The Tatar nationality is a Siberian type of Mongolian race. It has its own language. It belongs to the West Hungarian branch of the Turkic language family of Altai language family. It has words based on Arabic characters and its main belief is Islam.
Tatar is a transliteration of the word "Tatar", which is often translated into "Tatar" and "Tatar" in Chinese historical books. It is mainly distributed in Xinjiang, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Balkans, Kazakhstan and other countries and regions. The ethnic body is located outside China. According to the data of the sixth census in 2010, there are 3556 Tatars in China, It is the nation with the smallest population in China.
In China, the Tatar nationality is mainly scattered in the Northern Tianshan mountains within the territory of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. There are a large number of people in Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture and Urumqi, and they are concentrated in Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng, Qitai, jimusar, Altay and Changji.
Daquan Tatar Township, Qitai County, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is the only ethnic township with Tatar nationality as the main body in China.
Tatar nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||Tatar nationality|
|religious belief||Mainly Islam|
|population size||3556 (2010)|
Chinese PinYin : Ta Ta Er Zu
"Tatar" is a transliteration of the word "Tatar" claimed by our nation.
Its name was first found in the Turkic inscription que secret service monument. The documents of the Tang Dynasty were called "Dadan". Later, "Dadan", "dada", "dada", "Tatar" and "Tatar" appeared in the documents are different transliteration of "Tatar".
Tatar nationality is mainly formed by the long-term integration and development of ancient baogar people, qincha people and Turkic Mongols.
Baogar is a nomadic tribe that appeared on the grassland north of the Caspian Sea after the Xiongnu moved to the West. Around the 7th century, due to the continuous attacks of other nomadic tribes, the baogar tribe was forced to migrate. Some of them came to the middle reaches of the Volga River and the Kama River, conquered the local indigenous people, formed the "Volga Kama River baogar tribe alliance", gradually integrated with the local people and changed to agriculture. These baogars became one of the important sources of Tatars in Kazan area. Until the early 20th century, some Tatars called themselves baogars.
In the middle of the 13th century, the Mongols who marched westward destroyed the "Volga Kama River baogar tribal alliance". Badu, the grandson of Genghis Khan, established the golden tent Khanate across Europe and Asia. Its residents are mainly baogars and Kipchaks (chincha) who speak Turkic. Under the influence of local residents, the Mongols, the ruler of the khanate, gradually adopted Turkic and converted to Islam in the 14th century.
In the 15th century, the golden tent Khanate gradually declined. In the middle reaches of the Volga River and the Kama River under the jurisdiction of the khanate, the Kazan Khanate emerged instead. Its leader calls himself Tatar, a descendant of the Mongols. Since then, "Tatar" has gradually become the name of Kazan Khanate and its nearby tribal residents.
The Tatar nationality in China moved from Kazan, UFA, oblique milezi, Zhaisang and other places under the rule of Russia (the former Soviet Union) in the 1920s and 1930s and later. The time when the Tatar people moved into China can be roughly divided into three periods:
The first period was from 1920s to 1930s. After the 19th century, the serfdom crisis in Russia deepened day by day. The Tatars along the Volga River and Kama River were occupied by a large number of people and forced to flee everywhere. Some came to burjin and Haba River in Northern Xinjiang through the lower reaches of the Volga River, Siberia and Kazakhstan. Most of them were poor herdsmen; Some went south to Central Asia and entered Southern Xinjiang through Tashkurgan in Pamir. Most of the Tatar people living in Altay, Burqin and other places are descendants of these people.
The second period was from the middle of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. In 1851 and 1881, China and Russia signed the Sino Russian Ili BAHA Taiwan trade charter and the Sino Russian Ili treaty, which enabled tsarist Russia to seize many economic privileges for trade in Xinjiang. For a time, a large number of Russian businessmen came one after another, and Tatar businessmen from Kazan region also came. Many people stayed in Xinjiang for business. Some Tatar intellectuals and religious professionals moved in during this period. They set up some schools and built some mosques in Xinjiang. Until the beginning of the 20th century, Tatars from Russia came to Xinjiang in an endless stream. Many Tatar businessmen, intellectuals and missionaries later mainly lived in cities and towns, which were scattered.
