The Uzbek nationality is called Uzbek in China and Uzbek abroad. The national language is Uzbek, belonging to the Geluolu branch of the Turkic language family of Altai language family.
The Uzbeks are mainly in Central Asia and mainly live in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Afghanistan and other countries. The Uzbeks in China are scattered in many counties and cities in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, most of them live in cities and towns and a few in rural areas.
Uzbek is the main ethnic group in Uzbekistan, accounting for 78.8% of its total population. According to the statistics of the sixth national census in 2010, the Uzbek population in China is 10569.
Uzbek Nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||Uzbek nationality|
|major city||Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand|
|population size||30-32 million|
|Distribution area||Central Asia, West Asia, Eastern Europe, East Asia|
Chinese PinYin : Wu Zi Bie Ke Zu
The name of Uzbek nationality originated from the constituent parts of the Mongolian Empire in the 14th century
The Uzbek Khan of Jinzhang (qincha), one of the four major khanates, was called "month is farewell" and "month zubo" in Yuan history. Uzbek Khan believed in Islam and pursued the policy of worshiping Islam in Khan, which was supported by the believers. The country was once strong and famous, so it was called "Uzbek Khanate" and its residents were called "Uzbek Khanate".
In the 15th century, the Golden Horde collapsed. Some residents moved to the Chuhe River Basin. Herdsmen from different sources left in this area are generally called Uzbeks, forming the Uzbek alliance. At the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century, these Uzbek nomadic tribes went south and entered the agricultural areas of Central Asia, occupied Bukhara, Samarkand, Shiva, urgenci and Tashkent, and integrated with local Turkic speaking and agricultural residents. However, many tribes in the Uzbek tribal alliance still retain their original regional names.
Historically, most of the names of Uzbeks in Central Asia in China are also named by place names, such as Samarkand, Hohan, Bukhara and Andijan, which are the general names of Uzbeks in Central Asia in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, of which the name of Andijan is the most widely used.
In 874, the Saman Dynasty in Central Asia was established. Over the years, the Saman Dynasty has taken the form of war and trade to coerce a large number of Turkic nomads into its territory. At the same time, a large number of Turkic nomads have moved south. These people mainly include the Gollum, karagi, arhun and ugus. They live and integrate with the local Persians and Tajiks, A new group, known as the Salta people, mainly settled in agricultural life, has been formed, which constitutes the basic framework of Uzbek nationality.
The name of Uzbek nationality comes from the Uzbek Khan of Jinzhang (qincha) khanate, one of the four major khanates, which was an integral part of the Mongolian Empire in the 14th century. In the 15th century, the Golden Horde collapsed. Some residents moved to the Chuhe River Basin. Herdsmen from different sources left in this area are generally called Uzbeks, forming the Uzbek alliance. At the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century, these Uzbek nomadic tribes went south and entered the agricultural areas of Central Asia, occupied Bukhara, Samarkand, Shiva, urgenci and Tashkent, and integrated with local Turkic speaking and agricultural residents. However, many tribes in the Uzbek tribal alliance still retain their original regional names.
The Uzbek ancestors moved to Xinjiang from Central Asia very early. The Central Asia River region is adjacent to Xinjiang. The geographical environment of the two places is similar. Due to the needs of economic life, the residents of the two places have regular communication activities. The ancient Uzbek poem yadikar describes in detail the arduous process of the organized migration of the Uzbeks from chinchakpuchak to Xinjiang in the 14th and 15th centuries. In the Yuan Dynasty, Uzbeks from the golden tent Khanate went to the mainland of China to do business along the ancient "Silk Road" through Xinjiang. From the 16th century to the 17th century, Uzbek caravans took Yeerqiang in Xinjiang as a transit place, dealing in silk, tea, porcelain, leather sheets, rhubarb and various local specialties. Some also passed through Aksu and Turpan to Suzhou (now Jiuquan, Gansu Province) to resell the goods to the mainland. Since then, Uzbeks from Central Asia began to live in some cities in Xinjiang, and the number has increased year by year.
In the 1850s, the Qing government put down the rebellion of the Junggar aristocratic group and established diplomatic relations with Haohan. Since then, in addition to Kashgar, Yerqiang and Aksu, Uzbeks have settled in other cities in southern Xinjiang and even in Northern Xinjiang. Historically, Uzbek business activities have played a certain role in promoting economic and cultural exchanges between Xinjiang and Central Asia. In different periods after that, until the beginning of the 20th century, Andijan people continued to move into and settle in Xinjiang. In addition to businessmen, these people also included farmers, handicraftsmen and intellectuals.
