the zang or tibetan people
(Tibetan: བོ་་་པ་་) is one of the 56 ethnic groups in China and an indigenous people on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. In China, it is mainly distributed in Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, Western Sichuan Province, Diqing of Yunnan Province, Gannan of Gansu Province and other regions. In addition, it is also distributed in India, Bhutan, the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia and other regions. Lhasa is the holy land of Tibetan people. At present, there are about 7.5 million Tibetans in the world, about 7 million in China (2016), and the conservative estimate of Tibetan population is more than 10 million.
Tibetan history is an integral part of Chinese history,
It is one of the oldest nationalities in China and South Asia. After the establishment of Tubo government in the early 7th century, the contact between Tubo and Tang Dynasty became more and more frequent. From the 10th century to the 16th century, the ancient Tibetan culture flourished. In 1951, Tibet was peacefully liberated.
Tibetans have their own language and writing. Tibetan belongs to the Tibetan branch of Tibeto Burmese language family of Sino Tibetan language family, which is divided into three dialects: Wei Tibetan, Kang and Ando.
Tibetans generally believe in Tibetan Buddhism. In the seventh century AD, Buddhism was introduced into Tubo from Tianzhu, with a history of more than 1400 years. The Tibetan people have created a splendid national culture and left a very rich cultural heritage in literature, music, dance, painting, sculpture, architectural art, etc. The Tibetan people have excellent carving skills. In addition, Tibetan Opera is unique, and Tibetan medicine is also an important heritage of mankind.
"Zang" is a Chinese appellation, calling itself "fan" (Tibetan pronunciation is "Boba"). Tibetan has different appellations for people living in different areas: people living in Ali area of Tibet call themselves "duiba"; people living in post Tibetan area call themselves "zangba"; people living in former Tibetan area call themselves "Weiba"; people living in eastern Tibet, southwest Qinghai and Western Sichuan call themselves "Kangba"; people living in northern Tibet, Northwest Sichuan, Gannan and Qinghai call themselves "Kangba"“ Antoine. "Ba" and "WA" in Tibetan mean "person".
There are many other names for Tibetans, such as "Tubo" in Tang and Song Dynasties, "Tubo" and "Xifan" in Yuan Dynasty, and "Xifan", "tubot", "tanggute", "Tibetan" and "Tibetans" in Ming and Qing Dynasties.
Tibetans originated from an agricultural tribe in the middle of the Yarlung Zangbo River Valley. According to archaeological findings, as early as 4000 years ago, the ancestors of the Tibetan people lived and multiplied in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin. According to the Chinese historical records, the Tibetan belongs to a branch of the Western Qiang people in the Han Dynasty. Like many ancestors who lived in the stone age, the Tibetan ancestors gradually learned to raise and farm after living in groups and hunting. The Tibetan ancestors in Yalong area on the South Bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River were later divided into six tribes, namely the six yak tribes. In the 6th century A.D., the leader of Yalong tribe became the leader of the tribal alliance, known as the king (Zanpu in Tibetan). At this time, it entered the slavery society.
According to Tibetan historical records, the ancestor of the Tubo royal family rose up in the Yalong River Valley in Shannan region of Tibet, and was the leader of the "six yaks" department. It has been passed down for more than 20 generations before Songzanganbu. When entering the patriarchal clan society, we can see the traces of the matriarchal clan stage from the names of the mother and son of the first generations of leaders.
In the 6th century AD, the leader of Shannan's so-called "xibuye" Department formed an alliance with his neighboring departments and respected him as the leader of the alliance. At that time, there were more than 10 ethnic groups in Tibet, such as "Yangtong", "Pengbo", "Supi" and "Gongbu", which had entered the slavery society. The leader of Yalong tribe became the leader of tribal alliance, known as "Zanpu" (King), and built a slavery Dynasty called "Bo"
At the beginning of the 7th century, Chinese history entered a new stage. The Tang Dynasty (618-907) established a powerful unified regime, ending the 300 years of chaos and division in the Central Plains. At the same time, the Tibetan national hero Songzanganbu merged more than 10 tribes and tribes, unified the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and officially established the Tubo Dynasty with the capital of luosa (today's Lhasa). During his reign, Songzanganbu was determined to repair the Tang Dynasty and absorb the advanced production technology and political and cultural achievements of the Tang Dynasty. She married Princess Wencheng in 641. Songzan Ganbu also introduced wine making, grinding, paper and ink production technology from the Tang Dynasty, sent aristocratic children to Chang'an (now Xi'an) to study poetry and books, hired Han literati to the Tibetan Dynasty, and maintained friendly relations with the Tang Dynasty in politics, economy, culture and other aspects. Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty granted Songzanganbu the title of "Fuma Duwei" and "Xihai Jun Wang", and later the title of "bin Wang" in Jin Dynasty. Songzanganbu established the "nephew uncle friendship" between Tubo and Tang Dynasty.