The third period was from the outbreak of World War I in 1914 to the 1930s. During this period, a large number of Tatars moved to Xinjiang for complex reasons. After the outbreak of World War I, a group of Tatar youth who were unwilling to serve as cannon fodder for the imperialist war fled to Xinjiang. After the October Revolution, many small owners, handicraftsmen, farmers and intellectuals of Tatar came to Xinjiang in order to escape the forced collectivization of the former Soviet Union. During this period, a small number of Tatars who moved to Xinjiang were the targets of the October Revolution, such as capitalists, landlords and rich peasants.
Some of the first Tatars to enter Xinjiang came to the Altay irtsis River Basin and settled in the Kazakh Karakas tribe. In order to get rid of the shackles of the Karakas tribe, their descendants first migrated to the southeast edge of the Junggar basin, and then to the two banks of the Baiyang River at the junction of jimusar and Qitai County in the early 20th century. Later, some Tatars from abroad and Urumqi settled here. With the increase of population and livestock in Tatar, after a written request, the Qing government allowed to allocate a grassland from Xiaodonggou in the West and siquangou in the east to them for nomadic production, thus forming a relatively concentrated living area in today's Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture.
During the three District revolution period from 1944 to 1949, many Tatar people actively participated and made contributions to the cause of the three District revolution.
After the founding of the people's Republic of China, the Tatar nationality, like the people of other nationalities, began a new life, enjoyed all kinds of democratic rights on an equal footing with all nationalities, and participated in the management of state affairs and local affairs.
From the early 19th century to the early 20th century, there were Tatar residents in towns, agricultural and pastoral areas in Ili, Tacheng, Altay, Dihua and Qitai.
According to the investigation of Xinjiang Provincial Police Department, in 1921, there were 101 Russian families in Dihua (now Urumqi) trade circle and more than 500 attached families, of which the Russian family was the main family and the ethnic groups such as Tatar and Uzbek were the attached families.
In 1944, according to the survey of Xinjiang police headquarters, the total population of Tatar nationality in Xinjiang was 5610, accounting for 0.14% of the total population of Xinjiang Province; In 1947, according to the survey of Xinjiang Provincial Police, the total population of Tatar nationality in Xinjiang was 5519, accounting for 0.13% of the total population of Xinjiang province.
In 1949, the total population of Tatar nationality was 5900, which rose to 6900 in the first national census in 1953, with a net increase of 1000 in five years, an increase of 17%; The average annual growth rate is 200, with an average annual growth rate of 3.39%.
From 1954 to 1977, the total population of Tatar nationality in Xinjiang decreased rapidly. In 1954, the population of Tatar nationality in Xinjiang was 6300, and in 1977, the population of Tatar nationality in Xinjiang decreased to 2900. The main reason was that it moved back to the Soviet Union, was impacted by the extreme "left" line, and was renamed Uygur or Hasak.
In 1998, the Tatar population increased to 4700, 4890 in the fifth national census in 2000 and 3556 in the sixth census in 2010.
After the founding of new China, the Tatar nationality, like all ethnic groups, enjoyed equal political rights and participated in the management of state affairs and local affairs. Representatives of the Tatar nationality participated in the National People's Congress, people's congresses at all levels in Xinjiang and organs of state power. In places where the Tatar people live in compact communities, government organs, enterprises and institutions at all levels have Tatar cadres and workers, and the Tatar people fully exercise their right to be masters of their own affairs.
At the third session of the first session of the people's Congress of the autonomous region held in August 1956, asheti skakuv (Tatar nationality) was co elected vice chairman of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. On July 25, 1989, at the request of the Tatar people and with the approval of the relevant departments of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Daquan village and Dongwan ranch in Dongwan Township, Qitai County were designated to establish Daquan Tatar Ethnic Township, Qitai County, which is the only ethnic township with Tatar as the main body.
Under the care of the party and the state's ethnic policy, Tatar Ethnic Cadres continue to grow. At the beginning of the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang, the party's democratic reform and socialist transformation movement in Tatar residential area trained and tempered a large number of Tatar cadres. Since the founding of new China, schools at all levels, especially the Central University for Nationalities and Northwest University for nationalities, have trained a batch of young men and women for the Tatar nationality. These talents are active in all fields of society and have made important contributions to the cause of socialist construction. The all China Women's Federation, the all China Federation of trade unions and the CPPCC at all levels in the autonomous region have Tatar members and representatives. Since the founding of Daquan Tatar Township, more than a dozen Tatar cadres and people have participated in various political activities of the country, such as the National People's Congress, the central Congress of the Communist Youth League, the world women's Congress, the Japan observation group, the National Day military parade and other activities.
