Nu is one of the ethnic groups with a small population and a large number of languages in China. Lushui (formerly Bijiang county) of Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture, Fugong, Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County, Lanping Bai Pumi Autonomous County, Weixi County of Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Chayu County of Tibet Autonomous Region, etc.
The Nu people call themselves "Nu Su" (Lushui), "a Nu" (Fugong), "a long" (Gongshan) and "Ruo" (Lanping). They think they are ancient residents on both sides of the Nu and Lancang rivers. They may have two sources: the Nu people in Lushui county (formerly Bijiang county) call themselves "Nu Su", while the Nu people in Fugong and Gongshan counties call themselves "a long" or "long". Due to long-term contacts, these two people gradually approach, influence and integrate with each other in Nujiang area, and gradually develop and form today's "Nu nationality", but they still retain some of their own characteristics.
Nu people use Nu language, which belongs to the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family.
Nu nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||Nu nationality|
|distribution||Yunnan, Tibet, Myanmar, China|
|Nickname||Nu Su, Nu, long|
|language||Chinese, Lisu, nu|
|religious belief||Inherent religion, Buddhism, Catholicism, Protestantism|
Chinese PinYin : Nu Zu
According to many Neolithic relics and related legends collected in the Nu nationality area, the Nu nationality may still be in the late Neolithic stage before the 16th century. At that time, in addition to stone hoes, wood hoes and bamboo hoes were also used. 16. In the 17th century, in addition to agricultural production using stone hoes as tools, collection and hunting accounted for a large proportion. According to the unofficial history of Nanzhao written by Hu Wei of the Qing Dynasty, "the angry man lived in Yongchang (now Baoshan) inside and outside the Nujiang River,... Shooting or collecting Coptis for a living." at that time, they were still in the stage of paternal family commune, and the land was mainly owned by the family commune and cultivated by members.
Since the 8th century, the Nu area has been under the jurisdiction of Nanzhao and Dali regimes in Yunnan. After the yuan and Ming Dynasties, it was ruled by the Mu chieftain of the Naxi nationality in Lijiang. Since the 17th century, the Nu people in Nujiang were not only under the jurisdiction of President Weixi Kangpu Tuqian and Yezhi Tuqian, which belong to Lijiang Mu's Tuzhi Prefecture, but also under the jurisdiction of chawalong Tibetan Tuqian Lama Temple and Lanping Tue Bai chieftain Luo. In addition, the Lisu leaders who moved into Nujiang area also began to forcibly occupy the Nu land and even plunder the population as slaves. In this way, the Nu people should not only pay tribute to the Tusi and Lama temples of Naxi, Tibetan and Bai nationalities, but also be oppressed and exploited by the Lisu rulers. At the same time, the Nu society is also constantly divided, and there are family slaves in the Nu family. Some slave owners exchanged debts for slaves from Dulong areas, and then resold them to other areas. This slave storage phenomenon continued until the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China.
After the middle of the 18th century, the social productive forces have developed compared with before. According to the records of Weixi's stories by Yu Qingyuan of the Qing Dynasty, the Nu people "cover bamboo as a house, weave bamboo as a wall, produce millet, wheat, vegetables, dioscorea and taro, and hunt birds and animals for food." "human essence is a bamboo tool and weave red linen." agriculture has all kinds of crops, and handicraft industry has also developed quite well.
After the revolution of 1911, the government of the Republic of China successively established three "frontier offices" in Nujiang area in 1912, such as changputong (Gongshan), shangpa (Fugong) and zhiziluo (Bijiang), which were later changed to the office of the Executive Committee. From 1928 to 1933, the government of the Republic of China changed the three offices into governance bureaus, gradually strengthened its rule over the Nujiang area, and imposed all kinds of exorbitant taxes and miscellaneous taxes on the people.
From 1942 to 1944, the Japanese invading army invaded Lushui County, burning, killing and looting. Many Nu people took part in the "Fubi Lulian guerrilla self defense force" (i.e. Fugong, Bijiang, Lushui and the training land belonging to Baoshan at that time) and went to the front line to fight in blood, which effectively supported the overall victory of the battlefield in Northwest Yunnan.
In the spring of 1950, the whole territory of Nujiang was peacefully liberated, and a new page was opened in the history of the Nu people. Over the past 50 years since the founding of new China, especially since the implementation of the reform and opening up and the national western development strategy, with the care, support and help of the party and the government and the hard work of the Nu people, the Nu region has made great progress in all aspects, achieved an earth shaking historic leap, and greatly improved the people's living standards.