In 710 A.D., Princess Jincheng of Tang Dynasty brought tens of thousands of embroidered brocades, a variety of technical bookcases and utensils to Tibet and married chidezuzan, king of Tubo. After entering Tibet, Princess Jincheng once aided Buddhist monks in Yutian (now in Xinjiang) and other places to build temples in Tibet to translate scriptures, and obtained classics such as Mao Shi, book of rites, Zuozhuan and Wenxuan from the Tang Dynasty. In 821 A.D., the king of Tubo, chirebajin, sent three officers to Chang'an to ask for alliance. In the western suburb of Chang'an, the officials of Tsai Ping and the Tibetan alliance held a grand alliance ceremony. The next year, the Tang Dynasty sent Liu Yuanding and others to seek alliance in Tubo, and formed an alliance with Tubo monk Xiangbo Shanbu and Prime Minister Shangqi xiner in the eastern suburbs of Lhasa. The alliance was held in the first year (822) and the second year (823) of Changqing in Tang Dynasty, which was called "Changqing alliance" in history. The two sides of the alliance reiterated the "nephew and uncle friendship" that "he is the same family" in history, and discussed the "unity of the country" in the future. There are three stone inscriptions (also known as "Changqing alliance stele" and "nephew alliance stele") recording the content of the alliance, one of which stands in front of the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa. In the following three or four hundred years, Tibetans had close ties with the Northern Song, Southern Song, Xixia, Liao, Jin and other regimes.
In 842 ad, the Tubo Dynasty was split and disintegrated due to the internal strife among the kings and the scuffle between the tribes and the frontier generals, resulting in the emergence of many local forces that did not belong to each other. They occupied one side and fought against each other for more than 400 years. At the same time, from the 10th century to the 12th century, Tibetan Buddhism was accepted by all walks of life in Tibetan areas, and gradually penetrated into all areas of Tibetan society. The upper class figures of Buddhism often combined closely with the local leaders and made use of each other, forming a feudal system of integrating politics and religion in Tibetan history.
Song and Yuan Dynasties
Since the end of the 9th century, the internal contradictions among the Tibetans have gradually deepened, and the Tibetan area has fallen into a state of long-term separatist regime, forming the "Ali king system", "Yaze king system" (later Tibet), "yalongjuea king system" (Shannan), "Lhasa king system" (former Tibet), etc. They have their own policies and do not belong to each other. Sometimes they often invade and plunder each other for their own interests, and there are frequent wars.
During this period, Buddhism was accepted by all walks of life in Tibetan areas, and gradually penetrated into all areas of Tibetan society. The top figures of Tibetan Buddhism often combined closely with the local leaders and made use of each other, forming a feudal system of political and religious unity in Tibetan history. In the song and Jin Dynasties, Tibetan local governments strengthened their ties with the central government, and some local leaders were canonized by the central government. "Tea horse exchange" and other Tibetan and Han trade have made great progress.
In the autumn of 1244, on behalf of the Mongolian khantin, Wang Kuo Duan of the Mongolian sect successfully held a "Liangzhou alliance" with Sakya Banzhida, the living Buddha of the Sakya sect in Tibet. In 1271, Kublai Khan of Mongolia named the state yuan. Wuszang (now central and Western Tibet and its Yixi area), duogan and other places became part of the unified multi-ethnic Da Yuan Empire. From then on, Tibet was officially under the direct jurisdiction of the central government of China. At the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, the central general institution (renamed xuanzhengyuan in 1288) was set up for the first time to take charge of the National Buddhist affairs and the military and political affairs in Tibet and other places. Xuanzhengyuan envoy (in charge of officials) is generally held by the prime minister, and the Deputy envoy is the monk recommended by the emperor.
In Tibet, we checked households, set up post stations, collected taxes, stationed troops, appointed officials, and promulgated the criminal law and calendar of the Yuan Dynasty in Tibet. He appointed Tibetan monks to be senior officials from the central government to the local government. In wuszang, duogan and other places, the establishment of administrative organs and the appointment, removal, promotion, reward and punishment of officials are all under the command of the central government.
Tibet is divided into local administrative regions. The central government of the Yuan Dynasty set up three departments of Xuanwei envoys in Tibetan areas, all of which were directly under the management of xuanzhengyuan. This is what is called "sanquka" in Tibetan history books. As far as the region of today's Tibet Autonomous Region is concerned, it was under the jurisdiction of two Xuanwei secretaries at that time. Today's Lhasa, Shannan, Shigatse, Ali and other places are under the jurisdiction of wuszang Xuanwei secretaries; today's Changdu area and the eastern part of Naqu area are under the jurisdiction of duogan Xuanwei secretaries. In the Yuan Dynasty, the household registration was checked in wuszang and other places, the official posts were established, the taxes were collected, the post stations were established, the troops were stationed, and the frontier was guarded. The Department of propaganda and consolation of Wusi Tibet is located in sasaja (today's Sakya, Tibet). It has 13 ten thousand households and several thousand households, and collects taxes. This division of the Yuan Dynasty became the basis for the evolution of Tibet's administrative divisions.
Ming and Qing Dynasties
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In 1368 ad, the Ming Dynasty replaced the Yuan Dynasty by taking over the old imperial edicts and seals of the Yuan Dynasty and replacing them with new imperial edicts and seals of the Ming Dynasty.
The Ming Dynasty did not follow the official system of the Yuan Dynasty, but established a unique system of monk official conferment. The Ming Dynasty granted different titles to the representative political and religious leaders in different places, and gave them seals and seals to manage their own places
Chinese PinYin : Cang Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:21:15
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