Before the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang, commerce was the main economic field of the Tatar nationality.
The Tatars who moved to Xinjiang from 1920s to 1930s mostly engaged in business. They mainly live in Tacheng and Altay. At that time, these areas were not only underdeveloped in commodity trading, but also sparsely populated. At that time, there were only two bazaars in the urban area of Tacheng. Tatar businessmen transported tea, salt, cloth and other daily necessities to pastoral areas for sale, and purchased livestock products from herdsmen and brought them to cities for sale. The Qing army stationed in this area at that time was also their trade object. With the development of foreign trade in Xinjiang, the commercial activities of Tatar nationality have gradually developed. A few large commercial capitalists of Tatar nationality have direct contact with foreign commercial capital and have many kinds and high grades of commodities. Started to set up "foreign firms" and firms in Yining, Tacheng, Urumqi and other places, and set up branches as far as some big cities in the mainland.
They mainly export live animals, fur, cotton, casing, tea, silk, etc. to Russia; Imported cotton, silk, wool, copper, iron, sugar, clothing, glass, etc. In order to monopolize raw materials and increase output, some businessmen also set up various processing plants related to business projects and concurrently engage in animal husbandry. Some of them have become very rich in Xinjiang in just a few decades because of their rich profits. In addition, the activity form of middle and small businessmen of Tatar nationality has also changed greatly. In addition to some businessmen continuing to run in pastoral areas and rural areas, some businessmen participate in international trade activities and transport some livestock products from Xinjiang to Russia in exchange for various daily industrial products. At the same time, some shops opened by Tatar businessmen have appeared in Yining, Tacheng, Dihua and other cities. After the 1870s, Russian capitalists opened many "foreign firms" in Yining, Tacheng, Dihua and other places. The middle and small businessmen of the Tatar nationality became their vassals, and a few big businessmen colluded with foreign aggressive forces to become comprador bourgeoisie.
From the late 1930s to the early 1940s, warlord Sheng Shicai arrested and killed the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang on various "unnecessary" charges. The rich Tatar businessmen in Yining, Tacheng, Dihua and other places were almost shut down and killed, and their property was confiscated and confiscated on the charge of "adverse production". Dihua had more than 50 Tatar stores, but there were only a dozen left. The Tatar business, especially the big business, is in a state of collapse.
During the period of Kuomintang rule in Xinjiang, inflation was vicious and prices soared, leaving only two of the dozen Tatar shops.
After the founding of the people's Republic of China, during the socialist transformation of private industry and commerce, most Tatar businessmen and businessmen participated in public-private joint ventures and cooperative stores. Since the reform and opening up, the business tradition of the Tatar nationality has been restored. According to the statistics of the 2000 census, nearly 17% of the Tatar population are engaged in business services.
For a long time, animal husbandry has been an important economic field of Tatar nationality, second only to commerce. There are a large number of Tatar animal husbandry households living in burjin, Qitai, jimusar, Qinghe, hebukeser, Habahe and other counties, as well as Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng and other cities and towns. Due to their different economic conditions, they are divided into herdsmen, individual herdsmen and herdsmen. The vast majority of herdsmen have no pastures and pastures, and only a small number of subsistence livestock.
In order to make a living, they also need to run agriculture. The herdsmen not only graze livestock for the herdsmen and operate chores for the herdsmen, but also engage in agricultural labor for them. The family members of the herdsmen should do all kinds of unpaid work for the herdsmen, such as cutting firewood, fetching water, milking, cooking, watching children, etc. Herdsmen account for the largest proportion of herdsmen, but they generally don't have much livestock. Generally, they don't have pasture and grassland, so they have to rent the ranch of the herdsman. In order to make a living, they have to engage in a small amount of agricultural production.
The herdsmen of Tatar nationality appeared relatively late, and the number was small, and most of them were transformed by businessmen. Most of the Tatar herdsmen live in Yining, Tacheng and other cities, and few live in pastoral areas. Herdsmen living in cities not only do not participate in labor, but also do not directly participate in operation and management.