In April 1951, Xinjiang province held the first meeting of representatives of all ethnic groups from all walks of life. A total of 11 Uzbek representatives attended. They directly participated in the discussion of state affairs and expressed the common aspiration of Uzbek people for a new socialist life. In early 1954, the Uzbek people actively participated in the first general election of the people's Republic of China with full political enthusiasm and elected people's representatives representing their own wishes. According to the electoral law of the Republic, there are a certain number of Uzbek representatives in the people's congresses at all levels in Xinjiang. For example, in Yining City at that time, the Uzbek population accounted for 4.5% of the total population of the city, and 21 deputies attended the first people's Congress of relevant districts and townships in Yining, accounting for 5.4% of the total.
From March to September 1954, five autonomous prefectures and six autonomous counties were successively established in Xinjiang. In October 1955, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was officially established. Due to the small population and scattered residence of Uzbeks, it is not possible to implement regional national autonomy. However, in the autonomous region and prefecture, prefecture and county (city), Uzbeks enjoy full and equal democratic rights and jointly manage local affairs in the region like all ethnic groups in autonomous Xinjiang. Some Uzbeks have also assumed leadership positions at all levels.
On July 2, 1987, Uzbek nationality township was established in Danangou, Mulei Kazak Autonomous County, which is the only Uzbek nationality township in China.
Before the mid-19th century, most Uzbeks were engaged in commerce. Some formed caravans and drove hundreds of camels, mules and horses between Central Asia and Xinjiang; Some trafficked livestock and agricultural and livestock products between southern and Northern Xinjiang.
After the Opium War, as China became a semi colonial and semi feudal society, Xinjiang also became the coveted land of imperialism. Britain and Russia have launched a fierce competition for Xinjiang's rich resources and broad market. Through a series of unequal treaties, tsarist Russia not only occupied a large area of Xinjiang, but also further seized political and economic privileges, so that tsarist Russia could monopolize the foreign trade of Northern Xinjiang and control the economic lifeline of Xinjiang. A large number of Russian businessmen swarmed in order to plunder cheap raw materials and occupy the market. From the 1880s to the early 20th century, there were Russian merchants in major cities in Xinjiang, and inferior Russian goods also flooded the local markets. In view of the continuous expansion of tsarist Russian forces, the British imperialists' plundering of Southern Xinjiang is even more urgent. These situations have directly affected the Uzbeks who have been engaged in business for a long time and bear the trade between various regions of Xinjiang and at home and abroad, and have led to drastic changes in the social economy of Uzbeks.
After the end of the 19th century, with the development of commercial economy in Xinjiang, Uzbek people engaged in commercial activities began to divide into businessmen, merchants and small traders. Uzbek businessmen, large and small, mainly engaged in import and export trade, rely on and depend on foreign capital to varying degrees. Big Uzbek businessmen colluded with foreign aggressive forces and began to appear in the form of foreign firms by relying on foreign market and economic forces. At that time, Uzbek businessmen set up foreign firms in the Urumqi Trade Circle, including Desheng foreign firm, Dehe foreign firm, Geely foreign firm, renzhongxin foreign firm and maowai foreign firm. Among the eight large foreign firms in Urumqi, Uzbeks account for five. With abundant capital and large operation scale, the foreign bank has direct contact with capitalists in Britain, Russia, India, Afghanistan and other countries. They bought agricultural and livestock products and handicraft products from Xinjiang at a low price and sold them abroad. They also imported foreign cloth, woolen goods, ironware, leather, sugar, matches and other commodities from abroad, dumping all parts of Xinjiang and making huge profits. However, most Uzbek small and medium-sized businessmen are unable to compete with foreign firms due to lack of funds, and gradually become agents or salesmen for foreign firms to purchase and sell goods. Under the pressure of large commercial capital, they have no other way out except bankruptcy, bankruptcy and forced closure. After losing their funds, many Uzbek small businessmen became employees of foreign firms and their affiliated processing plants, and some drifted from cities to rural areas. Most of them had no land, livestock and other means of production.
The area where Uzbek handicrafts are concentrated and developed is Shache, most of which is silk weaving.
At the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, there were more than 200 Uzbek silk weaving workshops in Shache alone. The larger workshops employed about 150 workers and became handicraft workshops with the budding nature of capitalism. As the raw material purchase and product promotion of silk weaving handicraft industry were directly controlled by foreign monopoly capital and devastated by local feudal system, the once prosperous Uzbek handicraft industry failed to get sufficient development and soon declined.
