Baoan nationality is one of the ethnic groups with a small population in China. Its national language is Baoan language. It belongs to the Mongolian language family of Altai language family. Due to its long-term communication with the surrounding Han and Hui Nationalities, Baoan language has many Chinese Loanwords and is commonly used in Chinese. Chinese is used as a tool for social communication.
"Baoan" is the self proclaimed name of the family. Dahejia, where Baoan people live together, is scattered in other counties of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Lanzhou City, Qinghai, Xinjiang and other places. According to the sixth national census in 2010, the population of Baoan nationality is 20074.
Baoan Nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||Baoan family|
|distribution||Jishi mountain in Linxia, Gansu|
|population size||20074 persons|
Chinese PinYin : Bao An Zu
The name of Baoan nationality comes from its original residence - Baoan city along the Longwu River in Tongren County, Qinghai Province.
According to records, Baoan nationality has lived in Baoan City, Xiazhuang and Gasar (commonly known as "Baoan sanzhuang" at that time) since the early Ming Dynasty. They call themselves "Baoan people", and the surrounding Tu and Tibetans call them "Huihui". In the first year of Tongzhi reign of the Qing Dynasty, he moved to Jishishan area of Gansu Province.
Historically, the rulers of all dynasties did not recognize Baoan nationality as a single nation and always called it "Baoan Hui" and "fan Hui".
After the founding of new China, according to the wishes of the nation, the Government Council of the people's Republic of China officially approved the "Baoan nationality" as a single nationality on March 25, 1952.
Due to the lack of historical materials, a unified conclusion has not been formed on the origin and formation of Baoan nationality. There are mainly Mongolian based theory, Hui based theory and Semu based theory.
Mongolian dominated theory. According to the legends and language characteristics of Baoan nationality and some living customs similar to Mongolia, Baoan nationality may be a group of Mongols who believed in Islam in the yuan and Ming Dynasties, stationed troops in Tongren area of Qinghai for cultivation and grazing, and had long-term contacts with the surrounding Hui, Han, Tibetan and Turkish Nationalities.
Hui dominated theory. Those who hold this view mostly trace its origin from the legends related to Baoan nationality and Hui nationality. Some people believe that Baoan nationality was formed by the "Hui people" who moved from Baoning prefecture (now Langzhong City) in Sichuan or Nanjing to Tongren area in Qinghai, married and settled down with other local nationalities; Some people believe that the Hui and Han "Yingwu people" (i.e. border guards) sent from Shaanxi, Gansu Linxia and other places to settle down in Baoan and develop into Bao'an nationality; In addition, it is considered to be the "Huihui" of dahejia in Linxia. Because it has been doing business in Tongren and other places for a long time, it settled down and developed, forming Baoan nationality.
Semu people mainly say. It is believed that Tongren area in Qinghai, where Baoan nationality used to live, was the possession of Western Qiang, Tuyuhun and Tubo as early as the Han and Tang Dynasties. After Li Yuanhao established the Xixia regime in 1032, his power also involved Tongren area. During the Liao and Jin Dynasties, Nvzhen controlled the vast area of the Yellow River Basin, and its influence reached Jishi Prefecture, including Tongren. At the beginning of the 13th century, Genghis Khan carried out a large-scale western expedition after unifying the northern and southern Mongols in the desert. During the western expedition, a large number of captured young adults from Central Asian countries were incorporated into the "tanma Red Army" to assist the Mongolian army in combat. These people include Huihui, halalu, Kangli, arhun, sarta, Wanggu and other people. Most of them believed in Islam and were commonly known as "Semu people" (meaning "all colors and all eyes") at that time. In 1225, Genghis Khan returned to Mongolia from Central Asia. These Semu people who believed in Islam entered and stayed in the Northwest with the Mongolian army. In 1227, the Mongolian army destroyed Xixia and crossed the river to attack Jishi Prefecture, occupying Hezhou area including Tongren. After Tibetan Saban met Mongolian crown prince Kuo Duan in 1247, the Mongolian army had frequent exchanges with Tibet. Since then, Tongren area has become an important traffic route for strategists in the past, as well as a trade stronghold between the mainland and the western regions. Mongolian troops, including people from Central Asian countries, are stationed. In 1259, after Kublai Khan, the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, unified the whole country, with the reduction of war, he incorporated the "tanma Red Army" into the people's nationality, stationed and cultivated on the spot, and allowed them to marry and have children, start a family and become "people's households". Since then, the sergeants who garrison the border and reclaim in Tongren area have become the "ancestors" of the Baoan family.
