Nu nationality is one of the ethnic groups with small population and more languages in China. Lushui (formerly Bijiang county), Fugong, Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County, Lanping Bai Pumi Autonomous County in Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province, Weixi County in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Chayu County in Tibet Autonomous Region, etc.
Nu people call themselves "Nu Su" (Lushui), "a Nu" (Fugong), "a long" (Gongshan) and "Ruo Rou" (Lanping), and they think they are ancient residents on both sides of Nu River and Lancang River. They may come from two sources: the Nu people in Lushui county (formerly Bijiang county) call themselves "Nu Su", while the Nu people in Fugong and Gongshan counties call themselves "a long" or "long". As a result of long-term contacts, these two groups of people gradually approached each other in the Nujiang region, influenced and integrated with each other, and gradually developed and formed today's "Nu nationality", but they still retained some of their own characteristics.
Nu people use Nu language, which belongs to Tibeto Burman language family of Sino Tibetan language family.
According to many Neolithic relics and related legends collected in the Nu nationality area, the Nu nationality may have been in the late Neolithic stage before the 16th century. At that time, besides stone hoes, wooden hoes and bamboo hoes were also used. 16. In the 17th century, in addition to the agricultural production using stone hoes as tools, gathering and hunting also accounted for a large proportion. The unofficial history of Nanzhao written by Hu Wei of Qing Dynasty states: "angry people live in Yongchang (today's Baoshan) inside and outside the Nujiang River Shoot or collect Coptis for a living. " At that time, they were still in the stage of patriarchal family commune. The land was mainly owned by the family commune and cultivated by its members. Since the 8th century, Nu nationality areas have been under the jurisdiction of Nanzhao and Dali in Yunnan. After yuan and Ming Dynasty, it was ruled by the chieftain of the Naxi nationality in Lijiang. Since the 17th century, the Nu people in Nujiang have been under the jurisdiction of the Tuqian Lama Temple of chawalong Tibetan and the Luo chieftain of tu'e Bai nationality in Lanping, in addition to the president of Weixi Kangpu Tuqian and Yezhi Tuqian under the jurisdiction of the Mu's Tuzhi Prefecture in Lijiang. In addition, the Lisu leaders who moved to Nujiang area also began to seize the land of Nu people, and even plundered the population as slaves. In this way, the Nu people not only paid tribute to the Naxi, Tibetan and Bai chieftains and Lama temples, but also were oppressed and exploited by the Lisu rulers. At the same time, the Nu society is also constantly divided, and there are also family slavery. Some slave farmers from the Dulong area through loans in exchange for slaves, and then sold to other areas. This kind of slavery continued until the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. after the middle of the 18th century, the social productive forces developed. It is recorded in Weixi Jianwen Ji written by Yu Qingyuan of Qing Dynasty that the Nu people "cover bamboo for houses, weave bamboo for walls, produce millet and wheat in grain, produce Dioscorea and Taro in vegetables, and hunt animals for food." "The human spirit is the bamboo ware, weaving the red hemp cloth." There are all kinds of crops in agriculture, and handicraft industry has developed considerably. After the revolution of 1911, in 1912, the government of the Republic of China set up three "border settlement offices" in Nujiang region, namely, changbutong (Gongshan), shangpa (Fugong) and zhiziluo (Bijiang), which were later changed into the office of the Executive Committee. From 1928 to 1933, the government of the Republic of China changed the three government offices into governing bureaus, strengthened the rule of Nujiang area step by step, and imposed various exorbitant taxes on the people. From 1942 to 1944, Japanese invaders invaded Lushui County, burning, killing and looting. Many Nu people took part in the "Fu Bi Lu Lian guerrilla self defense forces" (i.e. Fugong, Bijiang, Lushui and the training area of Baoshan at that time), went to the front line, fought bloody battles, and strongly supported the overall victory of the battlefield in Northwest Yunnan. In the spring of 1950, the whole Nujiang River was peacefully liberated, and the history of the Nu people opened a new page. Over the past 50 years since the founding of new China, especially since the implementation of the strategy of reform and opening up and the national western development, with the care, support and help of the party and the government and the hard struggle of the Nu people, all aspects of the Nu region have made great progress, achieved earth shaking historic leap, and greatly improved people's living standards. The protection of the right to self-government has been strengthened. After the liberation of Nujiang, the people's political power was established in Lushui, Bijiang, Fugong and Gongshan, which guaranteed the equal political status of the people of all ethnic groups. The party and the people's government distributed grain rations, seeds, production tools and daily necessities to the Nu nationality free of charge, which initially solved the difficulties of the masses and promoted the development of production. In August 1954, Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Region was established, including Bijiang, Fugong, Gongshan, and Lushui counties. In January 1957, it was changed into an autonomous prefecture, and Lanping county was included. On October 1, 1956, Gongshan Dulong and Nu Autonomous County was established, enabling the Nu people to participate in various political activities more widely. In 1989, Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture promulgated the autonomous regulations of Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province. In 1991, Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County formulated and implemented the autonomous regulations of Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County. The right of Nu people to be masters of their own affairs has been guaranteed by law.
