Dulong is one of the ethnic minorities with a small population in China, and it is also the ethnic group with the least population in Yunnan Province. It uses Dulong language and has no native language.
The original custom of group marriage of Dulong nationality does not exist now. Both male and female hair, girls have the habit of tattooing. Dulong people believe that all things have spirits, worship natural things and believe in ghosts.
Dulong nationality, with a population of about 7000 (2010 census data), is mainly distributed in Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County, Nujiang Prefecture, Yunnan Province.
Dulong People are mainly distributed in Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County, Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture, Northwest Yunnan Province, on both sides of Dulong River Valley in the west, Nujiang River in the north, Qile Township, Weixi Lisu Autonomous County and chawalong Township, Chayu County, Tibet Autonomous Region. There are also many Dulong People living in Myanmar.
The Dulong People call themselves "Dulong", and they call themselves "qiupa", "quluo" and so on. Living mainly in the Dulong River Valley of Gongshan Dulong and Nu Autonomous County, he is the earliest owner of Dulong River area.
According to the custom article of Lijiang road in Yuan Yi Tong Zhi, "there are eight kinds of Lijiang Road, which are called moxie, Baibai, Liluo, dongmian, echang, pry, Tufan and Lu. They live in the wrong place." Among them, "pry" is the same voice and different writing of "Qiu", which refers to the current Dulong People.
In 1952, under the care of Premier Zhou Enlai, according to the wishes of the nation, he abolished "Qiu pa", "Qiu Zi", "Qu Luo" and other names, and officially established them as "Dulong nationality".
Up to now, there is no clear clue about the origin and formation of the Dulong nationality, but from the perspective of language family, the Dulong nationality, as a Tibeto Burman language family of Sino Tibetan language family, should come from the Diqiang group. There are mainly two kinds of Legends: one is that Dulong is an indigenous people. Second, they believed that the Dulong People first lived in the Nujiang River area, and then came to the Dulong River Valley by chance due to hunting. Seeing that there were not only wide hunting grounds but also relatively flat platforms, they moved here one after another and gradually developed from north to south. Among about 15 clans of Dulong, 8 are said to come from Nujiang River. Moreover, from the perspective of language and the cultural characteristics of the tattoo customs in the past, the Dulong People are also very similar to the Nu people in Gongshan. In recent years, most scholars believe that the latter is more credible.
In Tang and Song Dynasties, the Dulongjiang river valley was under the jurisdiction of Nanzhao and Dali; in yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, it was under the rule of Lijiang Mu's chieftain and Lijiang Lu's military and civilian general office. Here, the records of the ancestors of the Dulong nationality have begun to appear in the relevant Chinese historical records. For example, "Lijiang road custom article" in Yuan Yi Tong Zhi says: "there are eight kinds of Lijiang Road, which are called Mo some, Bai, Luo Luo, Dong Mei, echang, pry, Tubo and Lu, living in a wrong place.". At that time, Lijiang road included Lijiang City, Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture and the south of Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, and its northwest connected with the present Tibet Autonomous Region. The "Lao", "Tubo" and "Lu" in this paper are the forefathers of Dulong, Tibetan and Lisu who lived in the West and northwest of Lijiang road. "Pry" is a homonym of "Qiu". In the past, the rivers and areas where Qiu lived were called Qiu River and Qiu Yi land. For example, the upper reaches of Dulong River in the west of Gongshan County are still called Qiu river. It can be seen that the Qiu people in the Yuan Dynasty were in the area of Qiu River, and then gradually moved to the downstream Dulong River Basin. In the Qing Dynasty, Daoguang's Yunnan general annals volume 185 quoted the Qing Dynasty tribute map as saying: "Qiu people, who lived outside the snow mountain of Lancang River, were barbarians outside the western city of Heqing and Lijiang. It lives in a hut with grass or covered with bark. Men's hair, linen pants, barefoot. Women's ears are decorated with copper rings, and their clothes are made of linen More people living in the mountains and rocks, clothing wood leaves, Ru Mao Yin Xue. It's like an ancient people. Qiu people and angry people border on each other. They are afraid to cross the border. " There are many similar records in Yongzheng's Yunnan Tongzhi, Qianlong's Lijiang Fu Zhi Lue and other historical records. These records reflect the production and living conditions of the Dulong People at that time.
