The Oroqen nationality is one of the most populous nationalities in Northeast China. According to the fifth national census in 2000, the population of Oroqen is 8196. The Oroqen language belongs to the Tungusic branch of the Manchu Tungusic language family of the Altaic language family. It has no characters, and now it mainly uses Chinese.
The Oroqen nationality is mainly distributed in the Oroqen Autonomous Banner, butha banner, Molidawa Daur Autonomous Banner of Hulunbuir League in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and the counties of huma, Xunke, Aihui and Jiayin in the north of Heilongjiang Province. There are 3871 Oroqen people in Heilongjiang Province, accounting for 47% of the total Oroqen population; there are 3573 Oroqen people in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, accounting for 44%.
In the long-term hunting production and social practice, the Oroqen people have created rich and colorful spiritual culture, including oral creation, music, dance, plastic arts and so on.
In the Yuan Dynasty, the Oroqen people were known as "the common people in the forest" and "the wild people in the North Mountain", which were widely distributed and under the jurisdiction of Liaoyang province. In the Ming Dynasty, there were "beishanyeren" who "rode deer to get in and out" to the north of Heilongjiang Province, that is to say, the Oroqen people who hunted in the east of Baikal Lake and the north of Heilongjiang Province. In the early Qing Dynasty, Oroqen was called "the man in the tree".
Oroqen said that on April 28, 1640 (March of the fifth year of Chongde), it appeared as "Ertun". After 1683 (the 22nd year of Kangxi), there were many different ways of writing "orochun", "orochun" and "orochun" in the literature. From October of 1690 (the 29th year of Kangxi), Oroqen was fixed as a unified family name. "Oroqen" is a self proclaimed ethnic group, that is, "people who use reindeer.". In addition, the pronunciation of "oron" is the same as that of reindeer (oron), and (CHO) is an additional element to indicate human beings. The combination of the two is oroncho, that is, "oronchun", which means "deer beating man" in Chinese.
According to the different living areas, the Oroqen people have different names. For example, the Oroqen people living in the Huma River Basin call themselves Kumar Qian; the Oroqen people living in Xunke county and Jiayin County call themselves bilaqian; the Oroqen people living in the Ganhe River Basin call themselves ganqian; the Oroqen people living in the Tuohe River Basin call themselves Tuoqian. For example, Kumar Qian's "Kumar" refers to the place, and "Qian" refers to the additional elements of people and the meaning of people in a certain place.
There are mainly two kinds of views on the origin of the clan, one is Shi Wei, the other is Su Shen. Scholars tend to the latter. Before the middle of the 17th century, the Oroqen people were distributed to the east of Baikal Lake, to the north of Heilongjiang Province, and centered on the jingqili river. In history, it was mainly the activity area of boshuwei and Shenmo tashuwei. Therefore, boshuwei and Shenmo tashuwei in Sui Dynasty should be the main sources of the ancestors of Oroqen, and beishiwei might also participate in the formation of the clan. In the Tang Dynasty, Shiwei developed into more than 20 units, which were under the jurisdiction of Shiwei Dudu Fu. According to the literature, some of them are distributed in the north of Heilongjiang and the south of outer Xing'an Mountains. In the Liao Dynasty, Shiwei was in the north of the upper Nenjiang River and the south of the outer Xing'an Mountains, and in the middle and upper reaches of Heilongjiang Province. Liao Dynasty set up the royal residence of the state of Shiwei. During the reign of emperor Shengzong, he also set up the Jiedushi of Shiwei, which was under the jurisdiction of the Department of solicitation in the northwest road. In the Jin Dynasty, Huo Lu Huo Tuan Mou Ke ruled the south of Xing'an Mountains.
The Qing Dynasty
In 1640, the Qing government divided the "Suolun Department" into eight Niu Lu (zuoling), and Olunchun was a part of the Suolun department. In 1669, eight banners of butha (Daji tribe) were set up under general ningguta to manage the Oroqen, Ewenki, Daur and other nationalities in the upper and middle reaches of Heilongjiang.
In 1683 (the 22nd year of Kangxi), the Heilongjiang general was separated from the ningguta general who originally ruled Jilin and Heilongjiang. Under the general of Heilongjiang, there are eight cities, which are under the jurisdiction of officials such as the deputy governor and the general manager. For the management of the Oroqen people, it can be divided into two parts: "molinga Oroqen" (Oroqen people on horseback) and "yafahan Oroqen" (Oroqen people on foot). Those who have been incorporated into the eight banners of butha (Daji) are called "official soldiers" and "molinga Oroqen". Those who have not been incorporated into the eight banners of butha are called "yafahan Oroqen". The latter has five routes and eight assistants, each of which has one assistant leader of the Oroqen nationality. Every year, a person named "Wanda" is sent to collect mink.