Before the founding of new China, a few Tatars engaged in agriculture and handicrafts. A big businessman of the Tatar nationality is renting land in Altay and operating agriculture with advanced production methods. They used new horse drawn farm tools, built small irrigation facilities, and were able to control crop diseases and pests, so the grain yield was several times higher than that of the local area.
Since 1956, animal husbandry has gradually been cooperative, and the vast majority of Tatar herdsmen have participated in animal husbandry production cooperatives in various places. While guiding herdsmen to take the road of cooperation, the government also carried out socialist transformation of herdsmen's economy in a peaceful way. More than a dozen Tatar herdsmen scattered all over Xinjiang have successively participated in public-private joint ventures since 1957. Their attitude towards transformation is generally positive. When a herdsman participates in a joint venture ranch, he usually converts his livestock into shares and pays dividends according to shares. They themselves have also been properly arranged, and some have become deputy field directors and technicians.
Before the climax of agricultural cooperation, Tatar farmers scattered around the country organized some seasonal and perennial mutual aid groups together with farmers of brother nationalities. By June 1956, in the climax of socialist transformation of agriculture, the vast majority of Tatar farmers had participated in agricultural cooperatives. Now the agricultural households of the Tatar nationality have also implemented the responsibility system.
The handicraft industry of Tatar nationality is mainly engaged in leather, casing, ready-made clothes, water mill, candle, soap processing, clock repair, photography, etc. Tatar carpenters are good at making all kinds of tables, chairs, benches and wooden beds with beautiful and elegant shapes. Also good at making barrels, pots, stoves, plates, bowls, knives, forks and other appliances. Various iron handicrafts are made by using advanced processes such as knocking, smashing, pressing, bending, pulling, riveting and jointing. He is also good at making all kinds of copper, aluminum, ceramic and gold and silver utensils. The leather clothes, shoes, boots, leather bags, leather ropes, whips and livestock utensils made of fur by Tatar craftsmen are favored by consumers of all ethnic groups. Tatar family women are good at embroidery, and the embroidered national flower hats are particularly exquisite.
After the founding of new China, the Tatar people engaged in handicraft industry have successfully realized their identity transformation and become national or collective workers. On the eve of the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang, most of the Tatar handicrafts were closed down. After the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang, with the leadership and help of the party and the government, production has recovered and developed to varying degrees. In the upsurge of socialist transformation, these handicraft households participated in various handicraft production cooperatives, and about 20 tartar handicraftsmen participated in various handicraft production cooperatives in Xinjiang. After the founding of new China, the party and the government properly resettled some Tatar handicraftsmen who lost their livelihood, and some Tatar youth and manual workers were also absorbed into various industrial and mining enterprises as workers.
Like other Turkic speaking nations, the Tatar nationality had experienced a period of primitive religious belief of all things before accepting Islam. Tatar ancestors once regarded the wolf as a national totem and believed that it had extraordinary supernatural power. Some relics can still be seen in Tatar folklore and folk customs such as guliquak. So far, Tatar people still keep the habit of wearing wolf teeth ornaments and collecting the back ankle bones of wolves. It is believed that they have extraordinary supernatural power to ward off evil spirits.
The Tatar nationality has an early history of believing in Islam. About the 10th century, Islam had been introduced into the Volga River basin where the Tatar ancestors were active. The Tatars believe in Sunnis, and their teaching methods belong to the Hanafi school. Like all followers of Islam, the Tatar religious people also perform their religious obligations in strict accordance with the provisions of Islamic teachings.
Before the founding of the people's Republic of China, religion had various privileges and often interfered in the culture, education, marriage and family of the Tatar nationality. After the founding of the people's Republic of China, various religious privileges were abolished and the normal religious activities of the masses were protected. After the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee, the party's policy on freedom of religious belief was implemented, and the majority of religious believers participated in various religious activities according to their own wishes. Through holding training courses, the religious departments of the government have trained a number of religious figures who love the motherland, safeguard national unity and support socialism. Many people have been elected as deputies to the people's congresses and members of the CPPCC at all levels, participated in the discussion, research and formulation of the country's major policies and policies, and played a positive role.