The protection of the right to autonomy has been continuously strengthened. After the liberation of Nujiang, people's political power was established in Lushui, Bijiang, Fugong and Gongshan respectively, which first ensured the political equality of the people of all ethnic groups. The party and the people's government distributed rations, seeds, production tools and daily necessities to the Nu nationality free of charge, which initially solved the difficulties of the masses and promoted the development of production. Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Region was established in August 1954, including Bijiang, Fugong, Gongshan and Lushui counties. It was changed into an Autonomous Prefecture in January 1957 and Lanping county was included. On October 1, 1956, Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County was established, enabling the Nu people to participate more widely in various political activities. In 1989, Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture promulgated the regulations on the autonomy of Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province. In 1991, Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County formulated and implemented the regulations on the autonomy of Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County. The Nu people's right to be the masters of their own family has been guaranteed by law.
There are 37523 Nu people in China (2010). They are mainly distributed in Lushui (formerly Bijiang county) of Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture, Fugong, Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County, Lanping Bai Pumi Autonomous County, Weixi County of Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Chayu County of Tibet Autonomous Region Naxi and other ethnic groups live together. Nu is also a transnational ethnic group. Nu also lives in the Gaoligong Mountain Area in the north of Kachin state and the upper reaches of the enmekai River in neighboring Myanmar, with an estimated number of more than 30000.
Before the founding of the people's Republic of China, the socio-economic development of the Nu nationality was unbalanced. Distributed in tu'e commune in Lanping and a few Nu people scattered in Weixi County, their production and living standards are similar to those of Han, Bai, Naxi and other nationalities, and have long entered the feudal society. The social development of the Nu nationality in Lushui, Fugong and Gongshan is relatively slow. Although private ownership has been established and began to have class differentiation, the land occupation is not concentrated, and the remnants of the original commune system are still retained.
The Nu nationality in Nujiang area is mainly engaged in agricultural production, and the level of social productivity is still very low. During the founding of new China, the main production tools of the Nu nationality were machetes, small iron hoes (i.e. anger hoes, wrapped with small iron sheets on the tip of wood HOEs), small iron plows, etc. The quantity is small and the quality is poor. Most of them rely on Han and Bai businessmen in Lanping, Yunlong, Weixi and other counties. Bamboo and wood tools are still widely used. At present, in the Nujiang River Basin, the production tools used by the Nu people have been greatly improved, and the types have increased, especially the iron plow has been popularized. However, restricted by the type of cultivated land, traditional agricultural tools are still widely used. Crops include corn, buckwheat, barley, highland barley, potatoes, sweet potatoes and beans. Cultivated land is divided into "volcanic land", hoeing and digging land, cattle ploughing land and paddy field. Volcanic land is cultivated by slash and burn, hoe and hoe. They are all unstable cultivated land; Cattle ploughing and paddy fields are fixed cultivated land, which were reclaimed only after the Han and Bai nationalities entered the Nujiang River since the 1920s and 1930s. The average volcanic land and hoeing land of the Nu nationality on both sides of the Nujiang River account for more than 50% of the total cultivated land, indicating that the non fixed cultivated land accounts for the majority. Agricultural technology is relatively extensive. Generally, there is little intercropping and weeding, no fertilization, and harvest immediately after sowing, so the yield is low. The yield of corn is about 150 kg per mu, and the average grain ration per person is less than 200 kg per year. In case of food shortage, hunting and gathering have to be used as supplementary departments for production. Almost every young man has a crossbow made by the Nu nationality. The arrow is coated with poison. It is the main weapon for hunting and fighting.
The social division of labor of Nu nationality in Nujiang is not obvious, and handicraft industry and Commerce have not been separated from agriculture. Household handicrafts include linen weaving, bamboo weaving, wood making, iron making, wine making, etc. Linen weaving is women's work, which is mainly for their own use. Only when there is surplus can it be brought to the market for barter. Weaving bamboo strips is the main manual labor of men. Domestic wooden bowls and spoons are also made by men. The Nu minority in Lushui will repair and make simple tools such as iron knives and hoes in the slack season. The Nu people can make wine and drink a lot. It turned out that in the sale of land, slaves and debts, scalpers and iron pots were mostly used as monetary equivalents for calculation. After 1929, zhiziluo in Lushui and shangpa in Fugong were established as regular fairs, and half open silver, copper and paper money began to circulate. Some seasonal vendors also appeared in the Nu nationality.
