The Tatar nationality is a Siberian type of Mongolian, with its own language. It belongs to the West Hungarian branch of the Turkic language family of Altaic language family, and has Arabic based characters. Its main belief is Islam.
Tatar, a transliteration of the word "Tatar", is often translated as "Tatar" and "Tatar" in Chinese historical records. It is mainly distributed in Xinjiang, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Balkans, Kazakhstan and other countries and regions in China. The main ethnic group is located outside China. According to the data of the sixth population census in 2010, there are 3556 Tatar people in China, who are Chinese The ethnic group with the least population in the territory.
In China, the Tatar nationality mainly lives in the Northern Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, with a large number of people in Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Urumqi city and other regions, and more concentrated in Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng, Qitai, Jimsar, Altay, Changji and other places.
Daquantatar Township, Qitai County, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is the only ethnic township with Tatar as the main body in China.
Tatar is a transliteration of Tatar.
Its name was first found in the Turkic stele que special service stele, and it was called "Dadan" in the Tang Dynasty literature. Later, the names of "Dadan", "dada", "data", "Tatar" and "Tatar" in the literature were all transliterated differently from "Tatar".
Formation of ethnic groups
Tatar nationality is mainly formed by the long-term integration and development of ancient baogar, qincha and Turkic Mongolian.
Baogar is a nomadic tribe which appeared on the grassland north of the Caspian Sea after the Xiongnu moved to the West. Around the 7th century, due to the continuous attacks of other nomadic tribes, the baogar tribe was forced to migrate. Some of them came to the middle reaches of the Volga River and the Kama River, conquered the local indigenous people, formed the "Volga Kama River baogar tribe alliance", and gradually integrated with the local residents and changed to agriculture. Until the beginning of the 20th century, some Tatars claimed to be the Bogar people.
In the middle of the 13th century, the Mongols conquered the West and destroyed the "Volga Kama River baogar tribal alliance". Badu, the grandson of Genghis Khan, established the Golden Horde across Eurasia. Its residents are mainly baokal and Kipchak (khincha), who speak Turkic language. Under the influence of the local residents, the Mongols, the rulers of khanate, gradually adopted Turkic language and converted to Islam in the 14th century.
In the 15th century, the Golden Horde gradually declined. In the middle reaches of the Volga River and the Kama River under the control of the khanate, the Kazan Khanate took its place. Its leader called himself Tatar, a descendant of the Mongols. Since then, "Tatar" has gradually become the name of Kazan Khanate and its nearby tribal residents.
Move to China
The Tatars in China came from Kashan, UFA, xiemilieqi, Zhaisang and other places under the rule of Russia (former Soviet Union) in the 1920s and 1930s. The time when Tatar moved to China can be divided into three periods
The first period was in the 1920s-1930s. After the 19th century, the serfdom crisis in Russia deepened day by day. The Tatar people in the Volga River and Kama River area were occupied by a large number of people and forced to flee. Some of them came to Burqin, Haba River and other places in Northern Xinjiang through the lower Volga River, Siberia and Kazakhstan. Most of them were poor herdsmen. Some of them went south to Central Asia and entered Southern Xinjiang through Tashkurgan in Pamir. Most of the Tatar people living in Altay, Burqin and other places are descendants of these people.
The second period was from the middle of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. In 1851 and 1881, China and Russia signed the "Sino Russian Treaty of Ili bahatai" and "Sino Russian Treaty of Ili", which made tsarist Russia seize many economic privileges in Xinjiang. At that time, a large number of Russian businessmen came one after another, and Tatar businessmen in Kazan also heard of it. Many people stayed in Xinjiang for business. During this period, some Tatar intellectuals and religious professionals moved in. They founded some schools and built some mosques in Xinjiang. Until the beginning of the 20th century, there was still an endless stream of Tatars from Russia to Xinjiang. Many of these Tatar businessmen, intellectuals and missionaries later lived mainly in cities and towns.
The third period was from the outbreak of the first World War in 1914 to the 1930s. During this period, a large number of Tatars moved to Xinjiang for complicated reasons. After the outbreak of the first World War, a group of Tatar youths who did not want to serve as the cannon fodder of the imperialist war fled to Xinjiang. After the October Revolution, many small business owners, handicraftsmen, peasants and intellectuals of Tatar came to Xinjiang in order to escape the forced collectivization of the former Soviet Union. During this period, a small number of Tatars who moved to Xinjiang were the targets of the October Revolution, such as capitalists, landlords and rich peasants.