Under the impact of foreign economic forces, only some special handicrafts have survived - Uzbek women's manual embroidery, such as small flower hats, lace, bed sheets, pillowcases, etc., which are mostly family sideline production. Even this small number of craft products, because the raw materials and sales are in the hands of foreign firms, their production is also greatly limited.
A small number of Uzbeks mainly or concurrently engaged in animal husbandry are mainly distributed in Mulei, Qitai, Xinyuan, Zhaosu, Gongliu, Tekes, nilek, Yining and Tacheng in Northern Xinjiang. Most Uzbek herdsmen in these areas live together with Kazak herdsmen. When using pastures and grasslands, they are often supported and helped by local Kazak herdsmen.
After the founding of new China, Uzbek herdsmen in Northern Xinjiang took the initiative to change the mode of animal husbandry management, adjust the industrial structure and transform to modern agriculture and animal husbandry. For example, implement a series of responsibility system to improve the breeding level; Improve the quantity and quality of livestock; Build practical houses and sheds for supporting settlement; Establish artificial forage base with Uygur, Kazak and other ethnic groups while protecting natural grassland; Establish high-level and new equipment Veterinary Station; Introduce and promote new technologies to improve livestock varieties; Adopt new machinery for on-site processing of milk, meat and wool to promote animal husbandry production. At the same time, the Uzbek people in Northern Xinjiang have made great efforts to develop agriculture and comprehensively develop agricultural and animal husbandry resources according to local conditions.
Uzbeks engaged in agriculture are mostly distributed near Kashgar, Shache, Bachu, Aksu in southern Xinjiang and Yining in Northern Xinjiang. In urban and rural areas, Uzbek people have frequent contacts with people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang, and have particularly close and harmonious relations with Uighur and Kazak people. The interaction of life and culture among ethnic groups has gradually formed many similar or even identical characteristics.
Since the implementation of the western development strategy, the Uzbek people have made their own contributions to the economic and social development and stability of Xinjiang, such as developing characteristic agriculture, carrying out intensive agricultural farming, making large-scale use of oasis land resources, optimizing crop varieties, paying close attention to the production and cultivation of high-quality fruits and vegetables, and injecting scientific and technological components into agricultural production as much as possible, Carry out regional cooperation with different ranges, etc. At the same time, we will also strengthen comprehensive agricultural development centered on water conservancy, develop processing industries focusing on cotton spinning, food, silk and leather, pilot export processing zones, expand foreign trade, economic and technical cooperation, actively develop tourism, develop tourism commodities and national handicrafts, and significantly optimize the economic structure.
Uzbeks have long believed in Islam.
Since more and more Uzbeks settled in Xinjiang in the 18th century, some large mosques have been donated and built by Uzbek people in Kashgar, Shache, Ili, Qitai and other places. Various religious professionals are the specific executors and organizers of Islamic activities, such as imam, Mullah, Kazi, alamu, Imam, maizeng, etc.
Islam has a great influence on the culture and education of Uzbek nationality. For a long time, Uzbek teenagers have mainly received religious education. Some Uzbek schools in old China were actually religious schools, known as "scripture schools". The scripture school is taught by mullahs who are religious professionals, and the main courses are Arabic, the Koran and the hadith.
Uzbek clothing is characterized by men and women wearing all kinds of small hats.
As early as the 6th century to the 7th century, agricultural residents in Central Asia began to wear all kinds of clothes sewn with silk and wool. They not only have exquisite embroidery and gorgeous colors, but also have changeable patterns and great ingenuity. In the middle of the 8th century, under the influence of Islam, the costumes of Turkic speaking agricultural residents in Central Asia added headbands, robes and soft leather boots from the Middle East, which greatly enriched the types of costumes of Uzbeks. Modern Uzbek men generally wear a long shirt "Tony" with patterns, without buttons, with a diagonal collar on the right (some of the right Lapel with lace) as long as the knee. A triangular embroidered belt embroidered and woven with various silk, satin, flower cloth and cotton materials. The belts of young people are colorful, while those of old people are elegant. Tony usually chooses thicker silk materials - Berkshire wood silk or golden velvet, or made of wool. Young men wear a variety of colors, while older men wear black. The collar edge, front opening and cuffs of men's shirts are often embroidered with red, green and blue colored pattern lace. Women wear hand-made high tube embroidered leather boots, known as "aitke". Women's dresses are called "Quebec". They are wide and pleated, do not tie a belt, and some wear all kinds of short clothes. The colors are very gorgeous. Old women wear headscarves, and their clothes are mostly black, dark green or coffee. Women, young and old, have pigtails and love to wear earrings, earrings, rings, bracelets, necklaces, hairpins and other decorative items. Wearing jewelry is a part of Uzbek women's etiquette culture. Men like to hang exquisite knives around their waist.