Before the founding of new China, the land ownership of the Nu nationality in Nujiang had not only the public ownership of the original commune, but also the private ownership of the individual family, as well as the transitional form of joint farming. Lushui and Fugong, in the older villages inhabited by the Nu nationality on the West Bank of the Nu River, retain more remnants of the original commune system, and there are still remnants of the paternal family commune linked by blood. For example, there are 10 family communes in Bijiang's original ninth administrative village, which are divided into 10 natural villages. Each commune has public land, mainly Alpine mountainous areas and uncultivated wasteland. Members of the commune can reclaim and use freely, but can't buy or sell. As for the reclaimed land, private land already accounts for three-quarters of the total cultivated land and public land only accounts for one-quarter. Private ownership of land has dominated, but co farming is still very popular. Historically, the migration caused by ethnic contradictions played a certain role in the transition of Nu nationality from family commune to rural commune. The ancient family commune moved into other members, destroyed the blood relationship of the family commune, and gradually developed into a geographical village community.
In Gongshan District 1 and the East Bank of Nujiang River in Fugong and Lushui, due to the cross living among ethnic groups, general villages include not only members of different families, but also ethnic groups. A rural commune linked by geography has been formed here. These villages still have the duality of land ownership, both private ownership and public mountain forests and uncultivated land, although this public land only occupies a very unimportant position. According to the survey in seven townships and villages in 1953, including zhiziluo, Pule and laomudeng in Lushui County, lumadeng, golia in Fugong County and Bingzhongluo and houmang in Gongshan County, there are 469 Nu families and 2069 people, with a total cultivated land area of 7568 mu. Here, not only the private ownership of land has been established, but also with the development of landlord economic factors, the relationship between land sale, pawn and tenancy is increasing day by day, and there has been a gradual concentration in land occupation. In line with this, the social class has also been divided. Among the 469 households, 16 rich households have been divided, accounting for 3.4% of the total farmers, 37% of the medium-sized households and 59.6% of the poor households. The rich households, accounting for 3.4% of the total farmers, occupy 13% of the total land area, which is five times that of the poor households, indicating that the land has begun to concentrate on the rich households.
In some areas, wealthy farmers also use the original form of mutual assistance "WABI" (Lisu, meaning "collect workers together") to engage in disguised employment exploitation, as well as direct employment of long-term or short-term workers and exploitation through usury. In some areas, there are remnants of slavery in the form of "adopted children".
After the founding of the people's Republic of China, agricultural production has made great progress. Now the Nu nationality, with the help of other brother nationalities, has developed its productivity and continuously improved its production technology. The Nu nationality has its own agricultural scientists. They have cultivated new varieties according to the situation of the Nu River, and seize the opportunity to hold training courses on new rural science and technology and agricultural characteristic industries, such as rice planting training courses and film cultivation technology training courses. The awareness of scientific farming has taken root in some Nu people, and more and more crops are planted. With the help of the government, the original animal and plant varieties in Nujiang were successfully introduced, which enriched the living materials of the Nu people. In particular, cash crops such as tung oil have now become an indispensable part of Nujiang's economic growth. In the past, there was no water conservancy on the hillside and dry land, but now ditches have been built and paddy fields have been opened. The sown area of grain has increased significantly, and grain production has doubled.
The traditional economic structure of Nu area has changed significantly and began to develop in the direction of diversification and industrialization. Industry, handicrafts and Commerce have been separated from agriculture. In the past, the Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County, which was "unarmed" and could not even make an iron nail, built an agricultural tool factory; The whole Nujiang autonomous prefecture has dozens of industrial and mining enterprises in more than a dozen industries and its own entrepreneurs. Industry has developed from simple manual operation to national industrial systems such as mining, metallurgy, forest industry, energy, machinery, beverage, agricultural machinery manufacturing and non-staple food processing. In addition, the tertiary industry has also developed greatly.
The Nu nationality has its own language, which belongs to the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. Due to the long-term relationship with Lisu People, Nu people are generally familiar with Lisu language. Without their own words, they used Chinese after liberation. The Nu nationality has its own language, which belongs to the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. Due to the long-term relationship with Lisu People, Nu people are generally familiar with Lisu language. Without their own words, they used Chinese after liberation.
Most of the Nu men's and women's clothes are made of linen. Women usually wear linen robes with open necks, wide breasts and ankle length. A piece of red border cloth is decorated at the interface between the front and back of the clothes. Young girls like to add an apron on the outside of the linen robe and embroider all kinds of lace on the edge of their clothes. Men usually wear a linen robe with an open placket, wide chest and knee length. A cloth belt or rope is tied around the waist, and the front placket above the waist is retracted upward to facilitate loading. Both men and women of the Nu nationality pay attention to decoration. Women wear beautiful headwear and chest ornaments with coral, agate, material beads, shells and silver coins on their heads and chest. Wear coral earrings on your ears and like to wrap your head with green cloth or flower scarf. Men have long hair, wrapped their heads in blue cloth and leggings in linen. They like to wear machetes on their waist and crossbows and arrow bags on their shoulders.
