Yugur originated from the Uighur nomads in the erhun River Valley in the Tang Dynasty. They use three languages: Yugur Language (yaohur language), Yugur Language (Engel language) and Chinese.
Yugur people call themselves "yaohu'er" and "xilayuguer". In 1953, Yugur, which is similar to "yaohu'er", was taken as their family name.
Yugur is an ethnic group mainly engaged in animal husbandry, mainly living in Sunan Yugur Autonomous County of Gansu Province and Huangnibao area of Jiuquan. According to the statistics of the sixth national census in 2010, the total population of Yugur is 14378.
Yugurs call themselves "yaohu'er" and "xilayugur".
In history, it has been called "Huangfan", "Huangtou Uighur", "Sari Weiwu", "Sari Weiwu" and so on.
In 1953, with the consensus of the masses, Yugu, which is similar to yaohu'er, was adopted as the name of the family.
Yugur nationality originated from the Uighur nomads in the erhun River Valley in the Tang Dynasty. In the middle of the 9th century, the Uighur Khanate collapsed because of the heavy snow disaster at home, the internal strife of the ruling class, and the attack of the xiajiasi nationality outside. One branch moved to Shazhou (now Dunhuang), Ganzhou (now Zhangye) and Liangzhou (now Wuwei) along the Hexi Corridor, which was ruled by the Tubo regime and was known as the Hexi Uighur in history. In 851, Zhang Yanchao, a Han nationality in Shazhou, took advantage of the Tubo civil strife to lead the people of all ethnic groups in Shazhou to revolt, expel the Tubo garrison generals in Hexi, and take possession of 11 prefectures, including Gua, Sha, Yi, Su and Gan, which belonged to the Tang Dynasty. The Uighurs in Hexi region attached themselves to Zhang Yanchao. In 872, Zhang Yanchao died. Later, the Hexi Uighur captured Ganzhou City and established Khan, so the Hexi Uighur is also known as Ganzhou Uighur. In 875, the Uighur sent envoys from heluochuan (now Ejina River, northwest of Zhangye) to pay tribute, and the Tang Dynasty presented 10000 pieces of silk. At that time, the Tang Dynasty itself was very poor, and it could also present silk pieces at the request of tribute envoys, which fully demonstrated the friendly relationship between the two sides.
In the 10th century, the power of Tubo was weak, and the Uighur in Ganzhou was gradually strong, which further controlled Lanzhou and Hezhou, and restrained the traffic channels of Tang Dynasty and western regions. Later, they defeated the Han rulers of Gua and Sha, making Gua and Sha become their vassals.
After the establishment of Ganzhou Uighur regime, it led all the Uighur tribes in Hexi. Khan was the supreme ruler, and the Han official system was adopted, with Prime Minister, privy envoy and other positions. There were leaders in the tribes under Khan's command, who "divided the clan account". According to the records of the history of Song Dynasty, there were Uighurs in Guazhou and Shazhou, Liangzhou, Helanshan, Qinzhou, heluochuan and Suzhou at that time.
Hexi Uighur had always maintained close ties with the Central Plains Dynasty, which was commensurate with his nephew. In the Northern Song Dynasty, Ganzhou Uighur Khan often sent envoys to pay tribute to local products. In the Song Dynasty, he was called "the nephew of Ganzhou Shazhou Uighur Khan" and gave back the mainland products. In 980 and 1010, the Uighur Khan of Ganzhou sent several important officials to pay tribute to the capital of Song Dynasty, offering camel, horse, coral and amber.
In the middle of the 11th century, a war broke out between Xixia and Hexi Uighur, and Ganzhou Uighur regime collapsed. From then on, Hexi Uighur became a vassal of Xixia, and tribes moved outside Jiayuguan to graze, but they still had contact with Song Dynasty. In the first year of Xining (1068), the emperor of Song Dynasty, the Uighur envoys came to pay tribute again to buy the gold lettered Daban ruojing. In 1073, the emissary said that the population of Uighur was more than 300000 and that of Dingzhuang was 200000. This group of people gradually multiplied and became an important indigenous people in Hexi area. In 1227, after the Mongolian army conquered Xixia, Hexi Uighur was directly ruled by the Mongols.
From the middle of the 11th century to the 16th century, the Yugur nationality gradually formed. In the long history, a part of Hexi Uighur got along with the surrounding Mongolian, Tibetan, Uighur and Han nationalities for a long time, integrated with each other, and gradually developed into a community. It is called Huangtou Uighur in Song Hui yao ji draft, sari Weiwu in Yuan Shi, and Sari Weiwu ER in Ming Shi, which are today's Yugurs. Today's border areas of Gansu, Qinghai and Xinjiang are the common areas where they live. During this period, many people in Hexi Uighur were integrated into other ethnic communities.
At the end of Yuan Dynasty and the beginning of Ming Dynasty, Turpan, Hami, Wala and other local feudal groups outside Jiayuguan competed for power and land, and wars broke out constantly. In Ming Dynasty, several "Wei" with military nature were set up outside the pass, such as anding, Adan, Quxian, Shazhou, Handong, Chijin, Hami and so on. They ruled the people of all ethnic groups, and the Yugur were also placed under the rule of "Wei". But soon, because of the mutual attack between the rulers, the guards were attacked by the Turpan regime and the right-wing feudal lords of Mongolia, and collapsed one after another. In order to facilitate the rule of the Ming Dynasty, the guards outside the pass were moved into the pass. At this time, the Yugur also moved eastward and settled down near Suzhou and the Nanshan area of Ganzhou.
