Ewenki nationality (Russian: 35 ﹥ B ﹥ J ﹥ к I, formerly known as Tungus or Solon) is a nationality in Northeast Asia. It mainly lives in Siberia of Russia and Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang provinces of China, and there are a few in Mongolia. In Russia they are called the Evans.
Ewenki is the national name of Ewenki nationality, which means "people living in big mountain forest".
The language and culture of Ewenki nationality is unique, belonging to the northern branch of Tungusic language family of Altaic language family. In daily life, most Ewenki people use their own national language without their own characters. Ewenki herdsmen mostly use Mongolian, while farmers widely use Chinese.
Ewenki people are from nomadic development to settlement, engaged in animal husbandry production. Their traditional culture has great richness, the most prominent is the clothing culture and food culture.
"Ewenki" is the national self declaration of Ewenki nationality, which means "people living in the mountains". Historically, due to the relationship of living areas, the Ewenki people collectively referred to the great mountains and forests in the Great Xing'an Mountains, including the regions from the outer Xing'an Mountains to the upper reaches of the amazar River and the Lena River as "ergeduuri" or "ergerden" (Ewenki means "Dashan"). There is another saying: "Ewenki" means "people who go down the mountain" or "people who live on the south slope". Both of the above two explanations indicate that Ewenki are hunting people in the mountains. With the development of history, some of them went out of the mountain forest and moved to grassland and valley plain, while some of them still stayed in the mountain forest. The name "Ewenki" reflects the ancient history and life of Ewenki people, which are closely related to mountains and forests.
Due to the different living areas formed by historical migration, the Ewenki people in different areas were called "Sauron", "Tungus" and "Yakut" by other nationalities respectively.
As early as 1634, the title of "Suolun" was recorded in the records of Emperor Taizong of the Qing Dynasty. In a considerable historical period, the so-called "solun" includes not only the Ewenki, but also the Daur and the Oroqen. Later, other nationalities gradually separated from "Solon", and "Solon" became the only name for Ewenki. By the early 1950s, the Ewenki people, known as "solun", were the Ewenki people living in today's Ewenki banner, Arong Banner, Zhalantun City, Molidawa banner and Oroqen banner, accounting for the majority of the total population of the Ewenki people.
"Tungusi" is mainly the name of Ewenki people living in Chenqi. There are also some Ewenki people called "Tungus" in the Xini River Valley of Ewenki banner.
Yakut is the name of the Ewenki people in the oruguya Ewenki ethnic township of erzuo banner. This part of Ewenki was mistakenly called "Yakut" because they lived in the Lena River Basin adjacent to the Turkic speaking Yakut people.
Historically, although the Ewenki people in different areas have different names from other nationalities, they all call themselves "Ewenki", which is a unified Ewenki. After the founding of the people's Republic of China, the party and the people's government, after investigation and understanding, decided in 1958 to cancel the appellations of "Solon", "Tungus" and "Yakut" according to the wishes of the Ewenki people, and unified them as Ewenki people, thus restoring the true colors of history.
Due to the lack of information on the origin of Ewenki nationality, there are different opinions in the academic circles. There are mainly Shi Wei's theory and he Anju's bone theory.
According to the brief history of Ewenki published by Inner Mongolia People's Publishing House in 1983, the ancestors of Ewenki people lived in the outer Baikal Lake and the coastal area of Baikal Lake as early as 2000 B.C., that is, the age of copper and stone tools.
According to archaeological excavation, a human skeleton was found on the mountain of fovanov on the left bank of the Selenge River, opposite to gongtongsk village, with dozens of shining shell rings on its clothes. The location of the rings is exactly the same as that of the beads worn on the chest of the Ewenks and the shell rings decorated on the Shaman's vestments. In addition, some large white jade rings of the dead are found, which are no different from the rings on the ancient clothing of the Ewenki people in the 17th and 18th centuries. This proves that the ancestors of the Ewenki people lived in the Baikal Lake area at the latest in the bronze stone age.
According to the legend of the Ewenki, their hometown is the Lena River, which is so wide that even woodpeckers can't fly past. It is said that there is a "Lamu" Lake (Baikal Lake) in the Lena River, and there are eight rivers flowing into the lake. There are very high mountains around the lake, and the ancestors of Ewenki people originated from the mountains around Lake Lamu. Another legend says that the hometown of Ewenki people is the shileka River in the upper reaches of Heilongjiang Province.