The Nu people mainly believe in primitive religion and believe that all things have spirits. They worship wind, rain, sun, moon, stars, stars, mountains, forests, trees and stones. The Nu people naturally worship ghosts and gods. There are more than 30 kinds of ghost spirits in Fugong area, such as clan ghost spirit, natural ghost spirit, disaster ghost spirit and so on; There are more than ten kinds of ghosts believed by the Nu people in Gongshan, such as Mountain Ghost, water ghost and road ghost, while there are more than ten kinds of gods, such as mountain god, tree god, hunting God, water god and Crop God. The sacrificial ceremony of nature worship of the Nu nationality is mainly completed by the priests or wizards called "NIMA" or "NIMA recognition". They are very knowledgeable people in the Nu society.
Due to the influence of the red Lama Temple, many Nu people in the north of Gongshan, which is adjacent to Tibetans, believe in Lamaism. In the late 19th century, after imperialism introduced Catholicism and Christianity to Nujiang area, some also converted to Catholicism and Christianity.
Folk stories and folk songs are the most popular among the people. Stories such as dragon girls, orphans, Hercules, eliminating demons and punishing evil, love and animals not only have vivid plots and integrate ethics, speculation and interest, but also reproduce the heroic deeds of the Nu people in the past dynasties in their struggle against the evil forces of nature and society, It praises the wisdom, good morality and ideal sentiment of the ancestors living in Nujiang River.
The Nu nationality has formed a monogamous individual family dominated by parents a long time ago, but at the same time, the primitive clans, families and village communes are still preserved to varying degrees. In some areas, such as the original ninth administrative village of Bijiang, Pule Township and laomu Deng Township, clan organizations and totem worship are still significantly preserved, and clan blood ties also play a role in maintaining the common interests of the whole clan; The Nu people in mugujia, Guquan and other villages in Fugong obviously preserve the patriarchal family organization. A village is basically composed of a patriarchal family; Some villages, such as zhiziluo, laomudeng, Pule and Guoke, are composed of several different clans and families, thus forming many village communes.
In Nujiang Nu village, whether the family commune linked by blood or the rural commune linked by geography, the individual family has constituted the social economic unit. For example, there are 10 family communes in Bijiang nine village, and each commune includes 10 to 20 individual families. The commune has a family president, known as "Asha", which was also used by the later village president. Asha is not formally elected. He is generally held by senior, authoritative and respected elders. His duty is to deal with public affairs inside and outside the commune and mediate disputes among members. Asha usually acts as a wizard in the commune and presides over religious sacrifices.
The clan above the family only exists in name in the Nu society, and there are only some residual phenomena. Bijiang Nu language calls the clan "Qi", Fugong Nu language calls the clan "solidarity", and Gongshan Nu language calls the clan "Le", that is, the descendants of the same ancestor can be called a clan. The clan keeps some totem names, and each clan has different legends about their clan totem. The four families in the original ninth administrative village of Bijiang belong to two clans. One bee clan is called "Dou Huo" and the other tiger clan is called "Da Huo". The two clans have a close relationship in history, and there are still common sacrificial rites. The clan implements the father son joint name system, which is in the same form as the father son joint name system of today's Liangshan and Xiaoliangshan Yi people and Hani people in Yuanyang County. The douhuo clan can be traced back to the names of its ancestors of 41 generations, with a history of about 1000 years. However, the Nu nationality in Gongshan and Fugong counties do not have clan totem and father son name system, and there are some differences with Bijiang Nu nationality in social organization and living customs.
Each family commune or village community is basically an independent unit, which does not belong to each other and runs its own affairs. The family commune is called "Gu" in Bijiang Nu language and "tikang" in Fugong Nu language, which is a community formed by the descendants of the same paternal ancestor. For example, under the two clans of "douhuo" and "Daho" in Bijiang ninth administrative village, it is divided into four paternal families, such as "OPI Valley", "OHA Valley", "OZE Valley" and "Yigu Valley"; Under the "funaqing" clan of Nu nationality in mugujia Township, Fugong, it is divided into five "tikang" such as "sub state", "Gu Naibi", "xia'e", "rateng" and "xizili". Village commune Bijiang Nu language called it "pit", Gongshan Nu language called it "keen". As a social and economic organization, village commune has the following characteristics: each village community takes mountains and valleys as its boundaries. Each village community generally consists of more than two members of different clans and families. Other members must obtain the consent of the head of the village community to move into the village community. The members of the village community cooperate with each other by jointly occupying cultivated land, The joint undertaking of such economic and political obligations is closely linked; Members of the village community enjoy the right to freely reclaim common wasteland, hunt wild animals and collect wild vegetables. They have common festivals and customary law norms to sacrifice common mountain spirits and tree gods. Politically, they form a temporary "village community meeting" composed of clan and family leaders to jointly elect a leader as the head of the village community.
