Oroqen nationality is one of the nationalities with the least population in Northeast China. According to the fifth national census in 2000, the population of Oroqen nationality is 8196. Oroqen language belongs to the Tungusic branch of man Tungusic language family of Altai language family. It has no words. Now it mainly uses Chinese and Chinese.
Oroqen nationality is mainly distributed in Oroqen Autonomous Banner, butha banner, Molidawa Daur Autonomous Banner of Hulunbuir League of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and huma, Sunke, Aihui, Jiayin and other counties in the north of Heilongjiang Province. There are 3871 Oroqen in Heilongjiang Province, accounting for 47% of the total population of Oroqen; There are 3573 people in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, accounting for 44%.
In the long-term hunting production and social practice, the Oroqen people have created rich and colorful spiritual culture, including oral creation, music, dance, plastic arts and so on.
Oroqen nationality wIKI：
|Chinese name||Oroqen nationality|
|alias||Make deer part|
|Language family||Manchu Tungusic language family|
|range||Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Heilongjiang Province|
|population size||8659 (2010)|
|religious belief||Mainly Shamanism|
Chinese PinYin : E Lun Chun Zu
In the Yuan Dynasty, Oroqen people were known as "people in trees" and "wild people in Beishan". They were widely distributed and under the jurisdiction of Liaoyang province. In the Ming Dynasty, there were "Beishan savages" who "rode deer to get in and out" in the north of Heilongjiang, which refers to the "Shilu Department" hunting in the east of Baikal Lake and north of Heilongjiang, that is, the Oroqen people. Documents in the early Qing Dynasty once called Olunchun "the man in the tree".
Oroqen said that on April 28, 1640 (March of the fifth year of Chongde), it appeared as "Orton". After 1683 (the 22nd year of Kangxi), different writing methods such as "orochun", "orochun" and "orochun" appeared many times in the literature. From October 1690 (the 29th year of Kangxi), Oroqen was fixed as a unified family name. "Oroqen" is a national self proclaimed, that is, "people who use reindeer". In addition, the pronunciation of "oron" is the same as that of reindeer (oron), and (CHO) is an additional component of human beings. The two together are (oroncho), that is, "oron Chun", which means "deer beating man" in Chinese.
According to different living areas, Oroqen people have different names. For example, the Oroqen people living in the Huma River Basin call themselves Kumar thousand; Oroqen people living by the river in Xunke county and Jiayin County call themselves bilachen; The Oroqen people living in the Gan River Basin call themselves Gan Qian; Oroqen people living in Tuohe River Basin call themselves Tuoqian. For example, the "Kumar" of Kumar thousand means place, and the "thousand" means the additional component of people and the meaning of people in a certain place.
There are two main theories about its ethnic origin, one is the theory of Shiwei, the other is the theory of Sushen. Academic circles tend to the latter. Before the middle of the 17th century, Oroqen people were distributed in the vast area east of Baikal Lake, north of Heilongjiang and centered on jingqili river. In history, it was mainly the activity area of boshuwei people and Shenmo tashuwei people. Therefore, boshuwei and Shenmo tashuwei in the Sui Dynasty should be the main sources of the ancestors of the Oroqen nationality, and beishiwei may also have participated in the formation of the nationality. During the Tang Dynasty, Shiwei developed into more than 20 ministries, and the Tang Dynasty set up the governor's office of Shiwei to administer it. According to the documentary records, the part of Po lettuce and Luo Zu are distributed in the north of Heilongjiang and the south of waixing'an mountains. In the Liao Dynasty, Shiwei was located in the north of the upper reaches of Nenjiang River, the south of waixing'an mountains, and the middle and upper reaches of Heilongjiang. The royal residence of the state of Shiwei was set up in Liao Dynasty, and the Minister of Shiwei was set up in Shengzong period, which was subordinate to the recruitment department of Xibei road to exercise jurisdiction over the people of Shiwei in this area. The area south of the Xing'an Mountains was under the jurisdiction of Huolu huotuan mouke in the Jin Dynasty.
In 1640, the Qing government divided the "Soren Department" into eight cattle records (Zuo Ling), and Olunchun was a part of the Soren department. In the eighth year of Kangxi (1669), the eight banners of butha (Dasu tribe) were established under general ningguta to manage the Oroqen, Ewenki, Daur and other nationalities distributed in the upper and middle reaches of Heilongjiang.