Some of the first Tatars to enter Xinjiang came to the Erqis River Basin in Altay and settled down in the Karakas tribe of the Kazakh nationality. In order to get rid of the shackles of Karakas tribe, their descendants first migrated to the southeast edge of Junggar basin, and then migrated to the two sides of Baiyang River at the junction of jimusar and Qitai County in the early 20th century. Later, some Tatars from abroad and Urumqi came here to settle down. With the increase of Tatar's population and livestock, the Qing government allowed them to engage in nomadic production in the pastures from Xiaodonggou in the West and siquangou in the East, thus forming a relatively concentrated living area in today's Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture.
During the three District revolution from 1944 to 1949, many Tatar people actively participated in and contributed to the three District revolution.
After the founding of the people's Republic of China, the Tatar people, like other ethnic groups, began a new life, enjoying various democratic rights on an equal footing with all ethnic groups, and participating in the management of state affairs and local affairs.
From the beginning of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, there were Tatar residents in the towns, agricultural and pastoral areas of Ili, Tacheng, Altay, Dihua and Qitai.
According to the investigation of Xinjiang Provincial Police Department, in 1921, there were 101 Russian households and more than 500 attached households in Dihua (now Urumqi) trade circle, of which the former refers to the Russian nationality, while the latter refers to Tatar, Uzbek and other nationalities.
In 1944, the Xinjiang police headquarters investigated that the total population of the Tatar nationality in Xinjiang was 5610, accounting for 0.14% of the total population of Xinjiang Province; in 1947, the Xinjiang police force investigated that the total population of the Tatar nationality in Xinjiang was 5519, accounting for 0.13% of the total population of Xinjiang Province.
In 1949, the total population of Tatar nationality was 5900, which rose to 6900 by the first national census in 1953, with a net increase of 1000 in five years, an increase of 17%; the average annual increase was 200, with an average annual growth rate of 3.39%.
From 1954 to 1977, the total population of Tatar ethnic group in Xinjiang decreased rapidly. In 1954, the population of Tatar ethnic group in Xinjiang was 6300. By 1977, the population of Tatar ethnic group in Xinjiang decreased to 2900. The main reasons were that they moved back to the Soviet Union, were impacted by the "left" route, and changed their name to Uygur or Kazak.
In 1998, the Tatar population increased to 4700, reached 4890 in the fifth national census in 2000, and decreased to 3556 in the sixth census in 2010.
After the founding of new China, the Tatar people enjoyed equal political rights and participated in the management of state affairs and local affairs. In the National People's Congress, the people's congresses at all levels in Xinjiang, and the organs of state power, there are representatives of the Tatar nationality. In the local government organs, enterprises and institutions where the Tatar people live in compact communities, there are Tatar cadres and workers, and the Tatar people fully exercise their right to be masters of their own country.
At the third session of the first session of the people's Congress of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region held in August 1956, eisheiti shhakov (Tatar nationality) was co elected vice chairman of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. On July 25, 1989, at the request of the Tatar people and with the approval of the relevant departments of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Daquan village and Dongwan ranch village in Dongwan township of Qitai County were set up, which is the only ethnic township with Tatar as the main body.
Under the concern of the party and the state's ethnic policies, Tatar's ethnic cadres are growing up. At the beginning of the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang, the party's democratic reform and socialist transformation movement in Tatar residential area trained and trained a large number of Tatar cadres. Since the founding of new China, various schools at all levels, especially the Central University for Nationalities and Northwest University for nationalities, have trained a number of young men and women for the Tatar nationality. These talents are active in all fields of society and have made important contributions to the cause of socialist construction. The all China Women's Federation, the all China Federation of trade unions and the CPPCC at all levels of the autonomous region have Tatar members and representatives. Since its establishment, more than ten Tatar cadres and people have participated in various political activities of the country, such as the National People's Congress, the Central Committee of the Communist Youth League, the world women's Congress, the delegation to Japan and the National Day parade.
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Chinese PinYin : Ta Ta Er Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:26:05
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