In the Ming Dynasty, in order to "defend the frontier", the rulers built more castles and sent troops to garrison. During the Hongwu Period, security stations and security forts were set up in today's Tongren area of Qinghai; During the Wanli period, "Baoan camp" was set up in Tongren Longwu area and expanded into Baoan City, which is subordinate to Hezhou Wei and under the command of the capital. It governs the twelve Tongren ethnic groups (also known as "Baoan twelve ethnic groups", which means twelve large tribes dominated by Tibetan and Tu residents in Tongren). At this time, the majority of Mongols and Semu people settled in Hezhou, including Tongren. The residents who originally believed in Islam mainly lived in Baoan City, Xiazhuang and Gasar along the Longwu River. Later, the Ming government continuously transferred a large number of Hui and Han soldiers from all over the country to garrison the fields and border areas. The "Baoan camp" has been developed and expanded, and the ethnic composition of Baoan has also changed. Based on the descendants of Semu people, Hui, Mongolian, Tibetan, Han, Tu and other nationalities coexist adjacent to each other, marry and get married. In the long-term common life, they have formed a common language and common psychological quality, roughly in the middle of the Ming Dynasty, Naturally, it has merged into a new national community - Baoan nationality.
During the years of Xianfeng and Tongzhi in the Qing Dynasty, the Baoan people were forced to migrate because of the oppression of the feudal serf owners of the local Lama religion Longwu temple. They lived in Xunhua for several years, then moved to Gansu and settled down in Linxia dahejia and Liuji near Jishi mountain. In the new settlement, the Baoan people still lived in Dadun village according to the habits of their colleagues, The security guards of Xiazhuang live in Ganhetan village and the security guards of Baoan city live in Meipo village, forming today's "three security villages". From the late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China, Baoan nationality has been under the rule of local warlords Ma Anliang and Ma Bufang. Since 1930, the Kuomintang government implemented the Baojia system and classified the area as "two guarantees".
In history, the people of Baoan nationality participated in the anti feudal struggle of Hui and Han nationalities in Linxia area in different forms. In the early years of Tongzhi reign of the Qing Dynasty, the Baoan nationality took part in the anti Qing uprising of the local Hui nationality in the process of migrating from Qinghai Tongren to Linxia. When the Allied forces of the eight powers invaded Beijing in 1900, more than a dozen Baoan soldiers in the "Gan army" stationed in the capital fought bravely against foreign invaders together with their brothers, and some Baoan soldiers gave their lives. During the rule of the Kuomintang government, the Baoan people continued to struggle against the atrocities of the feudal ruling class and the Kuomintang government, such as sending donations, dispatching, capturing soldiers, forcibly occupying water resources and mountains and forests. They often go out with men, women, old and young, pick up axes and knives to wage a heroic struggle against the reactionary township government and the minions of the landlords.
According to folklore, before moving from Qinghai to Gansu during the Tongzhi period of the Qing Dynasty, social life had shown many characteristics of feudal society. The early society of Baoan nationality generally followed the old historical system. Apart from the form of tribal organization and under the jurisdiction of local chieftains, there were leaders in each village to preside over affairs, which was called "Fangtou". Many "Fangtou" relied on power, occupied land and carried out cruel feudal exploitation.
In June 1980, the State Council approved the establishment of Jishishan Bao'an Dongxiang Salar Autonomous County. On September 30 of the following year, Jishishan Bao'an Dongxiang Salar Autonomous County was officially established. With the establishment of national autonomous areas, the cadre team of Baoan nationality is growing and growing. In 1981, when the Autonomous County was established, there were 434 ethnic minority cadres in the county, including more than 70 Baoan cadres, accounting for 16.2% of the total number of ethnic minority cadres. In 2001, the number of ethnic minority cadres in the county increased to 1631, including 311 Baoan cadres, an increase of 4.4 times over the time when the Autonomous County was established, accounting for 19.1% of the total number of ethnic minority cadres, far higher than the proportion of Baoan population. The head of the Autonomous County is held by Baoan citizens, and Baoan citizens also hold leadership positions in the county Party committee, county people's Congress and county CPPCC. Baoan people are represented in the National People's congresses at all levels.