Uzbek people, both men and women, love to wear small flower hats - doppa. The flower cap is mostly hard shell, without eaves, round or quadrangular, and the quadrangular can be folded. Men's hats are made of dark green, black and light blue, while women like to use white and jujube gold velvet and corduroy. The top and four sides of the hat are embroidered with various geometric and flower patterns, with exquisite workmanship. The more famous flower cap is Badan wood flower cap, embroidered with white Badan wood pattern, with white flowers and black background, which is simple and generous. Tashkent flower cap originated from Tashkent. Hotan flower cap is most famous for its fine embroidery. There are also hunabai hats, Andijan hats, etc. Young men generally like to wear small hats with a red background, while old men mostly wear small hats with a dark green background, and some wear small hats made of corduroy without embroidery. In the past, according to religious customs, women had to wear cloaks and veils when going out. In addition to wearing a small hat, modern people also wear a square scarf, or a cross stitch embroidered shawl over the small hat.
Uzbeks eat three meals a day. When dining, the elderly take the upper seat and the young take the lower seat. Many foods can be eaten by hand. Modern Uzbek people mostly use chopsticks and spoons to eat, but some women and children, especially in pastoral areas, still eat with their hands.
Uzbek people follow the dietary taboos of Islam and eat sheep, cattle, horse meat and dairy products.
Nang is the staple food of Uzbek nationality. It is baked after fermentation with flour and salt water. Or add milk, clear oil, lanolin or butter to the noodles, which is called oil Nang. There are also meat Nang baked with diced mutton, cumin powder, pepper, chopped onion and other seasonings. In addition, there are Wowo Nang, piannang, etc.
Milk tea is also an indispensable drink in the daily life of Uzbek people.
"Naren" is a delicacy used by Uzbek people to entertain guests, with the most national flavor. Chop the cooked meat, add onion, pepper and sour milk, stir and mix, pour broth and eat with your hands. Pilaf is one of the flavor foods used by Uzbek people to entertain guests.
Every new year's day, weddings and funerals, it is necessary to catch rice for guests. Pilaf is made of rice, fresh mutton, clear oil, carrots and onions. Or use raisins, dried apricots and other dried fruits to make, commonly known as sweet rice or vegetarian rice, which is very nutritious.
Uzbek people often eat "kurdak" (potato stew), "nisala" (food made of egg white and sugar), as well as scratch meat, roast meat, roast steamed stuffed bun, ramen, rice mung bean soup, etc. Like to eat fruits. The fruits often eaten include mulberry, apricot, peach, pear, grape, fig, pomegranate, melon, etc. in the mature season, fruits are often used instead of vegetables, supplemented with Nang.
Traditional snacks loved by Uzbek people include rice intestines and noodles and lungs. Rice intestines is to wash the lung intestines until they are white, and pour the adjusted rice, liver, heart and other fillings into the intestines. Wash the gluten, squeeze the flour slurry into the lungs and add seasoning. Then put the rice intestines, noodle lungs, sheep stomach and gluten into the pot. When cooked, take it out and cut it into pieces. When eating, dip it in soy sauce, vinegar, pepper and other unique flavors. It is the top grade of Uzbek flavor.
The climate in southern Xinjiang is dry and mild, and the precipitation is small. The houses inhabited by Uzbek people are generally flat topped and slightly inclined rectangular earth houses, which form their own courtyard. The walls of this civil structure house are very thick, warm in winter and cool in summer. Many houses are built with earth walls, which are called Andijan walls, and Uzbeks call them funny mud walls. This is a kind of building with fence connecting and fixing Adobe into a whole. It has strong stability and is suitable for construction in desert or swamp. Things can be stacked on the roof or dried fruits can be dried, and it can be cool in summer. There are many sheds in front of the house, on which grape vine branches spread. There are niches on the indoor wall. All kinds of patterns are inlaid with carved gypsum around the niches. Various appliances and furnishings can be stored in the niches to show the owner's interests and hobbies. Various patterns are also engraved on the indoor wooden columns. Uzbek people have the habit of buying fire ponds for heating. This kind of fire pond is different from that of other nationalities. You can put the mattress on the fire pond and stretch your feet and legs into the mattress to keep warm. Some also dug a small pit indoors and put the stove in the pit. The pit is covered with wooden boards and blankets for sitting and lying. The round top floor is called "AVA". Glass windows and wooden doors are mostly arched, and elegant arcades are also set.