In history, there have been clans or village alliances. In case of personal injury or major hostile acts, the injured party can send a woodcut to the other party in the form of "blood revenge" to inform the other party to hold a mechanical fight. Members of the same clan, family and even village with blood kinship are obliged to participate in the mechanical fight. At this time, in case of the action of the whole clan and family, several clans or families with blood Friendship often form a temporary military alliance to jointly resist the enemy. For example, from 1880 to 1900, the three villages of mugujia, Guquan and Muling in Fugong united and had four major armed fights with Lisu nationality, but the alliance disintegrated afterwards, indicating that there has been no permanent organization on the family and village community.
Before 1912, in addition to the clan and village community leader "Asha", there were also partners appointed by Weixi CommScope and Yezhi chieftain (Naxi). Most of these partners were the leaders of the original clan and village community. In 1908, in order to eliminate the influence of the chieftain, Xia Hu, a clean official, re appointed a group of Nu and Lisu leaders as "Nu Guan" or gang leaders, but the "Nu Guan" and gang leaders still did not belong to each other, and they were still independent small groups with the village community as the unit. In 1912, after the colonization team of Yunnan local government settled in Nujiang River, the office of the Executive Committee was established, and the Baojia system was gradually implemented from 1914. The original anger management and partners were appointed as the heads of townships, Baojia and Jiajia. The original scattered "anger management" and partners were gradually unified under the Baojia system.
After the introduction of Christianity, some clans and village leaders who believed in Christianity became "Ma pa" (missionary) or "Mi Zhi pa" of the church, which formed a leader system integrating politics and religion.
The Nu people like drinking and are good at making wine. The wine of the Nu nationality mainly includes "gudu wine", "Turbid wine" and sorghum wine. "Gudu wine" is brewed with "gudu rice" (made of corn flour and buckwheat flour, like New Year cake). The method is to cool the gudu rice, mix it with distiller's yeast, put it into the bamboo basket and cover it. After a few days, it will smell like wine, or exude liquor, that is, it will be refitted in the jar and sealed for more than ten days. When eating, first filter it with hedgerow, then mix it with a little boiled water or cold boiled water, add a little honey or sweetener, and brew it a little, then you can drink it. This wine is sweet and mellow. It is the top grade of Nu wine. It can not only quench thirst, but also nourish and keep fit.
Nujiang Grand Canyon and Biluo snow mountain and Gaoligong Mountain on both sides are covered with mountains, dangerous rocks and steep cliffs. The water in the valley is turbulent and surging. Since ancient times, the traffic here has been very inconvenient. It is the so-called "rock sheep have no way to go, and monkeys worry". There are only a few ferries with slow water potential in the Nujiang River that can be ferried by wooden boats. In addition, there are no bridges or crossings in other places. The Nu people on both sides of the Strait can only rely on the ancient tool of crossing the river to fly back and forth and maintain exchanges and contacts with each other;
Skating rope is an indispensable and important transportation facility for the Nu people. The production method of the sliding rope is to twist a bamboo strip into a large rope with the thickness of the wrist, and then pull it horizontally on the river and fix it on the big trees, wooden piles or stone cliffs on both banks. People use the slide board (slide Bang) as an auxiliary tool to slide through the air along the bamboo rope. The chute is a trough hardwood with a length of seven or eight inches and a width of about four inches. Two symmetrical long holes are chiseled on the back to tie the rope. When in use, the groove of the slide board is clamped on the slide rope, the hemp rope or leather strip passes through the long hole and is fastened to the waist, and then the slide board can be slid down by holding it in a supine position.
Singing and intonation is also the most popular civil society activity in the life of the Nu people. It is not only the natural expression of the aspirations of the Nu people, but also the direct reproduction of their thoughts and feelings. During festivals, farming, hunting, building houses, celebrating harvests and holding weddings, we should sing songs and exchange tunes to express and enjoy ourselves. Among them, the most influential and representative works are sitting and singing by the fire pond, sacrificial hunting tune, wedding song, ruodeng tune and sacrificial song.
The dance of the Nu nationality has formed different styles due to different living environments and different sources of ancestors; Due to historical, social, natural and religious reasons, the dance of the Nu nationality still retains more ancient cultural characteristics.
The Nu people in Fugong County have long lived together with the Lisu People who have entered the Nujiang River Basin in large numbers since the Ming Dynasty, and have also lived together with the Dai people in history. Therefore, the dance culture is similar to the Lisu and Dai people. Most of the dance forms and accompanying instruments are the same as the Lisu People, and the movement rhythm clearly shows the impression of the beat and bend of the Dai dance.
