jin Dynasty is a part of shengnvzhen. In the first year of Jinshou state (1115), Huli road was set up in the lower reaches of Songhua River, and the Hezhe ancestors belonged to it.
Yuan Dynasty is a part of Nuzhen Shuida people. In Yuan Dynasty, it belonged to nvzhishui dada wanhufu and nvzhishui dada road.
In the seventh year of Yongle in the Ming Dynasty (1409), there was a commander of nuergandu, which belonged to the ancestors of Hezhe nationality. During the Hongzhi period of Ming Dynasty, it was under the jurisdiction of Liaodong Dusi. Jurchen in Ming Dynasty can be divided into three systems, namely, Jurchen in Haixi, Jurchen in Jianzhou and Jurchen in Yeren. Hezhenren is an important part of Jurchen in Yeren. At this time, the situation of the Hezhe ancestors gradually became clear, and various documents described them in more detail. At the end of Ming Dynasty and the beginning of Qing Dynasty, Hezhe ancestors gradually separated from the female reality, which laid the foundation for the formation of Hezhe community and national identity consciousness. At the end of Ming Dynasty, Nuzhen nationality rose again, and its impetus came from Jianzhou Nuzhen. In the early Ming Dynasty, the two main parts of Nuzhen in Jianzhou, Huli reform department, ouduoli department and Maolian department, went down from the lower reaches of Songhua River. After separation and aggregation, they finally gathered in the early years of Jingtai in the Ming Dynasty between Suzi River and pozhujiang river. At the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century, Nurhachi gradually unified the Nuzhen departments. In 1616, Nurhachi was called Khan in hetuala (now Xinbin, Liaoning Province), the state name of Jin, and later Jin in history. Originally living in the lower reaches of the Songhua River, Nuzhen in the west of the sea moved southward in the early Ming Dynasty and settled between the upper reaches of the Liaohe River and the upper reaches of the Songhua River in the 1630s-70s, forming hada, Wula, Yehe and Huifa.
Due to the gradual southward migration of the above two Nuzhen tribes, especially after the establishment of the Qing Dynasty, the political center and main activity area of the Manchu moved to Guannei, leaving room for the formation of a separate clan for the savage Nuzhen. Therefore, the Ming Dynasty is the gestation period of the formation of the Hezhe nationality. After about 200 years of differentiation and integration, the Hezhe Nationality entered the formation period in the early Qing Dynasty. The Manchu and Hezhe nationalities are mainly from heishuipei. Later, due to the different degree of development and geographical distribution, they were divided into three groups: Jianzhou, Haixi Nuzhen and yerennuzhen in Ming Dynasty. Jianzhou and Haixi Nuzhen later became the main body of Manchu, while a part of "savage Nuzhen" became Hezhe. At the end of Ming Dynasty and the beginning of Qing Dynasty, "savage Nvzhen" is divided into two parts: huerha and erwaka. Hezhe people are divided into two parts: "those who live on both sides of Songhua River and Heilongjiang River are called black gold with shaved hair"; those who live on the confluence of Wusuli River, Songhua River and Heilong River are called black gold without shaved hair " The so-called "make dog country". Black hair with shaving and black hair without shaving belong to the same "erdenkara". The Hezhe people in China and the Nanai people in Russia are mainly descendents of the people with shaved hair and black Jin, while the people who are mistakenly classified as the urqi people by Russian scholars are mainly descendents of the people without shaved hair and black Jin.