In 1683 (the 22nd year of Kangxi), Heilongjiang generals were separated from ningguta generals who originally ruled Jilin and Heilongjiang. There are eight cities under the general of Heilongjiang, under the jurisdiction of officials such as deputy Du Tong and general manager. For the management of Oroqen, it is divided into "moling a Oroqen" (Oroqen on horseback) and "yafahan Oroqen" (Oroqen on foot). Those who have been incorporated into the eight banners of butha (animal fighting) are called "moling aronchun", and those who have not been incorporated into the eight banners of butha are called "yafahan oronchun". The latter is divided into five roads and eight assistants, each with one assistant leader of the Oroqen nationality. Every year, a person named "Ganda" is sent to the local area to collect mink.
In the mid-17th century, tsarist Russia invaded China's Heilongjiang Basin. In 1665 (the fourth year of Kangxi), tsarist Russia occupied the city of Yaksa on the North Bank of the upper reaches of Heilongjiang, burning, killing and looting local residents. In 1685 (the 24th year of Kangxi), in the second battle of the Qing army to recover the city of Yaksa, 565 Oroqen soldiers participated in the war and contributed to the victory of the battle of Yaksa. In 1732 (the 10th year of Yongzheng), the Qing government transferred 259 Oroqen soldiers and 3000 Daur soldiers into eight banners, and set up a city garrison at the mouth of the zilamatai River in Hulunbuir to patrol the border and defend the border. In 1900 (the 26th year of Guangxu), tsarist Russia invaded and drove the people of all nationalities in the 64tun of Jiangdong to the riverside to shoot. Shoulian, leader of Kumar Road Association, led 500 officers and soldiers of Oroqen horse team to beat the invaders.
After the September 18th Incident in 1931, Japan occupied the northeast and placed the original Kumar Road, Bilar Road, aridobukur road and Tuohe road under the jurisdiction of the mengqike section of the Civil Affairs Department of pseudo Heilongjiang Province. Although the offices of all roads have not been revoked, they have become nominal institutions. In 1934, the puppet Manchukuo divided the northeast and Inner Mongolia into 14 provinces, and the puppet Heihe province governed Kumar road and bilar road; Aledobukur road is under the jurisdiction of pseudo Hing Anton province; The puppet Xing'an North Province governs Tuohe road. In July of the same year, the eight flag system was abolished, and the Lu and Zuo systems were still retained in name, but Xie Ling and Zuo Ling were puppets. The "guiding officers" sent by Japanese secret service agencies actually ruled the Oroqen nationality. During the period of Japanese puppet rule, the Oroqen nationality adopted the policy of national isolation, and its long-standing ties with other nationalities were cut off.
On April 7, 1951, the Government Affairs Council of the Central People's Government approved the establishment of Oroqen banner. Oroqen nationality obtained the right of regional national autonomy and independently managed the internal affairs of their own nationality in the region. On May 31, 1952, "Oroqen banner" was changed to Oroqen Autonomous Banner.
In 1957, Heilongjiang Province established three ethnic townships: Shibazhan in Huma County, Xinsheng in Aihui county and Xine in Xunke county. In 1958, Xine township was designated as Xinxing village to establish Xinxing Oroqen township. In 1958, four ethnic townships were changed into people's communes. In 1984, the organizational system of ethnic township was restored and Baiyin Na ethnic township was newly established.
The population development of Oroqen nationality has only a hundred years of history. According to records, the population of Oroqen was about 18000 in 1895, 4111 in 1917 and 3000 in 1938. The sharp decline of Oroqen's population before the founding of new China was closely related to the volatile lifestyle of hunting people and the frequent wars in modern society.
After the founding of new China, due to the implementation of the correct ethnic policy and the active support and assistance of the state for the economic and social development of the Oroqen nationality, the population of the Oroqen nationality has increased rapidly and the quality has been greatly improved. In the fourth national census in 1990, there were 7004 Oroqen people in China. In the sixth national census in 2010, there were 8659 Oroqen people in China.