There are two main types of dances of the Nu nationality in Fugong. One is called "dabiya dance", which uses a plucked musical instrument shaped like a Pipa (called "dabiya" by the Nu nationality and "Qiben" by the Lisu nationality) as the dance instrument and accompaniment. Dabiya's playing position is changeable and his playing posture is rich. He can play high and low, play up and down, and bounce positive. The movement on the feet is regular, based on the flexion and extension vibration with toughness of the knee joint, and has the regular characteristics of re beat flexion. The rhythm is also relatively standardized, with dozens of sets of action combinations to show the customs and life contents of Nu nationality, such as hunting, agricultural production and reproductive worship. Because the Nu people have lived in high mountains and dense forests for generations, are close to all kinds of animals and are familiar with the living habits of all kinds of animals, they are in dabiya
There are a lot of dances imitating animals in the dance. Another kind of dance is called "Ga", which is not accompanied by musical instruments. There are occasional songs in individual dances, but most of them dance with stepping on the ground as the festival. When jumping GA, it is also based on the flexion, extension and vibration of the knee joint, but the action is stronger and the trampling is more powerful. Therefore, compared with dabiya dance, GA is more rough and simple in dance style. The content includes those who worship gods and exorcise ghosts, those who marry the bride, those who congratulate the wedding, and those who praise love. In the form of expression, dabiya dance and GA have many forms, such as single, double, collective and so on.
The Nu nationality in Gongshan County lives in the upper reaches of the Nu River, borders Tibet, and lives together with the Tibetans who migrated from north to Yunnan in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties. It is deeply influenced by Tibetan culture. They like to dance a dance called "kuluqiang". "Kulu" is the tune, and "Qiang" is dance. Kuxi Qiang is also called "Nuzu Guozhuang". Tibetan language often appears in the names and lyrics of songs and dances, and the singing also has the style of Tibetan folk songs. Kuxi Qiang usually dances during New Year celebrations, house building and wedding. When dancing, either men and women are in a circle, or men and women are in a row, hand in hand, arm in arm, or hand in hand on shoulder, singing and dancing, singing and dancing. Take the forward and backward stamping steps as the basic step. The content includes praise for hometown and praise for friendship. When young people jump, it is more mutual praise, expression of love, or teasing.
The song and dance activities of the Nu nationality are the most grand in the "Flower Festival". "Flower Festival", also known as "fairy Festival", is an ancient legacy of the Nu matriarchal clan's respect for women. The day when miss a Rong was injured was the 15th day of the third lunar month. On this day every year, flowers were in full bloom on the hillside next to the fairy cave. Nu men, women and children from three mountains and nine townships on both sides of the Nu River gathered on the hillside to pick flowers to worship the fairy. Here, people should enjoy singing and dancing for three days and three nights, and enjoy the beautiful dabiya dance, rough GA and unrestrained kuluqiang. Kuluqiang is the climax of every song and dance activity.
Most of the houses of the Nu nationality are dry fence bamboo buildings, wooden ridge houses, earth wall houses and stone roof houses. During the construction of the dry fence type bamboo building, commonly known as "landing with thousands of feet", dozens of columns are erected after drilling holes on the excavated foundation, with three supporting columns in the middle, and wooden boards or bamboo strips are laid on the wooden piles. All sides of the column are reinforced with bamboo strips. The ground floor of the first floor is used for keeping livestock; The second floor is covered with bamboo fences or long material boards; Then the top of the beam is paved with a bamboo fence or wood board for storing grain and other utensils. The roofs are covered with thatch or wood. Such buildings generally do not have windows. The whole house is rectangular, divided into a main room and a bedroom. A large stove is set in the middle of the main room, and an iron tripod or stone tripod is set on the fire pond, which is mainly used for cooking, heating and receiving guests. There are two kinds of wooden ridge houses. One is the floor type wooden ridge house, that is, a layer of wood or bamboo fence is paved on the wall after the wooden wall is erected with a round wood, and then a wooden fence is erected on the wooden fence, and the roof is covered with wood or thatch. The upper floor of this building type wooden ridge house is for living, and the lower floor is for storing stables. The other is a floor wooden ridge house, that is, a layer of wooden ridge house directly built on the excavated foundation. The stone roof house is a unique house with a kind of weathered rock broken into stone chips to cover the roof. The earth wall house is a house built with grass or wood after laying stone feet in a gentle place, pounding the earth wall around, lifting beams with the wall.