From 1599 to 1644, Nurhachi and the Qing Dynasty used troops 17 times in the area where Hezhe people lived. Before entering the customs, 720 men, 1820 women and children, 2552 people were brought back by the last army, all of them were under the eight banners. The main reasons for the military use of the Hezhen people are "slow not to pay tribute", "the ancestors of Er were all people of our country, and they had a very clear record of their nationality, and they knew nothing about them, so they were willing to go outside", and the big nationalist consciousness of "their violent nature should be good for prevention", which shows that the Hezhen people's sense of community identity has formed in the early Qing Dynasty, and there is a sense of national boundaries between the Hezhen people and the Nuzhen tribes As an independent community of people, Hezhe nationality has existed. In the 53rd year of Kangxi (1714), the city with three surnames was established and the Xieling Yamen with three surnames was set up; in the 5th year of Yongzheng (1727), the vice Dutong with three surnames was added; in the 7th year of Yongzheng (1729), the vice Dutong with Yilan was added; in the 10th year of Yongzheng (1732), the vice Dutong with three surnames was changed and was subordinate to the general of ningguta; in the 8th year of Guangxu (1882), the Xieling yamen was set up in yugaerdang. In the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China, the prefecture and county system was successively established in Huachuan, Fujin, Tongjiang, Fuyuan, Raohe and other places, and the Hezhe nationality was under the jurisdiction of each county.
After the Qing government conquered the Hezhen, it managed the Hezhen by means of "household arrangement" and "flag arrangement", which further weakened the remnants of the clan system and accelerated the formation of regional relations, resulting in the polarization between the rich and the poor, and promoted the development of the Hezhen community. However, at the beginning of the formation of Hezhe nationality, the rulers of Qing Dynasty adopted the policy of weakening and assimilation, resulting in the continuous loss of population. Before the Qing Dynasty entered the pass, Hezhen people (Buddha Manchuria) who were incorporated into the eight banners were integrated into Manchu. After the Qing Dynasty entered the pass, a large number of Hezhen people were incorporated into "Yiche (New) Manchuria" and gradually assimilated into Manchu. For example, in the 13th year of Kangxi (1674), the Hezhen people of "hu'erha tribe" were moved to ningguta (now Ning'an City, Heilongjiang Province), and were organized into 40 "new Manchurian assistant leaders" (with 2000 soldiers); in the 53rd year of Kangxi (1714), more than 1530 Hezhen men of three surnames were organized into four "new Manchurian assistant leaders". In the ninth year of Yongzheng (1731) of the Qing Dynasty, after the Sanxing Xieling yamen was upgraded to the vice Dutong yamen, the number of troops was greatly expanded. In addition to 800 soldiers who were supplemented by Hezhe people with three surnames, 1000 soldiers were selected from places with eight surnames. After the Qing Dynasty entered the pass, only during the Kangxi and Yongzheng dynasties, there were nearly 60 assistant leaders of Hezhen people who moved to the flag. Among them, 31 assistant leaders and more than 10000 people moved to Shengjing, and the rest stayed in Jilin, with a total of more than 20000 people. These Hezhen people, who were incorporated into the "new Manchu assistant leader", gradually assimilated into Manchu and became an important force for Manchu to enter the Central Plains.
In the middle of the 17th century, Czarist Russia invaded the east of Lake Baikal and the Heilongjiang River Basin. On September 7, 1689, China and Russia signed the Treaty of nebuchu between China and Russia, from which Hezhen lived across the border and was artificially divided into two parts. In 1858 and 1860, tsarist Russia forced the Qing government to sign the unequal "Sino Russian Treaty of juanhui" and "Sino Russian Treaty of Beijing", respectively occupying more than 600000 square kilometers of Chinese land north of Heilongjiang and south of outer Xing'an Mountains, and more than 1 million square kilometers of Chinese land north of Heilongjiang and east of Wusuli River.
In the face of the invasion of foreign enemies, Hezhe Nationality carried on a tenacious struggle. In October 1651, Khabarov, the leader of the Russian Cossacks, led the army to invade uzara village. About 1000 residents, including Hezhe, chiler and Manchu, launched a fierce attack on the residence of habarov invaders on October 19. Hezhen, armed with spears and bows and arrows, fought with the Russian invaders. But they were forced to retreat because of the strong firepower of the invaders and 117 casualties. At dawn on April 4, 1652, ningguta Zhangjing Haise led more than 2000 cavalry to attack the winter camp of the Tsarist Russian aggressors "awansk" with the cooperation of Hezhe and other residents. The Qing army killed 10 aggressors led by habarov and wounded 76, among them
Chinese PinYin : He Zhe Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:26:27
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