(Chinese standard Roman alphabet: Gin, Vietnamese: ng ư ikinh / ʛ Jing, or Jing people), also known as
(Vietnamese: ng ư ờ IVI ệ T / ʛ Yue), the national language is Jing language. Due to the complexity of language factors, linguists are difficult to determine its language family.
The main body of the Jing nationality is in Southeast Asia. The Jing Nationality in China is mainly distributed in Fangchenggang City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. They mainly live on the three islands of Shuwei, Shanxin and Wutou in Jiangping Town, Dongxing City. The three islands are known as the "three Jing islands".
Jing nationality is the main ethnic group in Vietnam, accounting for 86% of the total population of Vietnam. According to the sixth national census in 2010, the total population of Jing Nationality in China is 28199.
The Jing nationality developed from the ancient Luoyue tribe. The ancestors of the Jing people migrated to China from Tushan and other places in Vietnam around the beginning of the 16th century. They first lived in zhaitou village near Wushan island and Jiangping Town, and then gradually developed to Xuwei, Shanxin and Tanji. Jing nationality is the main ethnic group in Vietnam, once known as "Vietnamese" or "Annan people", while Yao nationality called them "Jiaozhi people". In the village covenant of Shuwei village, there is a record that "in the third year of Hongshun (1511, the sixth year of Zhengde of emperor Wuzong of Ming Dynasty), my grandfather drifted here from Tushan and lived in the township". In addition, according to the surnames Liu and Ruan, who have a large population of Jing people, their ancestors originally lived in Jipo, Vietnam, and later moved to the coast of Tushan, Vietnam, where they made a living by fishing. Once, when they were hunting for fish in Beihai Bay, they came to Wutou Island, which is now Dongxing City in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Seeing that it is deserted and has a good fishing ground, they settled down. Up to now, there are about 16-17 generations. If we take each generation of 25 years as an example, it has a history of at least 500 years, which is consistent with what is recorded in the village covenant. Before they moved to Jiangping area, the Jing nationality was in the stage of feudal society. After moving here, under the oppression and exploitation of the landlord class of the Beijing and Han nationalities, the fishery and agricultural production could not be developed for a long time. On the inscriptions of "hating" (the singing place) in hongkan village, there are some records such as "heavy official service, unbearable suffering" and "people's famine", which reflect the miserable life of the working people of the Jing Nationality in the past. The Qing government once set up "Jiangping inspection department" in Jiangping area. After the outbreak of the Sino French war in 1884, the Jing Nationality Area in Jiangping was once occupied by the French invaders. France dumped a large number of goods, plundered local products and cheap labor, controlled the economic lifeline of Jiangping area, set up Catholic churches in hengwang and Zhushan, enslaved and paralyzed the Jing people in spirit. They also secretly carried out intelligence collection and investigation of China's resources and other conspiracy activities, which seriously damaged the fishery and agricultural production in the Jing nationality area. Under the long-term rule and exploitation of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucratic capitalism, the Jing people lived a miserable life of hunger, cold and no political rights. The hardworking and brave Jing people once fought against imperialism and feudalism many times together with the Han, Yao and Zhuang people. During the Sino French war, under the leadership of Du Guanghui, the Jing Nationality in Xuwei village, dozens of people from Beijing and Han nationalities in Xuwei and Wutou took part in the "black flag army" and stood in the forefront of fighting against the French invaders. When the French invading army trampled on the Jing Nationality Area in Jiangping, the Jing people and the Han people together formed the "Jiangping anti enemy volunteer army" and bravely faced the enemy. In 1886, the French invaders colluded with the local bureaucrat pan Tu of Wanning Prefecture, burning, killing, looting, extortion, fish and meat people, the local people of Beijing and Han rose up to resist, and finally expelled the French invaders from our territory, and executed pan Tu. During the period of the national government, the policy of ethnic oppression and discrimination continued to be carried out in this area. The system of Tuan Dong and Bao Jia was implemented. The Jing people were forced to pay heavy taxes such as "fishing, salt sea tax" and "Ren Ding tax". The Jing people had fought against it many times. after the founding of the Communist Party of China in 1921, under the leadership of the party, the Jing people's revolutionary movement against imperialism and feudalism flourished. As early as the period of the great revolution, the general trade union and peasant association were established in the Jing nationality area. Under the leadership of the Federation of trade unions, the people of Beijing, Han and other ethnic groups held many demonstrations, chanting slogans such as "down with imperialism", "down with feudal warlords", "down with corrupt officials". Under the situation of the successful development of the workers' movement, Party members went deep into the fishermen and farmers of the Jing nationality and extensively organized farmers' associations. At the beginning of 1944, the Japanese imperialists invaded the Jing nationality area. The Jing nationality people actively joined the Anti Japanese guerrilla group organized by the Communist Party in Jiangping area and carried out armed struggle until the victory of the Anti Japanese war. In October 1945, the CPC Guangdong South Road special committee sent troops to open up 100000 mountain base areas and launch guerrilla war. Later, the South Road special committee was changed to the Guangdong Guangxi border region Party committee, and a 100000 mountain Committee was set up to lead the revolutionary work in 100000 mountain areas. The Jing people actively participated in the activities of the guerrillas, sent food and raised money for them, confiscated property from landlords and rich peasants to support them, and launched a heroic struggle against the Kuomintang's pursuit of the guerrillas, thus protecting the revolutionary forces. At the beginning of 1949, the Guangdong Guangxi border region column closely cooperated with the Chinese people's Liberation Army. In just eight months, it conquered Jiangping stronghold and established Fangcheng County People's government.