The Uzbek houses in Yili area of Northern Xinjiang are all civil structures. Northern Xinjiang is cold in winter. The walls of houses are thick, generally tall and spacious. The flat surface of the roof has a slight slope and is covered with grass and mud. The footings of houses are stacked with bricks or wrapped with mud. The eaves are decorated with red or green bricks and stacked with various patterns. The main house extends out of the eaves. The courtyard is surrounded by earth walls. Flowers, plants, fruits and trees are planted in the courtyard. The grape trellis is built to the cornice of the corridor and connected with the whole house to form a tree lined corridor under the trellis. Exquisite people also lead the canal water through the courtyard, showing a quiet and secluded artistic conception.
Uzbek herdsmen in pastoral areas of Northern Xinjiang live in yurts in spring, summer and autumn. The yurt is about 3 meters high and covers an area of 20 or 30 square meters. Willow poles are crisscross connected to form a fence and surrounded into a circle. The upper part is in a dome shape and is built into a skeleton with a brace. The lower end of the brace is slightly bent and connected with the fence; Insert the upper end into the circle of the sunroof cover. The outside is covered with felt and reinforced with leather rope. The ventilation is transparent. It depends on the skylight and is covered with a piece of movable felt, which can be opened and closed at any time. In winter, they often live in fixed Earth houses or wooden houses. Since the 1980s, the government has implemented the herdsman settlement project, and the living style of Uzbek herdsmen has changed greatly. Uzbek villagers in Danangou, Mulei County have settled down at present, except that they still live in yurts in grazing sites. The houses for settling in the new village are uniformly planned and built by the government. The houses are of brick and wood structure, with 4 main houses, a large living room, a large bedroom, a small bedroom and a kitchen, covering an area of about 90 square meters. After settling down, herdsmen realized "four links", "Four Haves" and "four supporting facilities". Four connections refer to water, electricity, roads and postal services; (4) having a sound, a ground, a warm circle and a micro storage tank; Four supporting facilities are school supporting facilities, grain store supporting facilities, health center supporting facilities and Veterinary Institute supporting facilities.
Uzbek language belongs to Geluolu branch of Turkic language family of Altai language family.
Uzbek has three letters: Latin, Cyrillic and Arabic. Uzbeks in Uzbekistan use Latin letters (Cyrillic letters were used in the past), Uzbeks in Afghanistan use Arabic letters, and Uzbeks in China also use Arabic letters. However, After 1990, the same Latin alphabet as Uzbekistan was gradually popularized, and more and more Uzbek people in Xinjiang will use the Uzbek language with Latin alphabet.
Because Uzbeks are very scattered in China, the use of Uzbek language in China has gradually changed since 1949. Uzbeks in southern Xinjiang live together with Uighurs, and basically use Uighur and Uyghur characters. Uzbeks living in pastoral areas basically use Kazakh and Kazakh because they have lived together with Kazaks for a long time.
Uzbek folk sports activities are mostly held in traditional national festivals, and sometimes in festivals with flowers in full bloom and sunshine.
Due to the long-term coexistence with other fraternal nationalities, Uzbek folk sports are roughly the same as Uighur and Kazak, and they like horse racing, sheep picking, wrestling and other activities.
The main festivals of Uzbek people include "Jiji Festival", "Rouzi Festival" and "gurbang Festival".
The traditional festivals are basically the same as those of other local Islamic nationalities. Rouzi Festival and gurbang Festival are the most solemn festivals of the year. During the Ramadan before the "Rouzi Festival", adults should fast. When eating fast, relatives, friends and neighbors should invite each other. If there are guests, the host should treat them warmly.
On gurbangjie, cattle and sheep are slaughtered, fried oil cakes are eaten, hand scratched meat and rice are eaten, and the folk unique flavor food "Naren".
Every spring, the Uzbek people also hold a "sumalek" ceremony. At that time, taking the village as the unit, everyone brings all kinds of raw food together and cooks them in a large pot. In this process, people get together for song and dance entertainment activities to wish good weather and prosperity of people and animals.
Uzbek people practice monogamous marriage, which is mainly carried out within their own nation. They can intermarry between aunts, aunts and cousins, and also with foreigners who believe in Islam. In the past, Uzbek marriages were mostly arranged by their parents. Early marriage is generally practiced. Men can get married at the age of 17 or 18, and women must get married at the age of 14 or 15. Children have no freedom of love. When choosing a son-in-law for their daughter, parents pay more attention to the man's economic status, social status, moral quality, age and appearance. Sometimes, parents inform their children in advance when they are ready to determine the marriage relationship for their children. This is actually greeting the children and asking them to be mentally prepared for marriage. Young people generally agree with their parents' arrangements. Since the founding of new China, the freedom of love and marriage autonomy of young men and women have become increasingly common, but the choice of objects must also take the initiative to obtain the consent of their parents. In contemporary times, although parents ask about young people's marriage and love, they generally respect their children's choices and will not insist on blocking them.
