Bao'an nationality is one of the ethnic groups with a small population in China. Its national language is Bao'an language, belonging to the Mongolian language family of Altaic language family. Due to its long-term communication with the surrounding Han and Hui Nationalities, there are many Chinese Loanwords in Bao'an language, which is commonly used in Chinese, and Chinese is used as a tool for social communication.
"Bao'an" is the name of our family. Dahejia, where Baoan people live together, is scattered in other counties of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Lanzhou City, Qinghai and Xinjiang. According to the statistics of the sixth national census in 2010, the population of Bao'an nationality is 20074.
The name of Bao'an nationality comes from its original residence, Bao'an city by the Longwu River in Tongren County, Qinghai Province.
According to records, since the early Ming Dynasty, Bao'an people have lived in Bao'an City, Xiazhuang and Gasar (commonly known as "Bao'an sanzhuang" at that time), calling themselves "Bao'an people", while the Tu and Tibetan people around them call them "Huihui". In the first year of Tongzhi in Qing Dynasty, he moved to Jishishan area in Gansu Province.
Historically, the rulers of the past dynasties did not recognize the Baoan nationality as a single nationality, and always called it "Baoan Hui" and "fanhui".
After the founding of new China, according to the will of the people's Republic of China, the Government Affairs Council of the people's Republic of China officially approved "Bao'an nationality" as a single nationality on March 25, 1952.
Due to the lack of historical data, there is no unified conclusion on the origin and formation of Baoan nationality. There are mainly Mongolian, Hui and Semu people.
The Mongols gave priority to it. According to the legends, language characteristics and some living customs similar to Mongolian, Bao'an nationality may be a group of Mongols who believed in Islam in Yuan and Ming Dynasties. They stationed troops in Tongren area of Qinghai Province to cultivate and herd, and had long-term contacts with the surrounding Hui, Han, Tibetan and Tu nationalities.
The Hui people are the main people. Most of the people who hold this view trace their origin from the legends of Bao'an nationality and Hui nationality. Some people think that Baoan nationality is formed by the "Hui people" who moved from Baoning Prefecture in Sichuan (now Langzhong City) or Nanjing to Tongren area in Qinghai Province and settled down with other local nationalities; some people think that Baoan nationality is formed by the settlement and development of the Hui and Han "Yingwu people" (i.e. frontier garrison troops) who were sent to Baoan from Shaanxi and Linxia in Gansu Province; others think that Baoan nationality is the Linxia nationality The Huihui of xiadahejia, who had been engaged in business for a long time in Tongren and other places, settled down and developed, forming the Baoan clan.
Semu people are the main people. It is believed that Tongren area in Qinghai, where Bao'an nationality lived, was once the possession of Xiqiang, Tuyuhun and Tubo as early as Han and Tang Dynasties. After Li Yuanhao established the Xixia regime in 1032, his influence also involved Tongren area. During the Liao and Jin Dynasties, nvzhenren controlled the vast area of the Yellow River Basin, and its influence reached Jishi Prefecture including Tongren. At the beginning of the 13th century, Genghis Khan carried out a large-scale western expedition after unifying the northern and southern Mongolian tribes in the desert. During the western expedition, a large number of captured young people from Central Asian countries were incorporated into the "tanma Red Army" to assist the Mongolian army in fighting. These people include Huihui, halalu, Kangli, arhun, sarta, Wanggu and many others. Most of them believed in Islam and were known as "Semu people" at that time. In 1225, Genghis Khan returned to Mongolia from Central Asia, and these Semu people who believed in Islam entered the Northwest with the Mongolian army. In 1227, the Mongolian army destroyed Xixia and crossed the river to attack Jishi Prefecture, occupying Hezhou Prefecture including Tongren. In 1247, after Saban of Tibet met with Kuo Duan, the prince of Mongolia, the Mongolian army had frequent contacts with Tibet. Since then, Tongren area has become an important transportation route for military strategists, as well as a trade base between the mainland and the western regions. There are Mongolian troops stationed in Tongren area, including those from Central Asia. In 1259, when Kublai Khan, the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, unified the whole country, with the decrease of war, he incorporated the "tanma Red Army" into the nationality of the people, stationed them in the area for reclamation, and allowed them to marry, have children, start a family, and become "civilian households". From then on, the soldiers stationed in Tongren became the "ancestors" of Bao'an nationality.
In the Ming Dynasty, in order to "guard the frontier", the rulers built castles and sent troops to garrison. During the Hongwu Period, security stations and fortresses were set up in today's Tongren area of Qinghai; during the Wanli period, "security camp" was set up in Tongren Longwu area and expanded into a security City, which was subordinate to Hezhou Wei and under the command of the capital. It was under the jurisdiction of Tongren's 12 ethnic groups (also known as "security 12 ethnic groups", meaning the 12 major tribes with Tibetan and Tu residents in Tongren). At this time, the majority of Mongolians and Semu people settled in Hezhou, including Tongren. The former Islamic residents mainly live in Baoan City, Xiazhuang and Gasar along the Longwu River. Later, the Ming government constantly transferred a large number of Hui and Han soldiers from all over the country to garrison the border. "Baoan camp" has been developed and expanded, and the ethnic composition of Baoan has also changed. Based on the descendants of Semu people, Hui, Mongolian, Tibetan, Han, Tu and other ethnic groups coexist and get married. In the long-term common life, they have formed a common language and common psychological quality. Roughly in the middle of Ming Dynasty, they naturally merged into a new ethnic community The same body -- Bao'an clan.