Tang, song and Yuan Dynasties
In the Northern Wei Dynasty, Shi Wei, especially Bei Shi Wei, Bo Shi Wei and Ju Bu in the Tang Dynasty, had a close relationship with the origin of Ewenki, and also maintained contacts with the Central Plains Dynasty. According to historical records, beishiwei and boshiwei took "shooting as their duty, eating meat and clothing skin, digging ice into water and catching fish and turtles", built houses with birch bark, used skis, and carried out wind burial and other customs, which are exactly the portrayal of the early life of the Ewenki people. In the Tang Dynasty, Youling Dudu Fu was set up in the post Baikal area to administer poyegu and Jubu. After the establishment of the Liao Dynasty, its territory extended from the outer Xing'an Mountains in the north to the Baikal Lake in the northwest. Shiwei palace and Jiedushi were set up to control the people in this vast area, thus bringing the Ewenki ancestors under their own rule. In the Jin Dynasty, puhulu, the Shangjing Road, had jurisdiction as far north as "huoluhuotuan" (meaning Goucheng) in the outer Xing'an Mountains, and its ruling area extended to the place where the Ewenki ancestors lived.
In the historical records of the Yuan Dynasty, Ewenki, Olunchun, Mongolia and other ethnic groups living in the east of Baikal Lake and the vast Heilongjiang River Basin are all called "people in the forest". They lived in birch houses, raised reindeer, and used skis called "Chana" to travel among the mountains. They were in the primitive era of fishing and hunting economy. In 1207, Genghis Khan sent his eldest son Shu chi to cut down the common people in the forest. In 1235, WoKuoTaiHan set up Kaiyuan Road and hening road in the upper reaches of Heilongjiang Province to govern the people in the forest.
Ming and Qing Dynasties
In 1480, the Ming army occupied Helin, the seat of Lingbei Province in the Yuan Dynasty, and successively set up the buludan River guard and the Qita River guard in the outer Baikal Lake and the Heilongjiang River basin to govern the local people. In the literature of Ming Dynasty, Ewenki people are called "beishanyeren" or "yerennuzhen".
The Ewenki people in the late Ming Dynasty and the early Qing Dynasty were divided into three parts: first, they lived in the solun tribe from the shileka River to the jingqili River, which was the largest part of the Ewenki people. There are several big clans, such as dular, Ola, merdil, brahmu, tukedong and nahatha. They lived together with Daur people and established many wooden cities and villages on the North Bank of the middle reaches of Heilongjiang Province. The second is the solenberg tribe, which is the "Shima tribe" in the area of Chita river east of Baikal Lake, also known as "kamnikan" (the name of Buryat Mongols, which means a very united person inside) or "namiyar" or "namuita". There are 15 clans including old namiyar, new namiyar and toconwoer, and their clan leaders are gentmur and so on. The third is "Shi Lu Bu", which is distributed in the west of Lake Baikal, along the Weilu River and vitim River, tributaries of Lena river. There are 12 big clans, the chief is Yelei, sherteku and so on.
From 1633 to 1634, the Manchu rulers replaced the Ming Dynasty's rule over the suolunbu. In 1635, he conquered the "kamunikan" in Lake Baikal area; in 1639-1640, he finally unified the solun area to the east of Lake Baikal.
In the Qing Dynasty, the Ewenki people were organized into "Zuo" with the clan as the unit, and the officials such as zuoling were selected to pay tribute to the Qing Dynasty every year. After the middle of the 17th century, due to the invasion of tsarist Russia, the Qing Dynasty moved the Ewenki people to live in the Nenjiang River Valley of the Greater Xing'an Mountains. In 1732, the Qing Dynasty transferred more than 1600 Ewenki soldiers from butha area to Hulunbuir grassland area with their families to garrison the border. These people are the Ewenki people in the post Ewenki Autonomous Banner.
In the middle of the 17th century, tsarist Russia invaded the Heilongjiang River Basin of China, burning, killing and plundering, and committed all kinds of crimes, which aroused the great anger and resolute resistance of Ewenki and other ethnic groups. In 1651, the Tsarist Russian bandits occupied the Ewenki inhabited area in the upper reaches of Heilongjiang Province. The Ewenki people fought bravely. They launched a resolute struggle against the Russian invaders with their bows and arrows. In 1664, the Ewenki people and the local Mongolian people besieged the Tsarist bandits in nebuchu and dealt a heavy blow to the Tsarist Russian invaders.
After the September 18th Incident in 1931, Japanese imperialism occupied Northeast China. The Ewenki people fought bravely. They joined the Anti Japanese coalition forces and attacked the Japanese aggressors in various ways. After the victory of the Anti Japanese War, young Ewenki intellectuals took an active part in the revolution, and the masses from all over the country took part in the people's armed forces under the leadership of the Communist Party of China. They also took part in the Liaoshen campaign and the liberation of Southwest China.
In 1957, the name of the unified nationality was Ewenki, and the Ewenki Autonomous Banner was established on August 1, 1958.
According to the sixth national census in 2010, the population of Ewenki is 30875.
Ewenki nationality is a cross-border nationality living across China and Russia. In Russia, once known as the Tungus, now known as the Ewenki, there are about 50000 people, mainly distributed in Siberia.
The main ethnic groups of Ewenki in China
Chinese PinYin : E Wen Ke Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:25:31
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