The engagement ceremony of Uzbek nationality generally has the following steps: the first step is to propose marriage to relatives and friends. After the man's object selection had an eyebrow, his parents asked relatives and friends to propose marriage at the girl's house. The second step is to determine the marital relationship. It is divided into two stages. The first stage is the preliminary discussion, which is only attended by women. The latter stage is engagement and first gift giving. The third step is to give betrothal gifts. After the engagement, the man's mother, accompanied by more than a dozen female relatives and friends, went to the woman's house. Each person walked in front with a tray full of food in his hand, and behind him was a sheep with red silk on its horns. When the group arrived at the door of the woman's house, the woman's mother led relatives and friends to meet them outside the house. The two in laws embraced warmly and blessed the marriage. The fourth step is to return the gift. A few days after the engagement, the woman went to the man's house for a courtesy return visit. The girl's parents, accompanied by relatives and friends, brought some gifts to the man's house. The man's house expressed its sincerity with a warm and thoughtful reception. The fifth step is to choose the date of marriage. That is, the man's house goes to the woman's house to agree on the auspicious day of the wedding and their respective tasks in the wedding. In all these links, the bride and groom are not allowed to meet each other's family.
Wedding supplies are generally required for the man to prepare the bride price and wedding banquet, and the woman should prepare new house supplies, bedding, curtains, room layout, etc. The wedding expenses are basically borne by the man. A few days before the wedding, the wedding expenses - rice, meat, oil, carrots, Nang, candy, fruit, box sugar, tea and other items should be sent to the woman's house, negotiate to determine the list of invited guests and distribute invitations. After that, the wedding was held at the woman's house.
The Uzbek wedding lasted four consecutive days. On the first day, the wedding and witness ceremony were held. On this day, both male and female guests who received the invitation came to the woman's house to celebrate, and their parents entertained them together. Generally, male guests are received in the morning and female guests in the afternoon. In the afternoon, the bridegroom's sisters also came to the bride's house. When they enter the bride's house, they should spread a long white cloth and let them walk through it to show good luck and welcome. An imam presides over the marriage ceremony stipulated by Islam for the bride and groom, which is called "Nika" by Uzbeks. The bride usually stands on the side and is only heard by her father, uncle or uncle. The groom should stand in the middle of the courtyard with his parents, relatives and friends and hear the Scriptures read by the Imam. At the ceremony, the Imam asked the bride standing on the side loudly, "will you marry so and so?" the bride didn't say a word at first. After asking three times, she answered softly: "yes!" in some places, it was not the bride's answer, but his father's answer. Then the Imam asked the groom, "would you like to marry so and so?" the groom replied loudly and readily, "I do!" then the Imam picked up a piece of Nang and dipped it in salt water for the bride and groom to eat. It is said that in the eyes of Uzbek people, salt is a treasure, which can strengthen the relationship between husband and wife, and eating Nang symbolizes that newlyweds have plenty of food and clothing.
The next day was a visiting ceremony. In the morning, the bride's family will send someone to send a breakfast called "isglek" to visit the new couple; The bridegroom is going to his father-in-law's house to say hello to the two elders.
The third day is a ceremony called "chalilar", that is, a thank-you meeting held by the bride's parents and attended by friends and relatives to entertain the groom, his parents, relatives and friends. The seats were arranged according to the elders and children, and the bride's parents presented gifts to the groom and guests respectively.
On the fourth day, the bridegroom's parents also held a "charilar" to express their gratitude to their in laws. At this ceremony, the groom's parents handed over the things prepared for their daughter-in-law to the newlyweds, and the bride's parents also sent the dowry prepared for their daughter. The whole wedding ended only after everyone had a look. According to traditional customs, Uzbek women must wear "Palan knot" (veil) from the day of marriage. The head and face are covered tightly. The part of the veil covering the face is woven with horse mane, which is convenient for ventilation and light transmission. But now more and more women are not wearing veils.
With the development of the times, although the main procedures of Uzbek wedding ceremony have been maintained, the content has been further simplified and incorporated into some new customs.
Uzbek people pay attention to father's kindness, mother's love and filial piety of their children. People believe that it is natural for parents to give their children proper names and raise them to grow up, and for children to honor their parents and bring them to their old age. Families and society generally respect the elderly. The older people are, the more they are respected. On the contrary, words and deeds that are not filial to the elderly will be despised by people. The occurrence of unkind or unfilial events in a family will be condemned by public opinion.