In Xianfeng and Tongzhi years of the Qing Dynasty, because of the oppression of the feudal serf owners in Longwu Temple of local Lamaism, Bao'an people were forced to migrate. After living in Xunhua for several years, they moved to Gansu and settled down in dahejia and Liuji of Linxia by Jishishan. In the new settlement, Bao'an people still lived in the same way as their colleagues. The Bao'an people of Gasar lived in Dadun village, and the Bao'an people of Xiazhuang lived in gandun village In Hetan village, the security guards of Baoan city live in Meipo village, forming today's "Baoan sanzhuang". From the late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China, Bao'an nationality was under the rule of local warlords Ma Anliang and Ma Bufang. Since 1930, the KMT government carried out the Baojia system and classified the area as "two guarantees".
In history, Bao'an people took part in the anti feudal struggle of Hui and Han people in Linxia area in different forms. In the early years of Tongzhi in Qing Dynasty, Baoan nationality took part in the local Hui anti Qing uprising in the process of migrating from Tongren in Qinghai to Linxia. During the invasion of Beijing by the Allied forces of eight countries in 1900, more than ten Bao'an soldiers in the "Gan army" stationed in the capital, together with their brothers, bravely fought against foreign invaders. Some Bao'an soldiers gave their lives. During the reign of the Kuomintang government, Bao'an people constantly fought against the feudal ruling class and the Kuomintang government's atrocities such as sending donations, sending messengers, arresting soldiers, seizing water resources and mountain forests. They often went out together, men and women, young and old, and took up axes and knives to fight bravely against the reactionary township government and the landlord's minions.
According to folklore, before moving from Qinghai to Gansu in the Tongzhi period of the Qing Dynasty, there were many feudal characteristics in social life. The early society of Bao'an nationality generally followed the old system of history. Except for the form of tribal organization, which was under the jurisdiction of local chieftains, each village had a leader to preside over affairs, which was called "Fang tou". Many "Fangtou" relied on power, occupied land and carried out cruel feudal exploitation.
In June 1980, the State Council approved the establishment of Jishishan Bao'an, Dongxiang and Salar Autonomous County. On September 30 of the next year, Jishishan Bao'an, Dongxiang and Salar Autonomous County was officially established. With the establishment of national autonomous areas, the cadre team of Bao'an ethnic group has been growing. When the Autonomous County was founded in 1981, there were 434 ethnic minority cadres in the county, including more than 70 cadres of Baoan nationality, accounting for 16.2% of the total number of ethnic minority cadres. In 2001, there were 1631 minority cadres in the county, including 311 cadres of Bao'an nationality, an increase of 4.4 times compared with the establishment of the Autonomous County, accounting for 19.1% of the total number of minority cadres, far higher than the proportion of the population of Bao'an nationality. The head of an autonomous county is a Bao'an citizen. The county Party committee, the county people's Congress, and the county CPPCC also have Bao'an citizens as leaders. There are representatives of the Bao'an nationality in the National People's congresses at all levels.
After the Bao'an clan moved to dahejia area in Linxia, Gansu Province, the original feudal leaders colluded with local bureaucrats, landlords and religious leaders to occupy a large area of farmland, woodland and orchard and monopolize the Three Gorges of Bao'an sanzhuang. In Bao'an sanzhuang, landlords and rich peasants, who account for 6.7% of the total number of households, occupy more than 33% of the total cultivated land. Together with local Hui bureaucrats and landlords, they occupy a large area of woodland and orchards in dahejia area, monopolizing almost all the local water resources. The poor peasants could only cultivate dry land or river land along the mountain roots. Most of them became tenants of landlords and were exploited by heavy land rent and usury. Here, land rent in kind is a common form of exploitation by landlords, and the rent rate is generally more than 50%. There are many kinds of usury exploitation, among which the monthly profit, known as "donkey wallow", is generally one point, which causes farmers to be heavily in debt. Every year, the tenant farmers had to work for the landlord for at least three months, repairing houses, making hamburgers, and fixing orchards for the landlord's family. They even had to be on call during busy farming seasons. As the landlord clamored: "your oil tank has fallen, you have to help my water tank first." Before the founding of the people's Republic of China, 180 households in Meipo, Machi and Chakou, three natural villages inhabited by the Bao'an people, worked as long-term and short-term workers for the landlords. Moreover, the landlord class exploited and squeezed them by employing long-term workers and buying and selling maids. All these show the strong feudal characteristics of Baoan society before the founding of new China. Under the oppression of barbaric feudalism, the agricultural production in Baoan nationality area was very backward, and the poor peasants lived a miserable life of half a year's grain and vegetables.
Bao'an people mainly engaged in agricultural production, and some of them also engaged in handicraft and sideline industries. Their agricultural production moved eastward
Chinese PinYin : Bao An Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:25:45
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