It is a great event in the history of Yugur to move eastward to guanxi. Up to now, there are still legends about the eastward migration among the Yugur people. It is said that hundreds of years ago, the hometown of Yugur people suffered a lot of wind disasters. The wind swept away the livestock, the Sand Mountain engulfed the accounting houses, and even the Sutra hall made of gold was submerged under the sand mountain. They also said that they were oppressed by other religions and could not find a foothold in their hometown, so they began to move eastward. "After walking through the thousand Buddha cave and the ten thousand Buddha gorge, we set up camp in Jiuquan City. Walking along the ridge to the high Qilian Mountain, you can see the vast pasture of bazidun. Bazidun grassland with green grass and fragrant flowers has become the lovely hometown of Yugurs. This historical folk song roughly reflects the route and process of Yugur's eastward migration.
Yugu people used to be mainly engaged in animal husbandry. According to historical records, the war horses needed by the governments of the Five Dynasties and the Northern Song Dynasty were mainly purchased from Uighur. Ganzhou and Xizhou Uighur sent horses to Kaifeng more than once a year in the name of tribute, and the governments of the five dynasties or the Northern Song Dynasty paid the price of the horses. At the beginning of the third year of Emperor Taizong's reign (965), Ganzhou Uighur paid tribute to the government of the Northern Song Dynasty for 1000 horses and 500 camels. After moving to the East, the Yugur people's economic mode of production gradually changed. Under the interaction and influence of the Han nationality, the Yugur in Huangnibao area learned agricultural production technology and gradually replaced animal husbandry. Sunan Area is still engaged in animal husbandry and hunting. Due to the import of iron tools and weapons from Han nationality areas, Yugur's agriculture, animal husbandry and hunting techniques have been improved, and their productivity has been developed.
In the first year of Chongzhen (1628), liyuanbao was set up in the southwest of Zhangye. It was garrisoned as a stronghold to rule the Yugur people, and was granted a license to the Yugur leader to control the grassland.
At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, the Yugurs in the Qilian Mountains (called "xilaguerhuangfan" in the Qing Dynasty) were forced to pay taxes and become ministers to the Yugurs who occupied the southern Xinjiang and deterred the western part of Gansu and Qinghai. The Ministry of Junggar has special tax officials in Yugur area. In 1696 (the 35th year of Kangxi), the main force of Mongolia in Junggar was eliminated by the Qing Dynasty, and the Yugur nationality belonged to the Qing Dynasty.
At the beginning of the Republic of China, the Yugur area was under the jurisdiction of Ganzhou garrison envoy and Suzhou garrison envoy respectively. After 1931, Ma Bufang's Qinghai army controlled the central and western parts of the Hexi corridor. From then on, the Yugurs were under the rule of Majia warlords for ten years. After 1942, the county governments in Hexi of the Kuomintang began to compile and check the Hukou of the Yugurs and set up Baojia, aiming to put the Yugurs under the direct jurisdiction of the counties. Under the KMT's policy of "divide and rule", the Yugur inhabited areas were divided into Zhangye, Jiuquan and Gaotai counties. As a result, the Yugur area fell into a long period of dispute.
According to the license granted to the "chief manager of Huangfan of seven ethnic groups" during the reign of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty, the whole bazidun grassland in the upper reaches of the Heihe River is the pastoral land of the Yugurs. In 1959, Gansu and Qinghai provinces adjusted the boundaries of Qilian mountain area. Bazidun and Youai were transferred from Gansu to Qilian County, Qinghai Province. The Yugurs here moved to huangchengtan (now Huangcheng town) in Qinghai Province. "Thousands of miles big move" is a major change in the distribution pattern of Yugur since the Qing Dynasty, the traditional living area of each tribe was disrupted.
Before the founding of the people's Republic of China, the Yugur region practiced feudal tribal system for a long time. In the early Qing Dynasty, there were seven tribes of Yugur, which were divided into 10 tribes (also known as "Jia") in the period of the Republic of China, namely, the big head family, the eight East families, the Yangge family, the luo'er family, the four Ma families, the five families, the Mantai tribe, the eight West families, the yalag family and the helangge family. The first seven tribes live in the East and speak Engel; the last two live in the West and speak yaohur. Each tribe has its own range of grazing. In today's Kangle Township, there are datoumu family, dongbajia family, Yangge family, Luoer family and four Ma families; in today's Dahe Township, there are yalag family, helangge family, eight families and five families. Dongxihaizi in Minghua Township also belongs to the pastoral areas of the yalag family and the helangge family. The pasture of Mantai tribe is in the corner of Heihe River and babaohe river. After the founding of new China, Youai township was established here, which is commonly known as Youai area (now Qilian County, Qinghai).
In the traditional Yugur society, there was a hereditary leader who ruled all the tribes. Da TOUMU is not only the leader of "seven tribes", but also the tribal leader of "Da TOUMU family". Its power and jurisdiction area were determined by the Ming and Qing Dynasties and granted licenses. The big leader used to be very powerful and in charge of all the tribes. In the late period of the Republic of China, the power was reduced, and only a few tribes speaking Engel were under the jurisdiction. The yaohur speaking tribes are controlled by the leaders of the arag family
Chinese PinYin : Yu Gu Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:25:53
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