The distribution of Oroqen nationality is divided into two periods before and after the middle of the 17th century. Before the middle of the 17th century, it was mainly distributed to the east of Baikal Lake, north of Heilongjiang and to the vast area of Sakhalin Island. In the 1940s, tsarist Russia invaded the Heilongjiang River Basin, and the Oroqen people gradually moved south to the Daxing'an Mountains and Xiaoxing'an Mountains on the South Bank of Heilongjiang. They lived a hunting life in five basins: humar River Basin, Xun River, Zhanhe River, Wuyun River and Jiayin River Basin, Ali River Basin, dobukur River Basin and Tuohe River Basin.
In 2015, the regional GDP of the whole banner reached 6675.54 million yuan at current prices, an increase of 7.6% over the previous year at comparable prices. Among them, the added value of the primary industry was 2390.9 million yuan, a comparable increase of 4.9%; The added value of the secondary industry was 844.03 million yuan, a comparable increase of 8.8%; Among them, the industrial added value was 672.7 million yuan, a comparable increase of 8.4%, and the construction added value was 171.32 million yuan, a comparable increase of 10%; The added value of the tertiary industry reached 3440.61 million yuan, a comparable increase of 9.2%. The tertiary industrial structure was adjusted from 38.2:12.9:48.9 in the previous year to 35.8:12.6:51.6. The per capita regional GDP increased from 24438 yuan in the previous year to 25813 yuan, an increase of 9.7%.
In the mid-17th century, the social development of Oroqen nationality still remained in the stage of paternal familial commune known as "Wuling". At that time, although clan organizations still existed, the basic economic unit of society was no longer clan, but "Wuling". Each "Wuling" includes some small families of several generations of descendants of the same ancestor. The head of the "Wuling" family is called "tatanda". Its internal means of production are public and live a primitive Communist life of common labor and equal distribution. After the middle of the 17th century, the Qing government's jurisdiction over the Oroqen nationality became more strict, the economic exchanges between Oroqen and Manchu, Han and other nationalities also developed, the import of iron tools and guns, and the exchange of hunting products with agricultural and animal husbandry handicrafts gradually caused a series of changes within the Oroqen society. In addition to the fact that hunting grounds, forests and rivers are still public, some important means of production have evolved from public to private, and the labor organization and distribution system have also changed accordingly. Due to the rise of individual families originally bred in "Wuling", it finally led to the evolution of "Wuling" from blood organization to geographical organization, and the clan system has come to an end.
Despite the impact of the "great leap forward", "people's communization" and "Cultural Revolution", and the production policy has been revised and adjusted several times, the Oroqen economy has developed. Especially after the reform and opening up, the Oroqen economy has entered the fast lane of development. After the reform and opening up, the economy of six Oroqen villages in Heilongjiang Province has developed rapidly. In 1984, the per capita income was only more than 190 yuan and reached more than 2000 yuan in 2004. In 1996, the Oroqen Autonomous Banner implemented a comprehensive hunting ban and issued a living subsidy for hunting ban. In 1951, the per capita income of Oroqen hunters in Oroqen Autonomous Banner was only 68 yuan, 1680 yuan in 1995 before the hunting ban and 2894 yuan in 2005 after the hunting ban. The Oroqen Autonomous Banner has allocated 42000 mu of grassland to hunters to support the development of animal husbandry. All Oroqen hunters are included in the subsistence allowance. Two of the seven Hunter villages have realized community-based management.
The industrial structure of Oroqen nationality has undergone historic changes, from hunting to agriculture and animal husbandry. In 2000, the population of Oroqen industry in China was 3211, of which 1284 were engaged in agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry and fishery, accounting for 40% of the population of the whole industry.
Oroqen language is used, belonging to the Tungusic branch of man Tungusic language family of Altai language family. There is no national language, Chinese is generally used, and some Oroqen people use Mongolian.
Oroqen people believe in Shamanism with natural attributes and the concept of animism. This religion is closely combined with the unique primitive ideas of the nation. Their religious forms are nature worship, totem worship and ancestor worship. Shaman (wizard) is the messenger between God and man. Shamanism believes in many gods. The natural gods worshipped by the Oroqen people include the sun god, the moon god, the Big Dipper God, the God of fire, the God of heaven, the God of earth, the God of wind, the God of rain, the God of thunder, the God of water, the God of grass, the God of mountain and so on. In addition to nature worship, the ancestors of Oroqen also worshipped the totems of "niuniuku (bear)" and "laomas (tiger)". Oroqen people taboo calling them "baorikan (God)", "nuoyan (official)" and "wutaqi (Master)". Oroqen's ancestor worship is very popular, and it is the same now.