The traditional costumes of the Tatar nationality are very particular, which vary according to their places of residence. Urban male residents wear a white shirt with a wide sleeved straight neck, open chest, lace embroidered on the collar and cuffs, plus a black waist length vest, or a black long shirt with a belt around the waist. Pants are usually black, with wide crotch and tight legs. In winter and autumn, he wore all kinds of long and short coats, short coats and fur coats made of animal fur. The feet wear leather shoes or long leather boots, and the elderly add overshoes on the leather shoes or leather boots. In the past, poor herdsmen could only wear a piece of cowhide with a rope wrapped around their feet as shoes (commonly known as leather dens). Like to wear black or black and White Velvet embroidered hats in summer, and a black curly fur hat in winter. In addition to black, men in rural and pastoral areas also wear red and green hats. A cloth belt is usually tied on their clothes.
Urban female residents like to wear wide tight legged pants and wide hoodies and long skirts with wrinkled edges at the bottom. The colors are mostly white, yellow and brown. Wear more shoes on your feet. Like to wear velvet flower hats with pearls. Young women and older women also wear silk headscarves on the hats, decorated with earrings, bracelets, rings, necklaces, brooches, etc. Women in rural and pastoral areas generally like to wear headscarves. After the founding of new China, significant changes have taken place in men's and women's clothes. Suits and all kinds of fashionable clothes are more and more loved by Tatar people, especially young men and women.
Tatar women are good at embroidery. Their dexterous hands not only embroider beautiful patterns on various clothes, but also embroider colorful patterns and patterns on tablecloth, wall circumference and bed circumference. Girls also embroider flower patterns on their own dowry. Most of the young men take the girls' embroidery level as one of the conditions for choosing a mate.
While developing their own educational undertakings, the Tatar nationality has done a lot of work for the establishment of educational undertakings in Xinjiang. Among the first batch of modern schools in Xinjiang, many Tatars participated in the organization. Many Tatar intellectuals taught in Uighur schools all over Xinjiang and trained a large number of talents. In 1934, the Tatar Culture Promotion Association was established in Dihua, and branches were also established in Yining, Tacheng and other places. The association has not only opened many Tatar schools, but also carried out literacy campaigns to improve the cultural quality of the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang. Many Tatar intellectuals devote themselves to running schools and teaching, and some go deep into rural and pastoral areas. They have a certain influence not only among the Tatar people, but also among the Uighur, Hui, Kazak, Xibe, Uzbek and other ethnic people.
According to the statistics of the fifth census in 2000, the population of Tatar nationality with primary school education or above is 4045, accounting for 97.32% of the population aged 6 and above. The population of Tatar nationality with high school, technical secondary school, college and university education or above accounts for 12.66%, 10.04%, 7.01% and 6.45% respectively. The number of people with various education levels per 10000 population is: University 1251 students (including postgraduates and junior colleges), 2095 students in senior high schools (including technical secondary schools), 2902 students in junior middle schools and 2717 students in primary schools. The Tatar population has a large proportion of highly educated education, the illiteracy rate is very low, and the illiterate and semi illiterate proportion is only 2.13%.
Tatar folk literature works are rich, including myths and legends, stories, proverbs, ballads, riddles, etc. especially poetry and folk songs enjoy a high reputation among the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang.
There is a popular saying among the Tatars: "where there are poems, there are Tatars, and there must be poems in the place where the Tatars live." the Tatar folk song balamisken (meaning "poor boy") has been widely spread among all ethnic groups in Xinjiang, and has become a popular song in Xinjiang, which is widely used in weddings and festivals. In addition, folk songs such as Swan March, Baihe River and Nagang are also loved by the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang.
The written literature of the Tatar nationality includes narrative poems, love poems, novels, dramas, operas, etc. the Tatar nationality also has many historical, literary, medical, religious and other classics.
The Tatar residents living in the city usually form their own courtyards. The courtyards are planted with fruit trees, flowers and plants, built with paths and corridors. The environment is quiet and quiet, and arranged into a small garden for pleasant rest.