After the Baoan people moved to dahejia area in Linxia, Gansu Province, the original feudal leaders colluded with local bureaucrats, landlords and religious leaders, occupied large tracts of farmland, forest land and orchards, and monopolized the Three Gorges of Baoan sanzhuang. In Baoan sanzhuang, landlords and rich peasants, who account for 6.7% of the total households, account for more than 33% of all cultivated land. Together with local Hui bureaucrats and landlords, they occupy large tracts of forest land and orchards in dahejia area, monopolizing almost all local water resources. The poor peasants can only cultivate the arid land or river beach land along the mountain roots. Most of them become tenants of landlords and are exploited by heavy land rent and usury. Here, physical land rent is a common form of landlord exploitation of tenant farmers, and the rent rate is generally more than 50%. Usury exploitation has many names, among which the monthly profit known as "donkey rolling" is generally one point, resulting in farmers in debt. Every year, the tenant farmers have to work for the landlord for at least three months free of charge, repair the house, make hamburgers, complete the orchard and so on, and even be on call during busy farming seasons. As the landlord shouted, "if your oil tank falls down, you have to help my water tank first." in the three natural villages of Meipo, Machi and Chakou where Baoan people live, 180 families carried long-term and short-term workers to the landlord before the founding of new China. Moreover, the landlord class exploited and squeezed by hiring long-term workers and buying and selling maids. All these show the strong feudal characteristics of Baoan society before the founding of new China. Under the brutal feudal oppression, the agricultural production in Baoan area was very backward, and the poor farmers lived a miserable life of bran, vegetables and grain for half a year.
Baoan nationality mainly engaged in agricultural production, and some people also engaged in handicrafts and sidelines. Their agricultural production had been recorded before they moved eastward. In the early years of Yongzheng in the Qing Dynasty, every mature place in Baoan and Sala areas had been a constant product for a long time. After moving to the East, they learned the production technology of Han and Hui Nationalities, adopted the rotation system of soybean and wheat stubble, and used advanced production tools to start planting a large number of wheat. The food crops of Baoan nationality mainly include wheat, barley, corn, highland barley, Hu Mai, beans, potato, etc., and the cash crops include flax, rape, hemp and pepper. Vegetable varieties mainly include cabbage, eggplant, tomato, pepper, etc. There are many kinds of fruit trees, including peach, pear, walnut, apple and so on.
The handicraft industry with the most national characteristics of Baoan nationality is Dao, known as "Baoan Dao", which has a history of more than 100 years. The production of security knife takes each family as the production unit, with superb production skills, sharp, durable, exquisite and beautiful. The famous "double knives" and "double base knives" are mostly made of brass, red copper and ox bones. The patterns are elegant and beautiful. They enjoy the praise of "ten kinds of scenery", and are famous in Gansu, Qinghai, Tibet and other provinces and regions.
Baoan nationality is one of the ethnic minorities who believe in Islam in China. As early as when they lived in Qinghai, Baoan people believed in Islam. Islam has had a significant impact not only on the spiritual field of the Baoan people, but also on their political, economic, cultural and daily life, especially on the formation and national cohesion of the Baoan people. The Islam of Baoan nationality mainly includes old religion and Protestant religion, belonging to gadilinye sect and ihawani sect. The sects are basically consistent in religious law. About in the early Qing Dynasty, there appeared "door officials" in the development of Islam in Northwest China. In Baoan area, there are mainly two door officials, Yatou door official and Gaozhao door official, both of which belong to gadilinye sect.
Mosque is the center of Muslim religious activities. Baoan Muslims also worship in mosques, preach scriptures and preach, engage in religious church education, train teaching staff, and hold religious activities. Baoan mosques are mostly Chinese palace style classical buildings, with a main hall, a minaret, a bathing room, a dean's room, a scripture room and a Manla room. Mosques are built in all natural villages inhabited by Muslims in Jishishan County, and Baoan sanzhuang inhabited by Baoan nationality has its own mosques (Meipo temple, Dadun temple and Ganhetan Temple). Baoan people worship in the same mosque regardless of sect, official and nationality, which is a remarkable feature of Baoan people's religious belief.
On the one hand, the living customs of Baoan nationality are bound by the belief of Islam. On the other hand, due to their long-term exchanges with Han, Hui, Mongolia, Tibet, Turkey and other nationalities, they interact to varying degrees. On this basis, they have formed a national culture with their own characteristics.