The costumes of the Oroqen people also fully show the characteristics of the hunting nation. The roe deer skin processed by women in Olunchun is strong, soft and light. In order to adapt to the cold climate and hunting life, the roe deer leather clothes and hats created by women in Olunchun have unique ingenuity and characteristics. Roe deer leather clothes, called "Su en" in Oroqen language, mostly keep the true color of roe deer skin, twist roe deer tendons into thin lines for sewing, mostly in the form of right-sided robes, and the body is decorated with "bow cut shape", "antler shape", "cloud roll shape" and other patterns, which are both beautiful and solid. The roe deer head hat of Oroqen nationality looks like a roe deer head. It is not only vivid and lifelike, but also warm and exquisite.
Hunting is the survival need of Oroqen people. They hunt in the vast forest sea all year round. Horse hunting and dog hunting are indispensable helpers for Oroqen hunters, known as "hunters' partners". The horse hunting and dog hunting of the Oroqen people are very humane. For this special reason, the Oroqen people generally do not kill horses and dogs, nor eat horse and dog meat.
Oroqen is a nation with well-developed storytelling and singing literature, including legends, stories, myths, proverbs, riddles, ballads, jokes, allegorical sayings, etc. The long telling and singing literature "mosukun" is a treasure of Oroqen folk literature. "Mosukun" tells and sings the heroic story of "mozigan" and the life experience of suffering in the form of a combination of rap and singing, which can be told and sung for several days or dozens of days. The language of "mosukun" is fluent, rhyming, concise and simple, with little change in melody. It is very pleasant to hear and has a strong national traditional charm.
The traditional means of transportation of Oroqen people mainly include reindeer, horses, birch skin boats, animal skin boats, rafts, skis and sleds. Reindeer were widely used before moving south, and gradually replaced by horses after moving south. Oroqen people used boats with horse skin, dog skin or deer skin as the bottom.
In the long-term production struggle and life practice, the Oroqen nation has created its own national culture. It includes medical and health knowledge and experience, mainly some therapies formed in life and exchanges with other nationalities.
In the past, the calendar of the Oroqen people was very primitive and simple. They distinguish the position according to the position of the sun, the position of the stars (Big Dipper), the direction of mountains and the flow direction of rivers. The method of recording the moon is based on the roundness of the moon. A year consists of 12 cycles from the beginning of the moon to the end of the moon. The method of recording the day is: wear 30 small wooden sticks on a rope. From the first day of the first month, pull one stick a day. 30 sticks are for one month, and repeat 12 times for one year. The division of the four seasons is mainly based on the cycle of climate. "Elukaiyi", the melting of ice and snow, is spring; "Zhaonei" is the season when grass grows, that is, summer; "Baoyuan" means withered and yellow plants, that is, autumn; "Tuo" is the season of falling snow, that is, winter.
After long-term observation, the Oroqen people have accumulated some meteorological experience. They realized that the month with the ring of the sun and the ring of the moon had heavy rain and snow; A southerly wind in winter heralds snow; If the clouds turn yellow, there will be a drought; The gall bladder of spring reed fish expands, and the river will rise.
The music of Oroqen nationality is mainly composed of "zandawen" folk songs, high pitched and clear, accompanied by extended tones and vibrato, which is beautiful. The lyrics of "zandawen" are improvised, with simple language and strong feelings. The only instrument is the harmonica called "penuha" or "kamuskan". Although the volume is weak, it can play all kinds of tunes.
Musical instruments include "pengnuhua" (an iron Harmonica) and "wentuwen" (tambourine). Deer whistle and roe deer whistle are not only production tools, but also early musical instruments. These musical instruments are often accompanied by the Oroqen nationality when singing and dancing.
The dance of Oroqen nationality is divided into ritual dance, entertainment dance and religious dance. The common feature is singing and dancing. The action is slow to fast, intense to the climax. Representative dances include "yihennen", "yihannen", black bear fight dance, etc. "Yihe Nen" is a family dance held at the triennial clan assembly. More than a dozen people form a group, one living in the center, and the rest dance in a circle hand in hand. In the past, this dance was performed when a clan gathered to pass down genealogy and genealogy. The black bear fighting dance performed by three people in Oroqen Autonomous Banner imitates the content of black bear fighting and playing, which is very rich in the characteristics of Oroqen traditional culture. During the performance, they shouted "Hamo" and "Hamo" to each other. First, they performed and fought, and finally the third party came up to persuade them.