There are 37523 Nu people in China (in 2010), mainly distributed in Lushui (formerly Bijiang county), Fugong, Gongshan Dulong, Lanping, Weixi and Chayu counties in Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, as well as Lisu, Dulong, Tibetan, Bai, Han and Naxi nationalities They live together. Nu nationality is also a transnational nationality. It also lives in the Gaoligong Mountain Area in the northern part of Kachin state and the upper reaches of the nmikai River in neighboring Myanmar, with an estimated population of more than 30000.
Before the founding of the people's Republic of China, the social and economic development of Nu nationality was unbalanced. The Nu people living in tu'e commune of Lanping County and a few scattered in Weixi County had similar production and living standards with Han, Bai and Naxi people, and had already entered the feudal society. The social development of Nu nationality in Lushui, Fugong and Gongshan is relatively slow. Although private ownership has been established and class differentiation has begun, land ownership is not concentrated and remains of the original commune system. the Nu people in Nujiang area are mainly engaged in agricultural production, and the level of social productivity is still very low. During the founding of the people's Republic of China, the main production tools of the Nu nationality were machetes, small iron hoes (i.e. the hoe was wrapped with small iron sheet on the tip of the wooden HOE), small iron plows, etc. Most of them were given to Han and Bai merchants in Lanping, Yunlong and Weixi counties. Bamboo and wood tools are still widely used. At present, in the Nujiang River Basin, the production tools used by the Nu people have been greatly improved, and the types have increased, especially the iron plow has been popularized. However, restricted by the type of cultivated land, the traditional farm tools are still widely used. Crops are corn, buckwheat, barley, highland barley, potatoes, sweet potatoes and beans. There are four types of cultivated land: volcanic land, hoeing land, cattle ploughing land and paddy field. Volcanic land is cultivated by slash and burn, and hoe land is cultivated by hoe, which are not fixed cultivated land; cattle plough and paddy field are fixed cultivated land, which were reclaimed by Han and Bai people after they entered Nujiang River in 1920s and 1930s. The average volcanic land and hoe land of Nu people on both sides of Nujiang River account for more than 50% of the total cultivated land, indicating that the majority of the cultivated land is not fixed. Agricultural technology is relatively extensive. Generally, there is little tillage and weeding, no fertilization, and harvest after sowing, so the yield is low. The corn yield is about 150 Jin per mu, and the average grain ration per person is less than 200 Jin per year. When there is a lack of food, hunting and gathering have to be taken as supplementary departments of production. Nearly every young man has a crossbow made by Nu nationality. The arrow is coated with poison. It is the main weapon for hunting and fighting. the social division of labor of Nu nationality in Nujiang is not obvious, and handicraft industry and Commerce have not been separated from agriculture. Home handicraft industry includes linen weaving, bamboo weaving, wood making, iron making, wine making, etc. Linen is a woman's job. It is mainly for her own use. Only when there is surplus can she get it on the market and barter for it. It is the main manual labor for men to make bamboo strips. Wooden bowls and spoons for household use are also made by men. The Nu minority in Lushui will repair and make simple tools such as iron knives and hoes, which will be carried out in the slack season. Nu people can make wine and drink a lot. It turned out that in the sale of land, slaves and debts, cattle and iron pots were mostly used as currency equivalents for calculation. After 1929, zhiziluo in Lushui, shangpa in Fugong and other places were set up as regular fairs, and silver, copper, and paper money began to circulate. There are also some seasonal hawkers in Nu nationality. before the founding of new China, the land ownership of Nu nationality in Nujiang had the transition form of primitive commune public ownership, individual family private ownership and joint farming system. Lushui and Fugong, the older villages inhabited by Nu people on the West Bank of Nujiang River, retain more remnants of primitive commune system, and there are also remnants of paternal family communes with blood ties. For example, there are 10 family communes in the ninth administrative village of bijiangyuan, which live in 10 natural villages. Each commune has public land, mainly in Alpine mountainous areas and uncultivated wasteland. Members of the commune can freely reclaim and use it, but can't buy or sell it. As for the reclaimed land, private land accounts for three-quarters of the total cultivated land, while public land accounts for only one-quarter. Private ownership of land has been dominant, but co ownership and co farming are still very popular. In history, the migration caused by ethnic conflicts played a certain role in the transition of Nu nationality from family commune to rural commune. The ancient family commune moved into other members, destroyed the blood relationship of the family commune, and gradually developed into a geographical village community. In Gongshan District 1 and the East Bank of Nujiang River in Fugong and Lushui, due to the cross living of different nationalities, the general villages include not only members of different families, but also members of different nationalities. The rural commune with geographical ties has been formed here. These villages also have the duality of land ownership
Chinese PinYin : Nu Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:25:16
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