At first, Baoan nationality lived adjacent to Mongolian nationality, and its clothes were similar to Mongolian nationality.
In the later period of Tongren's residence in Qinghai (the late Yuan Dynasty), influenced by the Tibetan and Tu nationalities, the clothing changed: men and women wore long shirts and hats in spring, summer and autumn, and some men also wore short white coats with high collars and black waistcoats. Women wear embroidered shoes with bright colors.
During the years of Xianfeng and Tongzhi in the Qing Dynasty, after Baoan nationality migrated to dahejia area, Jishishan County, Gansu Province, it had close contacts with Hui, Dongxiang and Han nationalities, and there were obvious changes in Baoan nationality's clothing for the needs of production and life. At ordinary times, men and women like to wear white or cyan brimless hats, white cloth shirts and green cloth waistcoats. During festivals, men usually wear top hats and black velvet robes. This robe is slightly shorter than the robes worn by Tibetans, decorated with "edges" of different widths and colors, wrapped with belts, waist knives and high boots. The woman wore a knee length robe with a dark waistcoat and lace.
Nowadays, Baoan men usually wear white hats (a kind of dome cloth hat made of white or black cloth), white shirts, black waistcoats and blue or gray trousers; When visiting relatives and friends or going out, wear Zhongshan clothes, military casual clothes or jackets. Women like to wear colorful right Lapel tops and trousers, with a waistcoat and lace embedded; Generally, girls wear green ones, black ones after marriage and white ones for the elderly.
The daily diet of Baoan nationality is mainly pasta processed from wheat, highland barley, corn and beans.
The meat food of Baoan nationality is mainly beef and mutton. It is forbidden to eat the meat of pigs, horses, donkeys, mules and other fierce animals, and the meat and blood of all self dead animals. Moreover, it must be slaughtered by imams or elders of Islam. Like stewing, such as hand grasping mutton, bowl dishes (cut cooked beef and mutton, add carrots, potatoes and vermicelli, stewed with beef and mutton soup), etc. the whole sheep banquet is the most famous. In the past, there were few vegetables, but now there are a wide range of varieties and patterns. Baoan people like to drink tea. Before the founding of new China, they drink more Fu tea and covered bowl tea. After the founding of new China, they generally drink more Yunnan Chunjian tea and entertain guests with "three incense tea" (tea, rock sugar, longan, red dates, raisins, dried almonds, etc. in covered bowl tea).
Baoan people avoid drinking and smoking.
In the early stage, Baoan nationality lived in the same form as Tibetan and Tu nationality, mainly in earth houses with civil structure. After the migration and settlement of Dahe family in Gansu, the living form of Baoan family has also changed. In the early days, the roofs of households were connected, with flat roofs and high walls. The walls were thick, and the rooms were connected to the rooms and walls. Once something happened, the whole village could be quickly contacted by going to the roof instead of leaving the hospital. This is a historical witness to the mutual assistance and unity of the Baoan nationality during the war. Today, we can still see a small number of such houses, but more are exclusive single houses, generally tile houses.
The courtyard layout can be divided into Shangfang and Pianfang. The upper room is also called the main room. Generally, it faces south or east to west. In the middle of the room, couplets in Arabic or wall charts of scriptures are hung. The west room, or the upper room in the courtyard, is usually inhabited by the elderly. When the old man dies, if he has enough housing at home, he can't live. He is specially used to receive guests or invite the Imam to chant scriptures. The eight immortals table is set in the middle of the main room, and two earth Kang are built where the eaves come out on both sides. When building the upper beam of the main house, wrap hemp money in red cloth in the middle of the beam to show that the family is prosperous. Side houses are places where young couples or unmarried children live.
Baoan people pay attention to etiquette and politeness.
When meeting, first say "Sai liangmu" (meaning greeting and greeting).
Baoan people respect the elderly, avoid unfilial children and disorder between the elderly and children.
Baoan people are hospitable. When guests arrive at home, please go to the Kang immediately and entertain them with the best tea and rice. First, pour tea, then serve dry and fresh fruits, grab mutton, chicken and other food, and repeatedly bow and yield. The more guests eat, the more happy the host is.
Baoan literature can be divided into oral literature and written literature.