It is said that the Nu nationality used to spend one year every three years. Later, due to the influence of other nationalities, it was changed to once a year. The time can be divided into new year's day and before and after the Spring Festival. Years ago, we should be ready to burn firewood, kill pigs, cook wine, pound Baba and clean up. On the first night of the new year, we should invite the elderly to dinner. In the early morning of the first day of the new year, we should draw ancestral water and let the dog eat the first bowl of rice. Don't visit from the first day to the third day. During the Spring Festival, old people drink and sing by the fire pond, while young people shoot crossbows, wrestle, swing, play piano and dance.
Roururen's festivals include Spring Festival, Torch Festival, July 14, new rice Festival, Mountain Forest Festival, etc. Mountain forest sacrifice is usually held on the fourth and fifth day of the first month. This activity is limited to men and sacrifice for black sheep. In addition, roururen's new house is also very characteristic. When the four walls of the wooden house have not opened doors and windows, the owner wants to kill a chicken and ask the wizard to sacrifice the new house. Then he cuts a hole in one wall of the wooden house with an axe and installs it in the door. On that day, the villagers took the initiative to bring chicken, wine and meat to congratulate, drink, sing and dance all night.
The Nu people in Bijiang offer sacrifices to the grain God on the 29th of the twelfth lunar month and the rain god on the 30th.
From March 15 to 17 of the lunar calendar every year, when azaleas are in full bloom, Nu people will celebrate the festival for "fairies". This festival is also known as "Flower Festival", which is a traditional folk festival in Nu areas around Gongshan, Yunnan Province.
According to legend, a long time ago, the Nu family stronghold was dripping like oil, the countryside was desolate, and the people's life was miserable. At that time, a Rong, a beautiful, intelligent and powerful Nu girl, split the cliff with her arm and dug through a cave, which brought clear spring water to the Nu people and watered the dry land. From then on, the barren mountain became an oasis. The Nu people call a Rong "Fairy", and the flower festival is a folk activity held in memory of her.
On the 15th day of March of the lunar calendar every year, the Nu people choose one to three stalactite limestone caves as the Fairy Cave (or Jing cave) in the natural village, and all families go there to offer sacrifices. The people who went to sacrifice tied up a bunch of azaleas and brought Animal gifts and wine utensils; Each household also used three to five bags of corn to stand at the mouth of the cave, piled all kinds of washed grain into a round pile, put sacrifices on it, burned pine smoke, and the chief priests read greetings, beat drums and chanted scriptures, and everyone kowtowed and offered tribute. In front of and on both sides of the stage, there are lamas in dark red cassocks, chanting scriptures with magic instruments, and drummers who play suona and hanging drums. Pine branches, flowers, corn and colorful flags are inserted on the square incense burning platform on the left of the Lama. The pine branch means good luck and everlasting youth; Flowers are presented to the "Fairy"; Corn means abundant grain and more than every year.
In the melodious suona sound, drums and cymbals were played high, and the sacrificial activities reached a climax. Then the crowd began to move towards the fairy cave. Girls in costumes, holding freshly picked flowers and offering sacrifices, came to the "Fairy Cave" to get the "milk" of the "Fairy" to pray for the blessing of the fairy. According to folklore, the water dripping from the plutonium is the milk of the fairy a Rong.
After returning home, all families held banquets, drinking, singing and dancing entertainment. Young people also wore costumes and competed in archery on a wide field. At night, young men and women sing and dance around the campfire all night.
Now, after the fairy Festival, new content has been given. The government also allocated special funds to help and organize the Nu people to have a good holiday. At the same time, it will hold material exchange meetings, organize film evenings and literary and artistic performances, and carry out sports activities such as boating and archery competitions. Cadres and the masses of other nationalities also enthusiastically participated in and congratulated. In this way, today's "fairy Festival" of the Nu people has become a grand event of national unity and friendship, mutual exchange and learning.
The marriage of the Nu nationality is monogamy. NUS usually propose marriage only when they are over 20 years old. After paying attention to the girl of which family, the eloquent person will come to propose marriage. With the permission of the woman's parents and after agreeing on the bride price, they shall not go back. Generally, the bride price is mostly yellow cattle, with more than 2 and less than 1.
The date of marriage is optional, and the month and year are not taboo. The man prepares wine and meat, and the woman's parents invite relatives and friends to carry 100-200 glutinous rice cakes to send them off. The man's family should entertain the woman's relatives and friends for dinner. The wedding is usually one day and one night, back to the woman's parents' house. The man wants to kill a pig and bring a bottle of wine and many glutinous rice cakes to honor his parents. While at the woman's house, the groom will cut firewood, repair the house and do housework. A week later, the groom and the woman began to live together.
Nu marriage also has the custom of transferring houses and the custom of "asking for men".