Houses are mostly built with adobe, brick, wood, stone and other materials. The door of the house is generally opened towards the shady side. The roof is herringbone, covered with iron sheet, painted green, blue and other colors. The roof is also flat. There is thick grass mud on the roof, and a drainage pipe is set at the top edge. The walls are mostly painted light blue with lime. The inner layer of double-layer glass windows is movable, which can be removed in summer and installed in winter. Small holes are also opened on the windows for ventilation. The floor in the room is cement or brick. The most representative folk houses of Tatar nationality are nogai ikuti city on the west side of Yining City. The courtyards of Tatar residents in the city are rectangular buildings with brick and wood structures. The walls inside and outside the courtyard were painted white, and the lintel of the gate of the courtyard was engraved with traditional patterns of the Tatar nationality. In addition to houses, the courtyard is also equipped with kitchens, warehouses, bathrooms, flower beds, orchards, livestock pens, etc. the walls of houses in the courtyard are very thick, some roofs have a slight slope, and some roofs are covered with iron sheets to prevent rain leakage or snow melting. The eaves are decorated with red or green bricks. The window edge is made of blue brick or green brick, and all kinds of strange and beautiful flowers are carved on the prismatic window frame. The houses in the courtyard usually sit in the South and North, with three houses in one light, two dark. The door of the middle house opens outward, and the doors of the left and right houses inside open inward; Both inside and outside the walls are painted with lime with ocean blue and ultramarine (pigment). Each house has a fireplace, the windows are double-layer glass, more curtains are hung on the windows, and more carpets are paved on the ground, which are neatly and beautifully arranged.
In places with rich forest resources, generally live in wooden houses. The ceiling and floor are painted with sky blue and orange purple paint respectively. Air circulation holes are opened on the walls or windows. They can be closed tightly in winter and opened again in summer, which can not only prevent wood decay, but also absorb fresh air and keep the room cool. Tatar people in pastoral areas adapt to nomadic life and live in yurts. Their form and structure are basically the same as that of Kazak people.
Among all ethnic groups in Xinjiang, the drama art of Tatar nationality developed relatively early.
The Tatar troupe was established in the early 1930s. It was once an influential literary and artistic group active in Yining, Tacheng, Urumqi and other places. In addition to the theme of men's and women's affection, the plays also expose the dark side of society and praise the hard work, wisdom, simplicity and kindness of the working people. They have successively put on the stage such plays as Brazil mahamu, the lovely man, haria bano, sungan yurituzi, aihemati, tabaridick, for others and so on.
The Tatar music has a bright rhythm, smooth and gorgeous melody, short and capable structure, beautiful and easy to mouth, warm mood, singing and promoting people to dance. It is often accompanied by shrill calls and whistles when singing and dancing, which shows the Tatar's warm, bold, lively and optimistic national character.
There are many kinds of Tatar musical instruments, including "Kune" (wooden flute with two holes playing directly), "kobis" (harmonica playing between lips), two string Violin and so on.
Accordion, mandolin and other accompaniments are often used in singing and dancing. The Tatar dance is flexible, lively and cheerful. Men often kick, squat, jump and other leg movements, while women mostly use hand and waist movements. It combines the characteristics of Uygur, Russian, Uzbek and other national dances and has its own unique style.
On festive days, the Tatar people often hold mass dance competitions.
The staple food of Tatar nationality mainly includes "go to buy West" (baked dough cake), grab rice, Nang, noodles, pie, etc; Like to eat beef and mutton, eat less vegetables, mainly potatoes, pumpkins, tomatoes, cabbage, onions, carrots, etc. The most distinctive Tatar flavor foods are "ancient baidier" and "yitbelixi". "Ancient baidier" is a kind of cake made of washed rice, dried in the air, covered with cream, dried apricots and raisins, and then baked in the stove. It tastes sweet and delicious; The method of "yitbelixi" is the same as that of "ancient baidier", but the material is mainly pumpkin, followed by rice and meat.
Tatar women are good at making all kinds of cakes. The cakes they make are not only delicious and diverse, but also beautiful in shape. In addition to drinking all kinds of tea, Tatar people also like to drink milk tea, horse milk, etc. The most national characteristic drinks are "kelximan" and "kesailer". "Kelseaman" is similar to beer, which is brewed with honey and beer fermentation; "Kesaile" is a wine made of wild grapes. These two drinks are the favorite drinks of the Tatar people.