In the long history of production and life, the Baoan people have created many legends and stories that reflect their spiritual world and social style. The more famous ones include the origin of Jishi mountain, the story of tulega taking rain from heaven, divine horse, the legend of security waist knife, etc. A remarkable feature of Baoan myth is that most of the protagonists are civilians. Through these ordinary figures, we can reflect the religious beliefs, social life, ideological virtues and local natural scenery of the Baoan people.
The traditional sports of Baoan nationality are developed in the long-term practice and adapt to the characteristics of the nation. Competition activities are generally held in winter leisure.
The folk traditional sports retained by Baoan nationality mainly include top ox, stone beating, waist knife, bell drill and five guns. Among them, "waist knife" and "stone beating" are listed as the performance items of national minority traditional sports games.
Baoan nationality has its own language. Baoan language belongs to the Mongolian language family of Altai language family, which is closer to Dongxiang language and Tu language. Many of their common words are basically the same. Due to the close relationship between Baoan nationality and Han and Hui people in history, Baoan language has not only absorbed a large number of Chinese loanwords, but also been influenced by Chinese in pronunciation and grammar. Most Baoan people also know Chinese and use Chinese as a tool for social communication.
Baoan language has 11 vowels, more complex vowels and 26 consonants, of which 5 consonants are unstable. Grammatically, Baoan language includes nouns, pronouns, numerals, nominalized adjectives in a sentence and the case category of form verbs. The predicate is the main component of a sentence and can form a sentence alone. The word order is subject object predicate. The attributive is mostly before the center, and the quantifier can also be after the center. There are many loanwords and few derivatives.
Banquet music is a kind of folk traditional music sung in the banquet venue when Baoan nationality holds a wedding. The melody is beautiful, cheerful and bright, with strong rhythm, and sometimes accompanied by simple dance movements. The banquet music of Baoan nationality can be roughly divided into Sanqu, narrative song and rap.
"Hua'er" is a kind of folk song with love as the main content, which is produced and spread in Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and some new areas. "Hua'er" accounts for a large proportion in Baoan folk literature. It is a folk song that everyone of Baoan can touch the scenery and sing impromptu. On the basis of "Hui Han Hua'er", the "Hua'er" of Baoan nationality absorbs the artistic characteristics of Mongolian and Tibetan folk songs. The tune is high pitched and excited, with vibrato, which is unique. The content of "Hua'er" is very rich, including resisting the oppression and exploitation of the ruling class in the old society, showing the daily social life of Baoan nationality, expressing the sincere and unswerving love of Baoan youth men and women, expressing the pursuit of a new life, and so on. Among them, love flowers are rich in content, numerous in number and strong in artistry, and play an important role in Baoan flowers.
After the founding of new China, especially since the reform and opening up, the national culture of Baoan nationality has achieved fruitful results. Baoan writers have created many works. The representative works of "flower" poems include Ding Shengzhi's "red sun hanging on the head", Ma Rui's "honey in white sugar is sweeter", Ma Wenyuan's "hammer sound in villa", Ma Shiren's "Ruixue", and so on. The representative works of prose include the green willow leaves by the farmer writer Zhan Xiuyi, who won the second prize of national minority literary creation in 1985 and the special prize of national literary creation in Gansu Province. The author enjoys the reputation of "our farmer writer" among the Baoan people. The representative works of the novel include Ma Shaoqing's Bao'an family, Aibu's house, Bao'an waist knife and egg skin walnut, Ma Liu, a collection of literary works, the road of Jishishan, and Malaba Festival. The representative work of the drama is the flower dance drama "sammore", which reflects the history of Baoan nationality, which is cooperated by Ma Shaoqing and Guo Zhengqing. The drama organically integrates "drama" and "flower".
Baoan nationality's dance is vigorous, fast-paced, enthusiastic and bold. It not only has the traditional characteristics of Mongolian dance, but also skillfully absorbs and integrates the advantages of Han, Hui, Tu and other ethnic songs and dances, forming its own unique style.
The dance "security waist knife" won the excellent program award of the national minority literature and art festival in 1980.
The marriage customs of Baoan nationality are male to female marriage and monogamy.
The ceremony before marriage mainly includes matchmaking, hiring ceremony and giving gifts.
When giving big gifts, there is also the custom of the woman's Pro room family inviting the man's gift giver to eat, which is called "calling guests". The more guests you call, the more you can show that the woman has more families and unity with each other.