Nu people are used to having two meals during the solar eclipse. Most of its staple food is corn. The eating method of corn has gradually developed from popcorn to stewing into gudu rice (similar to corn flour thick paste) and rice porridge to make Baogu Baba. Slate Baba is the most distinctive. When making, select a local unique stone tablet (about 1cm thick) to make it smooth and serve as a slate pot. After heating, it collapses into the batter and is cooked. The baked slate cake is soft and crisp, with a unique flavor. A few Nu people who believe in Lamaism also eat butter Zanba. Common vegetables include green vegetables, cabbage, radish, melon beans, pepper, etc. In May and June every year, we also need to collect wild vegetables in the mountains and forests. Often collected are bamboo shoots, wild lilies, various root tubers and ferns, as well as ginger, onion and pepper for seasoning. Plants mainly containing starch can be used as grain or made into powder to make Baba. Both fish and prey like to be roasted or stewed. It is not common for Nu people to eat dog meat. Children should also fast bear, tiger and jackal meat, chicken feet and chicken blood. Women don't eat heart and lung before the age of 40. He likes to eat lacquer oil. He often stews chicken and roast mutton in lacquer oil. He is good at making wine. The gundu wine of the Nu nationality in Gongshan is the most distinctive. When drinking, honey is mellow, sweet and appetizing. Both men and women can drink, and drink will sing, every drink will be drunk. Nuzu area does not produce sugar, but it has been a habit of replacing sugar with honey since ancient times. Nu tea drinking is a lacquer tea made by imitating Tibetan butter tea. Since yaks are not produced in Nu area and there is no butter, lacquer oil tea is made by extracting oil from lacquer seeds, and then adding tea, salt, walnut kernel and other raw materials, which are stirred and emulsified. It can often be used as a tonic for pregnant women or the weak.
At the end of the twelfth lunar month, every family should clean the courtyard, remove the remaining ash in the fire pond, decorate the facade with pine branches, and spread a layer of green pine hair (pine leaves) on the ground, cooking utensils, tableware and various utensils, symbolizing going to the old and welcoming the new. On New Year's Eve, families have a reunion dinner. In the early morning of the first day of the new year, the young man should go to the well to fetch auspicious water first, and greet the elders with New Year greetings. The elders should take out wine, oil tea, Mahua and so on. For the first meal to be cooked, the cow and dog should be given a portion of bread and broth. The cow does not eat meat. The owner should break off the cow's lips and pour it in. During the Chinese new year, when killing pigs and sheep, we should give gifts to each other and invite relatives and friends in the village to have a dinner together. There are plenty of wine and dishes and full of interest. In addition to the Chinese new year, there are also Flower Festival (March 15 of the lunar calendar), grain God Festival (December 29 of the lunar calendar) and Mountain Forest Festival. During the festival, in addition to the necessary wine, there are also some timely food. For example, on the grain God Festival, mix all the rice and chopped meat in a dustpan and eat them with your hands. Wedding banquet is the largest banquet among all etiquette. Before marriage, the groom should bring pork, rice and other things to his father-in-law's house to help cut firewood and farmland, and then the wedding banquet can be held. At the wedding banquet, not only the wine and meat should be abundant, but also the venue should be newly arranged. At that time, the bride and groom will drink wedding wine together, and then the girls will sprinkle flour on them to show good luck. The Nu people are hospitable. When guests visit, the whole village should offer the best game. As long as the guest enters the house, the housewife will cook delicious food for the guest as soon as possible, and send two stone Babas at the same time, with a fried egg or roast pork in the middle. Two pieces of cake symbolize husband and wife, with eggs or meat in the middle, symbolizing prosperous offspring. Finally, the host has to drink "Tongxin wine" with the guests.
A Hong: (the year of birth and death is unknown) it is said that he was born in Jiucun, District 1, Bijiang County, Yunnan Province. His birth year coincided with the era of Chi Chiwei, the 11th generation ancestor of the Nu nationality, that is, eight generations ago. At that time, it was said that a "white clothes" released people ruled the Nujiang region and the Nu people.
Masala masala: (the year of birth and death is unknown) the 36th generation ancestor of the Nu nationality in Bijiang, Yunnan.
Wow Xiangshui: (the year of birth and death is unknown) the ninth ancestor of muguli Nu nationality in Fugong County, Nujiang, Yunnan Province in the 17th century.
Deng BaCai: (1943 ~) from Fugong, Yunnan. The first generation of Nu cadres trained after the founding of the people's Republic of China.
Li Shaoen: (1959 ~) from Lanping County, Yunnan Province, graduated from the Department of politics of Yunnan University, majoring in philosophy. He has published dozens of works on philosophy and social sciences with a total of more than 500000 words.
Geng tirong: (1943 ~) folk orthopedic doctor.
Release Time:2021-10-27 17:41:02
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