The eating habit of Tatar people is three meals a day. When eating, the whole family sits together and the housewife presides over the feast. Wash hands before and after meals, chant scriptures and pray. Rich people have the habit of eating fruit after meals. Eating with a spoon and chopsticks is a hindsight in Xinjiang. At the beginning of moving to Xinjiang, Tatar residents were not used to eating all kinds of fried vegetables. Later, under the influence of other nationalities, fried vegetables gradually became a part of the daily diet of Tatar residents.
According to the traditional customs of the Tatar nationality, sons generally separate from their parents after marriage, and only a few still live together with their parents. Therefore, the traditional Tatar family is a mixed family based on a couple living together with their children, accompanied by some two generations of couples living together. The extended family of three or four generations living together is very rare in the Tatar nationality. Parents have the obligation to raise and educate their children. Their children support their parents after marriage, support the old and send them to the end of life, and have great respect for the elderly.
The Tatar people practise monogamy. In the traditional Tatar family, the husband is the head and head of the family. The power of the family is in his hands, all major events in the family are decided and arranged by him, and the economic revenue and expenditure are mainly controlled by him. Wives and women have no or less power in the family. In family economic life, men are mainly engaged in production activities such as grazing and commerce, while women are mainly engaged in production and housework such as milking, mashing butter, beating wool and weaving felt at home. After the founding of new China, with the improvement of women's economic and social status, changes have gradually taken place. Women have freely participated in various social and economic activities, thus obtaining independent economic status in society and family and equal rights and status with men.
There is a procedure for Tatar marriage. In the past, Tatars generally practiced intra ethnic marriage, but now, with the increase of ethnic exchanges, there are more and more intermarriages with Uighur, Kazak and other nationalities who believe in Islam. Tatar marriage generally goes through several stages, such as marriage negotiation, engagement and wedding. The Tatar wedding is usually held at the bride's house. A few days before the wedding, the man should send all the clothes, cooking utensils, furnishings, food for the wedding and gifts for the bride's parents to the bride's house. The woman prepares bedding, curtains and other items. The man's house and the woman's house invite a "golden brother" (female) respectively. During the marriage period, the "golden brother" mainly serves and takes care of the daily life of the groom and bride. On the wedding day, please ask the Imam to read "Nica" and ask both parties whether they are willing to be married. After that, please invite the newlyweds to drink a glass of sugar water, which symbolizes sweetness and longevity. At noon, relatives and friends came to the woman's house with gifts to congratulate her. In the evening, accompanied by the best man, relatives and friends, the groom in his wedding dress played the accordion and sang "Jill" (happy Tatar pop songs, fixed tunes and improvised lyrics), singing constantly all the way to add a happy atmosphere. After the welcome team arrived at the woman's house, it was stopped. The welcome team needed to circle the courtyard. The bridegroom sang poems in front of the courtyard and gave the money he carried before he was allowed to enter the door. People wished the newlyweds well. On this day, the woman slaughtered sheep and cooked meat, prepared a rich banquet to receive the guests, and the young people sang and danced to celebrate.
According to the traditional custom, after marriage, the groom and bride should first live in the woman's house for a period of time, usually one or two months, for a long time of about a year. Some even want to marry their wife home after the birth of their first child. In a family without a son, the son-in-law can stay, live with his parents-in-law, and have the right to inherit his parents-in-law's property. Now Tatars get married. Although the groom wants to go to the woman's house in advance, he will take the bride back to the man's house on the wedding day.
Tatar people are buried, and funerals are carried out in accordance with the provisions of Islam.
People must be buried immediately after death, no more than one day at most. If a man dies in a foreign land, he is buried on the spot.
When people die, they should ask the Imam to recite scriptures, purify themselves with warm water, wrap white cloth around them, and put a knife or a stone on the body. Relatives mourn and wear filial piety. Men cover their hats with black yarn, women wear white scarves, and wives and children should wear filial piety for 3-7 days. During the period of filial piety, the neighbors do not cook, but send meals to eat.
During the funeral, it is necessary to make "ginazzi naizil", that is, a "naizil" (blessing for the dead) after the body is placed on the "ginazzi" (common body carrying wooden frame in the mosque). If the deceased is male, put a piece of white cloth on the "ginaz", and if it is female, put a headscarf. When carrying the "jinazzi" out of the door, first step out and then head out. After going out, change the direction and transport it to the cemetery.