Before the founding of the people's Republic of China, the class differentiation in the Jing nationality area was very obvious. The Jing people are mainly engaged in fishing in shallow water, and also engaged in agriculture and salt industry. Landlords, rich peasants and fishery capitalists occupy a large number of means of production of fishery and agriculture. The landlords, rich peasants and fishery capitalists in Xuwei, Wutou, Shanxin and Tanji accounted for 2.93% of the total households in the four villages. They accounted for 23.87% of the fishing foils in the four villages, with an average of 7.54 times that of the poor fishermen; 28.94% of the fishing boats in the four villages; and 35.09% of the cultivated land in the four villages, with an average of 11.73 times that of the poor peasants. The landlords exploited by renting fishing gear, land, fishing area and cultivated land. In order to extract more blood and sweat from the fishermen, some landlords often rent the same piece of land to more than ten poor fishermen. Each family will use it for two years, until decades later. However, the rent of the land needs to be paid when the contract is made. The poor fishermen have to wait for ten or twenty years before they turn to use the piece of land. People call it "rent space". Usury exploitation is also very serious, fishermen often because of a small debt, make ruin. between landlords and poor fishermen, there is also a relationship of "dependence" similar to the exploitation of hired workers. Poor fishermen who do not have foil land or rent foil land but are not in their turn to use it, who fish for the landlord and eat in their own homes without pay, only get 10% of the catch. This "dependence" relationship also exists between rich fishermen and poor fishermen. The exploitation of land rent in agriculture is also very serious, and the rent rate generally accounts for 50% of the output. In addition to paying land rent in kind, farmers (fishermen) also have to bear all kinds of labor for the landlords. On average, each tenant has to cut firewood for about 40 days a year for the landlords. On weekdays, they have to repair houses and build pig pens for the landlords, and they also have to do odd jobs for "red and white events". in the past, there was an organization called Weng village within the Jing nationality. "Weng village" means the head of the village. The old man is responsible for supervising the implementation of the village agreement, dealing with village affairs, organizing "singing ha" and hosting sacrifices. "Weng village" has one "Wensi" and several "Weng Guan". "Wensi" is responsible for assisting the village head in dealing with daily affairs, acting as the MC when singing, managing documents and accounts, keeping village property, etc. "Wengguan" is responsible for the management of mountain forest and the implementation of mountain forest village contract. Article 1 of the village contract of Weng village stipulates that villagers must pay taxes and perform military service, and violators shall be punished. The village treaty was once a tool for the reactionary government to rule and exploit the people. Wengcun and others were the puppet Bao and jia chang in the period of KMT's rule, and they were the basic ruling figures of KMT's regime. In 1952, Shu Wei, Shan Xin and Wu tou were founded on the three Jing islands. On May 1, 1958, Dongxing Ethnic Autonomous County was jointly established on the basis of the Jing ethnic township and the nearby SHIWANSHAN Zhuang and Yao Autonomous Region (county area). In 1956, Dongxing Autonomous County was transferred from Guangdong Province to Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. On December 25, 1978, it was renamed Fangcheng Autonomous County. In September 1992, Dongxing development zone was established; in May 1993, Fangcheng Autonomous County and Fangchenggang district were abolished, and Fangchenggang City, a prefecture level city, was established. The three Jing islands were subordinate to Dongxing Economic Development Zone of Fangchenggang City; in April 1996, Dongxing City (county level) was established, with Dongxing, Jiangping and Malu towns in Fangcheng District of Fangchenggang City as the administrative regions of Dongxing City. From then on, the three Jing islands belonged to Jiangping Town, Dongxing City, Fangchenggang City.
Before the founding of the people's Republic of China, the Jing nationality area was dominated by fishery, and there was a partnership fishing organization. Take Shanxin village as an example. At that time, 70% of the village's income was from fishing, 27% from agriculture, and 3% from others. Fishery production generally belongs to the shallow sea fishing operation. The tools include dragnet, fishing foil, plug net, sand fish net, horseshoe crab net, snail grill, South shrimp cage, etc. Dragnet, plug net and horseshoe crab net are large fishing gear, which need more investment. They are generally owned by several or dozens of households and used in partnership. In this kind of labor organization, an old fisherman with strong labor force, rich experience and comprehensive technology acts as the "net head", responsible for organizing and arranging fishery production, purchasing fishing nets and carrying out religious rituals in fishery production. All the other "netizens" are under the command of "netizens". In the distribution of products, "net head" and "net Ding" also get a share, without special rights and remuneration. Net drawing, net plugging and fishing foil
Chinese PinYin : Jing Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:26:01
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