Historically, the houses of Oroqen people mainly include "oblique benevolence column", delivery room, earth cellar, wood carving room, birch shed (forest), cloth shed (maihan), high foot warehouse (Oren), etc. "Xierenzhu" is the most important house for Oroqen hunting, which is conical. The skeleton is made of a main pole as long as dry rice, a trunk with branches and more than 20 "oblique kernel" (trunk). Its cover includes roe deer skin enclosure used in winter, which needs more than 60 roe deer skins to be sewn, as well as birch bark, reed curtain and cloth enclosure. The berth directly opposite the door of "Xie Ren column" is called "Ma Lu". It is a place for God. Only male guests and male masters are allowed to sit and lie. The son and daughter-in-law live in the left berth and the parents live in the right berth. There is a fire pond in the middle. There is an iron pot hanging from it. There is also a tripod to support the pot. "Oren" is a kind of high foot warehouse built in the forest to store clothes, dried meat, dried vegetables, grain, etc.
Oroqen women are good at embroidery. What they wear from head to foot is embroidered with patterns of flowers, birds, fish, insects and small animals, showing their rich imagination and superb artistic creativity. The Oroqen people, especially women, are also very good at making all kinds of daily necessities and handicrafts from birch bark. These articles are not only lightweight and durable, but also the carved patterns are vivid and beautiful.
Skin cutting is a very unique art form created by Oroqen women. It uses birch bark and animal skin to make figures, animals and other images as children's toys; In order to make the edges and corners of leather robes, hats, pockets and gloves beautiful and durable, some patterns are cut and sewn with roe deer tendons and deer tendons to become an artistic ornament. Fairy tales, characters, animal images and decorative patterns are the themes of skin cutting art. The art of skin cutting reflects the aesthetic outlook and pursuit of beauty formed by the Oroqen people in their hunting life.
Carving is a part of Oroqen's manual processing. It is also used for religious supplies. It is divided into relief carving and round carving. Relief carvings are mainly carved on birch bark vessels, including carvings on scabbard, saddle, deer whistle and wooden box. Round carving is a three-dimensional carving of wood, pine bark and animal bones with a hunting knife. It is very exquisite. The carved patterns mainly include cloud pattern, loop pattern, geometric pattern, wavy pattern, band pattern, cross pattern, Tuan Hua, etc. the patterns mainly include "kuiye Geyin" flower, "zhuledu very" flower, "nanchuo Luo" flower, etc.
The etiquette of Oroqen people is centered on respecting the elderly. There are two main manners: bending your knees and kowtowing. The younger generation should greet their elders with greetings, and the peers should also greet each other with greetings. Kowtow ceremony is performed on solemn occasions such as praying for gods and ancestors, weddings and funerals, festivals and so on. Oroqen people respect the elderly and elders very much. Younger people should be respectful, orderly and behave appropriately in front of their elders. Say hello to your elders before you go away and after you come back. When you meet your elders when you go out or hunting, get off your horse at a distance and greet them on foot. You can't ride until the elders pass by. Oroqen people are warm and hospitable, treat people with sincerity and treat them with sincerity. Stay with guests at night. There are differences between men and women of Oroqen nationality. Male guests can't sit in the berth of their daughter-in-law and girls, and female guests can't sit in the berth of men. The families of Oroqen people have the etiquette of visiting each other.
The taboos of Oroqen nationality mainly include production taboos, women taboos, life taboos, natural taboos, animal taboos and so on. For example, you can't say how many prey you can catch before hunting, otherwise you can't catch anything; Women are not allowed to sit on the "horse road"; Women are not allowed to spread bear skins; The bear can not be called a bear, but "too close"; Do not tamp fire with a knife or iron, otherwise you will offend the God of fire; Young people can't call their elders' names, etc.