At the time of burial, the head of the dead was put into the tomb to the West from the north to the south. The Imam led the mourners to pray. Then each mourner grabbed a handful of soil in his hand and recited the Koran. One person gathered the soil in each person's hand, put it on the dead's chest and buried it immediately. The tombs are made into a circle with stone tablets in front and back.
On the third day, the seventh day, the fortieth day and the first anniversary after death, the family members shall make "Nazir" for the dead, ask the Imam to chant scriptures, and distribute the clothes of the dead to the Imam and others when holding the first "Nazir".
The traditional festivals of Tatar nationality mainly include "Rouzi Festival", "gurbang Festival" and "Saban Festival".
"Rouzi" is Persian, which means "fasting". Islamic law stipulates that adult Muslims should fast for one month in Ramadan every year, and the Eid al AdhA is held on October 1 of the Islamic calendar, mainly to celebrate the expiration of Ramadan. Before the festival, every family cleaned, painted the walls, fried Sanzi and oil cakes, and made cakes, jam and other food. On the morning of the festival, adult men go to the mosque for festival worship. After the worship, people go to the tomb to mourn their dead relatives, and then start lively festival activities.
"Gurbang" is Arabic, meaning "sacrifice" and "sacrifice", which evolved from the religious legends of ancient Arab regions. According to the Islamic Sharia law, the date of pilgrimage to Mecca for believers to perform religious lessons in the first ten days of December every year is celebrated by slaughtering cattle and sheep on the last day (i.e. December 10). Different from the Rouzi Festival, the animals to be "sacrificed" should be prepared in advance. The first thing men do when they get home from the mosque is to slaughter cattle and sheep. It is said that the morning after the Festival gathering is the best time to sacrifice and please Allah. During the festival, almost every family will cook meat to entertain guests and worship each other.
Saban Festival is a unique traditional festival of Tatar nationality. "Saban" is a kind of agricultural tool for the Tatar people to plough. According to the legend of the Tatar people, the emergence of Saban promoted the development of agricultural productivity of the Tatar people. In order to commemorate the invention of this new plow, the Tatar people hold a national celebration during the busy farming period from June 20 to 25 every year. Over time, this celebration has evolved into a traditional festival of the Tatar people. The celebration of Saban Festival is mostly carried out in places with beautiful scenery. On the festival day, various recreational activities such as wrestling, running, running in sacks, holding keys, walking, long jump, climbing and skating, horse racing and performing literary and artistic programs are held.
The Han nationality is the main ethnic group in China. The Han nationality, formerly known as Han people, was named after China's Han Dynasty, which used to be called "Huaxia" or "Zhuxia". Whether in politics, military affairs, philoso. Han Zu
Hui is a minority with a large population in China, with a total population of 10586087 (2010, excluding Taiwan Province), which is distributed in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government. Ningxia Hui Auton. Hui Zu
Uighurs mainly live in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, mainly distributed in the south of Tianshan Mountain. The oasis around Tarim Basin is the center of Uighur settlement, especially Kashgar oasis, Hotan oasis, Aksu River and Tarim River Basin. Turpan. Wei Wu Er Zu
Buyi Nationality, a relatively large minority in Southwest China, has the Buyi language as its national language. It belongs to the Zhuang Dai branch of the Zhuang Dong language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. It is closely related to the Zhua. Bu Yi Zu
Bai nationality is the 15th largest ethnic minority in China, mainly distributed in Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan and other provinces. Among them, the Bai nationality in Yunnan Province has the largest population, mainly living in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture,. Bai Zu
Li nationality, the earliest resident of Hainan Island, belongs to the Li language branch of Zhuang Dong language family of Sino Tibetan language family. Most Li people can also speak Chinese. In the past, Li people did not have their own national languag. Li Zu
She nationality is one of the ethnic minorities with a small population in China, with a total population of 708651 (2010). It is distributed in some mountainous areas in more than 80 counties (cities) in Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, Anh. She Zu
Qiang nationality originates from ancient Qiang and is an ancient nationality in Western China. Ancient Qiang has a broad and far-reaching impact on China's historical development and the formation of the Chinese nation. The national language is Qiang lan. Qiang Zu
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