After receiving the big gift, the woman agreed on the date of the wedding. Weddings generally include wedding, sending off, making banquets and other procedures. The whole wedding process presents a festive color. Men, women, old and young enjoy together. There is a saying that "there is no size in three days".
Weddings are mostly held on the "main hemp day" (Friday) of Islam. According to the custom of Baoan nationality, the bride doesn't eat the meal of the man's house for three days to show her parents' care for her daughter and that her daughter doesn't forget her parents' upbringing.
The funeral custom of Baoan nationality strictly follows the principles of "earth burial", "thin burial" and "quick burial" stipulated by Islam.
Generally, early death and afternoon burial, late death and morning burial. "Wheat body" (i.e. corpse) shall not stay for more than one day at most. After a person dies, he should ask the Imam to recite scriptures. The Imam of his religion or two famous believers "grab water" (wash the body) and "wear Kafan" (wrap the body in white cloth), and then move it into "tabu" (the public body box used in the mosque).
During burial, the relatives of the deceased shall ask the Imam to read the Koran in the "maizan" (cemetery). The relatives shall bury the deceased in the dug "pull seawall" (i.e. the side hole dug in the west wall of the tomb), block the hole, slowly fill the soil into the pit, and distribute "undersea Ye" (Shi Shejin) to everyone. The amount of money varies according to family conditions. The clothes of the deceased shall be distributed to the imam, relatives, friends and people in need, or sent elsewhere in accordance with the will, but the family members of the deceased cannot stay.
Three days after the burial, the family will also go to the grave to mourn and distribute oil incense and other food to relatives and friends to show their condolences to the dead.
Eid al AdhA, gurbanga and Shengji are not only religious festivals, but also national festivals of Baoan nationality.
Eid al Fitr, also known as Eid al Fitr, Rouzi Festival. Islam stipulates that adult Muslims should fast for one month in September of the Islamic calendar every year. During this month, all men aged 12 and women over 9 are not allowed to eat from dawn to sunset, which is called "fasting". Erde Festival is the most grand and joyful festival of Baoan nationality. It is generally celebrated for three days. People should wear the most beautiful clothes. Relatives and friends treat each other and say "match two eyes" to each other. I wish you a good life and a happy holiday.
Gulbon Festival, also known as Xiaode, Eid al AdhA and redemption day, is called "Eid al AdhA" in Chinese. It is held on the 70th day after the Eid Festival, that is, December 10 of the lunar calendar. Baoan ethnic group slaughters cattle and sheep according to the family's economic situation during the celebration of gulbon Festival. Baoan ethnic group believes that slaughtering cattle and sheep on gulbon Festival has the greatest "Sabah" (benefit), and evenly distributes the slaughtered cattle and mutton, which is called "meat elements". The celebration will also last three days.
Jihad is a day to commemorate the birth and death of the Prophet Muhammad. Muhammad, the founder of Islam, was born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, on March 12 of the Islamic calendar in 570. He died in Medina 62 years later. Muslims call this day "Jihad". Baoan people recite the Koran, praise Muhammad and carry out collective commemoration activities on the day of "holy discipline" every year.
The taboos of Baoan nationality permeate the consciousness of Islamic culture.
Cattle, sheep and chicken eaten must be slaughtered by imams or Muslims who understand the classics, otherwise fasting is prohibited.
Strictly avoid eating the meat of pigs, donkeys, mules, horses, dogs and fierce birds and beasts. Fast from the blood of dead livestock and all animals.
Avoid touching food with your hands.
Avoid sitting on the lid of the box containing food.
When the hostess fries fried food such as "Youxiang" and Sanzi in the kitchen, guests and family members are not allowed to enter the kitchen.
It is forbidden for women to scoop water along the river, and they must scoop water against the current, and it is also forbidden to scoop water and pour water back.
Strictly avoid guests entering a woman's bedroom.
It is forbidden for families returning from other places to directly enter houses with children and patients.
Avoid men and women crossing axes, sickles, ropes and other production tools.
Avoid people sitting on the threshold, especially women sitting on the threshold.
When slaughtering cattle, sheep and chickens, it is forbidden to clean up the internal organs before cutting them.
People who go far away should not see people carrying empty buckets on the way. If they do, they must return home immediately.
Avoid calling elders "old man" because it is disrespectful and impolite.
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