In Uzbek families, parents have absolute power. The son can get part of the family property when he gets married, and the daughter can also get the necessary dowry, but the amount of property allocated to the son is entirely determined by the parents. Before marriage, women have the right to inherit property in their mother's family, but they generally inherit less property than men. After marriage, the property inherited shall be brought to the husband for safekeeping. For quite a long time, Uzbek women's status in the family is very low. Men, especially husbands, are in the central position in the family, while women "follow their father at home, marry from their husband, and husband dies from their son". In the past, in some families, the husband abused, beat and scolded his wife arbitrarily and even abandoned his wife. As long as the husband said "Tarak" (abandonment), the wife was abandoned. Therefore, the wife has no obvious right to control property within the family. How to arrange property and how to buy household goods is entirely up to the husband. If the husband dies, only a small part of the family property is given to the wife. At this time, if the children are unable to inherit the family property, the wife can temporarily control the property and hand it over to the son unconditionally after the son grows up. If there is no heir in a family, all the family property is collected by the mosque.
Uzbeks pay great attention to etiquette and politeness. Among people, helping each other is fun, giving is honor, and being friendly is fast. The older ones are called "AQA" (elder brother), "AQA" (elder sister), and the younger ones are called "Wukang" (younger brother), "Sener" (younger sister). People usually greet warmly when they meet. According to the traditional custom, when a man meets, he puts his right hand in front of his left chest, nods and bows, and sends greetings; When women of the same generation meet, they touch their breasts with both hands, bow and greet, and sometimes hug. Elders usually kiss the young on the cheek and greet each other. Now the handshake ceremony has become more and more popular. On some occasions, the two etiquette go hand in hand.
Uzbek people respect the elderly and advocate knowledge. The elderly enjoy high prestige and social status. When people get together, let the old man speak first and let the old man go first when they go out; When riding, if two people ride together, they usually ask the elder to ride in front and the younger to sit in the back; When eating, the old man sits in the upper seat and the child sits in the lower seat; The younger generation does not drink or smoke in front of the elders; The young make way for the old when they meet on the road. Learned people are considered intelligent and supernatural, and are also respected.
Uzbek people preserve a large number of literary works written in Uzbek, and most of them are narrative poems, fables, proverbs, maxims, legends, stories, folk songs, etc.
Alepamish is a widely spread, influential and well-known heroic epic.
The child born in the grave is a long narrative poem loved by the majority of Uzbek people.
"Female camel and lamb", "monkey and Carpenter" and "tortoise and scorpion" are the most famous allegorical poems of Uzbek nationality. These poems make good use of metaphors, quote proverbs, distinguish right from wrong, and clarify philosophy in lightness and pleasure.
The emergence of writer literature pushed Uzbek literature and even the whole Central Asian literature to a new peak, and had a great impact on the formation and consolidation of Uzbek literary language. The artistic forms of literary works, such as metrical poetry, pay attention to light stress, tone, rhyme and rhyme, which makes the poetry catchy and spread to this day.
Among the famous poets and writers in Uzbek literature in the 20th century are falkaiti, nasurula kage, xukul Yakun, bilari aizize, sapahon Pulati, etc.
Uzbek folk music tunes are melodious and melodious, and the general speed is relatively fast. The form of performance is mainly solo. Some singers play and sing by themselves, and express their feelings very freely.
The lyrics of folk songs are very extensive and have a strong flavor of life.
There are many kinds of instrumental music of Uzbek nationality, most of which are plucked instruments and percussion instruments, mainly including: "karnai", "suona", "dutar", "xiegenai", "revfu", "tabur", "Chang", "SATA", "Wude", "Kanong", "Flute", "double Flute", "changkubuzi", "hailak" and "(Uzbek style) Dongbula "," nagala "," thar ") and other plucked instruments, as well as tambourine, zapayi and other percussion instruments.
Uzbek dance is famous for its beauty, lightness and variety. When rotating rapidly, the movements of both arms are above the waist. The dance posture is relaxed and bright, and most of them are in the form of single person solo dance.
Traditional hand encouragement has a very unique style.
Temurlane or Amir Temur (April 8, 1336 ~ February 18, 1405) was born in Jieshi (now shahrishabz) south of Samarkand, Uzbekistan. He is a famous statesman, strategist and strategist in world history, the founder of the Timur empire across Europe and Asia, and the founding monarch of the Timur Empire (reigned from 1370 to 1405).
Muhammad shaybani Khan (1451 ~ 1510), the founder of the shibani Dynasty in Uzbek in Central Asia, is a famous military commander. Sha Yiqiu and Sha Yibo.