In the middle of Qing Dynasty, Dulong River and Nujiang River were divided into two sections, which were under the jurisdiction of Kangpu Tuqian and Yezhi Tuqian respectively. According to Yu Qingyuan's Weixi Jianwen Lu in the Qing Dynasty, since 1730, the Dulong People have paid tribute to the general manager of Weixikang every year with 30 jin of yellow wax, 15 Zhang of hemp cloth and 20 pieces of donkey skin. Later, CommScope Tuqian donated the upper reaches of the Dulong River to the Lama Temple in Tibet. The Lama Temple collected "excess" fees from the Dulong People through chawalong Tuqian, and the Lama Temple in changputong (now Gongshan County) also collected "incense money and grain", while CommScope Tuqian still collected tribute as usual. When the chieftain officials came to collect the tribute, they had to build another thatched cottage for their accommodation and provide them with abundant food. They also had to force them to buy sand and salt in exchange for unequal value. If the tribute was insufficient, he was forced to plunder into slavery. In addition, the slave owners of Lisu nationality in the East often crossed Gaoligong Mountain and plundered the Dulong People as slaves, which aroused the resistance of the Dulong People for generations. Finally, they were ruthlessly suppressed because of the great disparity of power. For this reason, the brutal slave owners killed several families of the Dulong People. And forced them to establish a stone as a league, "never repent", willing to pay tribute or people for tribute, known as "bone money and grain".
From 1907 to 1908, the Qing Dynasty sent Xia Hu (from Hunan Province), a member of a Dunzi (now Deqin County) of Lijiang Prefecture, who was also in charge of nuqiu River affairs, to inspect Nujiang River and Dulong River. He led more than 100 people, including his entourage, guide and husband, to set out from changputong, climb over Gaoligong Mountain and go to Dulong River. Along the way, he distributed salt, cloth, needlework and other daily necessities to border villages, and appointed local leaders to serve as the leaders In addition, the local people were ordered to stop paying tribute to the chieftains, lamas and slave owners, and the chieftains were forbidden to plunder the border people as slaves. He also appointed yuan Yucai and he Ding'an as "manager nuqiu", replacing the rule of Ye zhituqian and Lama Temple in Dulongjiang area. In the third part, he put forward "ten suggestions" to the Qing government to strengthen border affairs and develop border areas.
After the revolution of 1911, Dulongjiang was under the jurisdiction of changputong Zhibian office, which was changed into changputong Administrative Committee Office in 1918. In 1933, it was changed to Gongshan to set up the Administration Bureau, and the Public Security Bureau and the district office were successively set up. During the period of the Republic of China, the political situation was chaotic, and the Dulong People were under the dual rule of Tibet chawalong chieftain and the Kuomintang. In order to strengthen the effective control of the area, the national government carried out the Baojia system in Dulongjiang, with a total of four guarantees, one for each administrative village and one for each natural village. The local clan head was appointed as Baojia and Jiajia head, which were changed every three years. In addition to managing the daily affairs of the village, they were responsible for collecting taxes for the national government.
The "baiharuo religious case" in Nujiang in 1907 was a revolt against French imperialism by the local Tibetans, Lisu, Nu and Dulong. In 1913, the British sent more than 10 armed men to invade the Dulong River from Myanmar under the leadership of British captain buricha in the name of "survey team". This aroused the righteous indignation of the Dulong People and immediately organized a resolute resistance. They cut off the enemy's food supply and buried themselves near the "survey team's" must-pass place - giselu liusuo. When buricha climbed up the liusuo When they reached the middle of the river, they were shot by the poisonous arrows of the Dulong hunters and died in the river. The rest of the aggressors were scared to flee from the original road and completely smashed the plot of the British invading army to invade Tibet through the Dulong River.
It was because of the oppression and massacre of the reactionary rule of the past dynasties and the bullying of the modern imperialism that the Dulong people suffered a lot and their population continued to decrease. On the eve of the founding of new China, there were only 1700 people left, almost on the verge of extinction.
In August 1949, Gongshan declared its peaceful liberation. In March 1950, the Gongshan Provisional Administrative Committee was established. In April of the same year, it was officially changed to "Gongshan County". In October, the people's Government of Gongshan County was established.
Dulong is a cross-border ethnic group, mainly living in the nmykai River and malikai river basins in northern Myanmar.
The total population of Dulong nationality in China is 6930 (in 2010), with 6353 people living in Yunnan Province. Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County, Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province is the only Autonomous County of Dulong. Among them, Dulongjiang Township, located in Dulongjiang River Valley, is the most important residential area of Dulong nationality in the county, accounting for 98.87% of the total population of the township. The rest are scattered in qiubaka village in Qile Township, Weixi Lisu Autonomous County, Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province and chawalong Township, Chayu County, Tibet Autonomous Region.
According to the census data in 2000, the total population of Dulong is 7400, including 3600 males and 3800 females, with a sex ratio of 96.61. Compared with the "Si Pu" ten years ago, the population of Dulong nationality has increased by 1600, with an average annual growth rate of 2.35% and a growth rate of 27.48%.
Among the Dulong population, the urban population is 13000, accounting for 17.55% of the total population; the rural population is 6100, accounting for 82.45% of the total population. Compared with 10 years ago, the urban population of Dulong nationality is much smaller
Chinese PinYin : Du Long Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:26:13
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