In the middle of the 17th century, tsarist Russia invaded China's Heilongjiang River Basin. In 1665 (the fourth year of the reign of Emperor Kangxi), Czarist Russia occupied the city of yakesha on the North Bank of the upper reaches of Heilongjiang, burning, killing and robbing local residents. In 1685 (the 24th year of Kangxi), 565 Oroqen soldiers took part in the second battle of the Qing army to recover the city of yakesha, contributing to the victory of the battle of yakesha. In 1732 (the 10th year of Yongzheng), the Qing government dispatched 259 Oroqen soldiers, 3000 of them, including Daur soldiers, to form eight banners, and set up a city garrison at the mouth of the jilamatai River in Hulunbuir to patrol and defend the border. In 1900 (the 26th year of the reign of Emperor Guangxu), the tsarist Russia invaded and drove the people of 64 villages in Jiangdong to the riverside and shot them. Shoulian, the leader of Kumar Road Association, led 500 officers and soldiers of Oroqen horse team to beat down the invaders.
Japanese puppet period
After the September 18th Incident in 1931, Japan occupied Northeast China and put the former Kumar Road, Bilar Road, aridobukur road and Tuohe road under the jurisdiction of mengqike, Department of civil affairs of Heilongjiang Province. Although the offices of the leaders of all roads have not been abolished, they have become nominal organizations. In 1934, Manchukuo divided Northeast China and Inner Mongolia into 14 provinces. The puppet Heihe province governed Kumar road and bilar road; the puppet Xing Anton province governed alidobukur road; the puppet Xing'an North Province governed Tuohe road. In July of the same year, the Eight Banners system was abolished. Nominally, the Lu and Zuo systems were still retained, but the assistant leader and the assistant leader were puppets. The "guidance officers" sent by the Japanese secret service agencies actually ruled the Oroqen people. During the period of the Japanese puppet regime, the Oroqen nationality was separated from other nationalities by the policy of national isolation.
After the founding of the people's Republic of China
On April 7, 1951, the Administrative Council of the Central People's Government approved the establishment of Oroqen banner. The Oroqen people obtained the right of regional autonomy and independently managed the internal affairs of their own ethnic groups in the region. On May 31, 1952, "Oroqen banner" was changed into Oroqen Autonomous Banner.
In 1957, Heilongjiang Province established three ethnic townships: Shibazhan of huma County, Xinsheng of Aihui county and Xine of Xunke county. In 1958, Xinxing village was set up as Xinxing Oroqen township. In 1958, four ethnic townships were transformed into people's communes. In 1984, the system of ethnic township was restored and baiyinna ethnic township was established.
The population development of the Oroqen nationality has a history of only one hundred years. According to records, the population of Oroqen was about 18000 in 1895, 4111 in 1917 and 3000 in 1938. The sharp decline of Oroqen's population before the founding of new China was closely related to the turbulent lifestyle of the hunting people and the frequent wars in modern society.
After the founding of new China, due to the implementation of the correct ethnic policy, the state actively supports and helps the economic and social development of the Oroqen nationality, the population of the Oroqen nationality has increased rapidly and its quality has been greatly improved. According to the fourth national census in 1990, there are 7004 Oroqen people in China. According to the sixth national census in 2010, there are 8659 Oroqen people in China.
The distribution area of Oroqen nationality can be divided into two periods before and after the middle of the 17th century. Before the middle of the 17th century, it was mainly distributed in the east of Baikal Lake, north of Heilongjiang, and the vast area of Sakhalin Island. In the 1740s, the tsarist Russia invaded the Heilongjiang River Basin, and the Oroqen people gradually moved south to the Daxing'anling and Xiaoxing'anling areas on the South Bank of Heilongjiang Province. They lived a hunting life in the humar River Basin, Xun River Basin, Zhanhe River Basin, Wuyun River Basin, Jiayin River Basin, Ali River Basin, dobukur River Basin and Tuohe River Basin.
In 2015, the current regional GDP of the whole banner was 6675.54 million yuan, an increase of 7.6% over the previous year in terms of comparable prices. Among them, the added value of the primary industry was 2390.9 million yuan, with a comparable growth of 4.9%; the added value of the secondary industry was 844.03 million yuan, with a comparable growth of 8.8%; the added value of the industrial industry was 672.7 million yuan, with a comparable growth of 8.4%; the added value of the construction industry was 171.32 million yuan, with a comparable growth of 10%; the added value of the tertiary industry was 3440.61 million yuan, with a comparable growth of 9.2%. The structure of the three industries was adjusted from 38.2:12.9:48.9 to 35.8:12.6:51.6, and the per capita GDP increased from 24438 yuan to 25813 yuan, an increase of 9.7%.
In the middle of the 17th century, the social development of the Oroqen people was still in the stage of patriarchal clan commune known as "wulileng". Although clan organizations still existed at that time, the basic economic unit of society was not clan, but "wulilen". Each "wulileng" includes some small families of several generations of the same ancestor. The family leader of "wulilen" is known as "tatanda", whose internal means of production are public, living a primitive Communist life of common labor and equal distribution. After the middle of the 17th century, the Qing government's jurisdiction over the Oroqen people became more and more strict. The economic exchanges between Oroqen and Manchu, Han and other ethnic groups also developed. The import of iron tools and guns, and the exchange of hunting products with agricultural and pastoral handicrafts developed gradually
Chinese PinYin : E Lun Chun Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:26:20
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