The traditional marriage of the Oroqen people is arranged by their parents, which implements the clan extramarital system of monogamy. It also implements indirect staggered marriage from the table. Through the process of marriage proposal, marriage recognition, bride price and marriage, the bride price is mainly horses. Clan marriage or sexual behavior is strictly prohibited. Male and female marriages are mostly proposed by the man entrusted by the matchmaker. Generally, it takes three times to propose, and the third time is particularly critical. After the success, the date of marriage recognition and bride price shall be agreed. On the day of marriage recognition, the man should stay at the woman's house for 20 days to 1 month. The woman will change the future bridegroom into a new dress with black leather trim and a red cloth shoulder (cloud pattern is embroidered on the back and shoulder). The future bride will comb her hair into two braids and wrap it around her head, which is the sign of engagement. On the wedding day, the groom and his partners entered the woman's residence in the form of horse racing. After a series of ceremonies, the groom stayed at the bride's house that night. The next day the bride was taken to the bridegroom's residence. The groom's hat has a mink tail and four embroidered streamers. The bride wears ornaments on her head. Both men and women wear hunting knives. The bride's head is covered with cloth when she worships heaven and earth. The current form of marriage is basically the same as that of the Han nationality.
There are few traditional festivals of the Oroqen nationality, only the Spring Festival, the clan's "Mokun" assembly, the religious activity "omenaren", and the bonfire Festival. The main festival is the lunar new year.
In modern times, the social organization structure of Oroqen people has undergone fundamental changes, and religious beliefs have faded out of Oroqen people's thinking. The "Mokun" conference and "ominarene" have been replaced by the bonfire Festival. Influenced by other nationalities, Oroqen also celebrated Mid Autumn Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, new year and other festivals. For Oroqen people, the Spring Festival is a festive day to celebrate the harvest of hunting, farewell the old and welcome the new. Therefore, Oroqen people attach great importance to the Spring Festival.
June 18 of each year is the traditional festival of Oroqen -- bonfire Festival. On this day, Oroqen people will light bonfires, sing and dance, and celebrate their national festivals.
In the past, Oroqen people's diet was mainly animal meat, supplemented by fish and wild vegetables, and later introduced rice noodles. Oroqen people like to eat roe deer, deer, deer, wild boar and bear meat, as well as small animals and flying birds. The main methods include cooking handle meat, barbecue, roast meat, stewed meat soup, drying dried meat, miscellaneous cauliflower, filling serum, bone marrow oil, raw roe deer liver and kidney, etc. Rice noodles mainly include noodles, oil noodles, pancakes, noodles, noodle soup, oil fried noodles, meat porridge, thick plum porridge, sticky rice, etc. Oroqen calls oil noodles "tuhulie". Pull the "good noodles" into the boiling white water one by one, remove them, mix with seasonings such as cooked meat slices, salt and wild leek flowers, pour in heated wild boar oil or bear oil, mix well and eat them. Thick plum porridge is a special eating method of Oroqen nationality. Thick plums are boiled in the porridge, burst and pink, and can be eaten. It is colorful and delicious.
Oroqen people like to drink Schisandra chinensis soup and birch juice. Every spring in May and June, cut a small mouth at the root of the birch tree, and the birch juice will gush out, clear, transparent, sweet and delicious. Oroqen people also drink a kind of birch pulp called "DIL ancient color", peel off the skin of the birch, and gently scrape off the Milky viscous SAP on the trunk with a hunting knife. It tastes sweet and refreshing.
The burials of Oroqen people mainly include wind burial (also known as tree burial), earth burial and cremation, and the secondary burial of tree burial before Earth burial has also been implemented. Young people and pregnant women with acute diseases were cremated. After a person dies, he puts on his clothes, puts his head north and foot south in the "oblique benevolence column" where he used to live, and covers his face with paper (birch bark, animal skin, etc. in the past), which means that the soul sticks to the paper and goes to the king of hell as soon as possible. A series of funeral ceremonies were held before the funeral. Before the funeral, choose a hillside with mountains and water as the cemetery. At the funeral, relatives and friends carried the coffin and escorted it. If there are many children of the deceased, please send the soul of the shaman at the funeral to prevent the soul of the deceased from endangering the children. The deceased's family tie a straw man, tie a lot of lines on the straw man, and the children lead a line. The shaman prays. Finally, the shaman breaks the line with a divine stick and throws the straw man out. It is considered that the soul of the deceased is gone. Oroqen people use the custom of burying the dead by riding. They can also carry the clothes and harness of the dead on their horses and circle the burial ground several times to show their sacrifice for horses. Oroqen people will also hold a grand anniversary ceremony.
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