Mirza Ulug ` bek 1394-1449, the world famous astronomer
Zahriddin Muhammad Babur 1483-1530, born in today's Andijan City, Uzbekistan, is the founding monarch and poet of the Mughal empire that ruled the Indian subcontinent. His works include Babur's autobiography, which is the first king to write an autobiography for himself.
Alisher navoiy, born in Herat, Afghanistan, is the founder of Uzbek literature, scientist, philosopher, artist and political activist. His works include a large number of poetry and literary works such as Farhad and hilling.
XO ` Ja nasiriddin Afandi, a famous Russian writer of the former Soviet Union, Soloviev Leonid Vasili sorted out various stories about Avanti spread in Central Asia, West Asia, Xinjiang and the Middle East, arranged them in order, and compiled the biography of nasiriddin Avanti, According to the sequence of the story, the author of the book concludes that Afan was born in Bukhara, Uzbekistan.
Mahmoud mahmour (~ 1844) was a poet. Mahmoud mahmour is a poet with democratic ideological tendency.
Mokhmi (1850-1903) was a poet. Mukhmi inherited the creative tradition of the previous generation of Uzbek classical writers. His works deeply reflect the real society, dare to attack all dark forces, praise the working people, and have an obvious democratic tendency. Mukhmi erected a tall and majestic monument in the history of Uzbek poetry.
Zakerjiang khalmohammed falkat (1858-1909), a native of Hohan city and poet, settled in Shache, Xinjiang in 1896. Falkat inherited the excellent tradition of Uzbek classical poetry.
Zainafu stik (1930 ~), female, native to margulan City, Uzbekistan, is now Kashgar, Xinjiang
What people, famous dancers. He graduated from Kashgar normal school in 1947 and was admitted as a dancer of Xinjiang song and dance troupe in 1949. He studied at the provincial cultural cadre school from 1950 to 1952. He is now vice chairman of Xinjiang branch of China Dancers Association and vice chairman of Xinjiang Uzbek literature society. In the national dance performance held in Beijing in 1953, the Uyghur folk dance Da drum won the first prize. In 1956, as a member of the Xinjiang cultural delegation, he performed in five countries in Central Asia, including Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan. His Dances "Da drum", "plate dance" and "Xiang Bowl Dance" were well received by the audience. She has created more than 20 dances, including spring dance, cotton, Ili sainaimu, Tarim girl, headscarf dance, under the grape trellis, and two sisters in the textile factory. She uses beautiful dance movements to show the people of all ethnic groups' love for the motherland, their longing for the future, and praise a beautiful and happy life.
Taleti Nasr (1940 ~) is the current president of Xinjiang Uzbek Cultural Research Association. He was born in Ili, Xinjiang in 1940 and transferred from the army in 1993. He was once a resident writer of Xinjiang Writers Association. He is a member of the Chinese Writers Association. Terati Nasr is also a lyricist and composer. The songs with strong Uzbek national characteristics filled in and composed by him include "look at her", "flowering", "red apple", "singing", "can you say no", "bosom friend", etc. the melody of the music even floats out of the national border and has a great influence in Uzbekistan in Central Asia.
Karimov: current president of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
Irmatov: (Ravshan ermatov) world famous football referee. He won the title of best referee in Asia five times in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2014. He is also the referee with the most law enforcement times in the history of the world cup.
Shamil Shakir, born in Qitai County, Xinjiang, is a national first-class actor and head of the cultural troupe of the Xinjiang Military Region.
Ershod Malik is currently the director and researcher of Urumqi cashmere goat Research Institute. He serves as part-time and visiting professors of Xinjiang Agricultural University and Xinjiang University respectively. He is an excellent expert with outstanding contributions in the autonomous region, a national advanced worker, an outstanding contribution award for western development and an advanced individual winner of the national spark project. He enjoys the special allowance of the State Council.
Shukir yalqini is an outstanding representative of modern and contemporary Uzbek literature in Xinjiang, playwright, poet and writer, and the founder of Uzbek drama art in the new era.
Alisher usmonov, the top 33 richest man in the world, has joined Russian nationality. He is the richest man in Russia, a steel tycoon and the second owner of Arsenal Football Club in the UK.
Abdulla qodiriy, a writer, (1894.04.10 – 1938.10.04), is one of the founders of modern Uzbek literature
Rustam qosimjonov won the world chess championship in 2014
Salizhan Sharipov, an Uzbek astronaut, was born in Kyrgyzstan and now has Russian nationality
Release Time:2021-10-05 23:32:27
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