Hui is a minority with a large population in China, with a total population of 10586087 (2010, excluding Taiwan Province), which is distributed in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government. Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region is its main inhabited area. The whole region has a Hui population of 1862500, accounting for 18.9% of the total Hui population in China. In addition, areas with a Hui population of more than 200000 include Beijing, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Anhui, Shandong, Henan, Yunnan, Gansu and Xinjiang.
The origin of the Hui nationality can be traced back to the Tang Dynasty. Academia generally believes that the Hui nationality was roughly formed in the Ming Dynasty, while the Yuan Dynasty is the preparation period for the formation of the Hui nationality, and the Ming Dynasty is the final formation period of the Hui nationality. The Hui people in various places also participated in the struggle against imperialist aggression in different forms. The May 4th Movement and the establishment of the Communist Party of China pointed out the direction for the complete liberation of the Hui people.
In terms of politics, economy and culture, the Hui nationality has emerged many outstanding figures in history and made positive contributions to the people's life, production and construction at that time.
Hui nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||Hui nationality|
|alias||Hui people, Hui, Hui nationality|
|population size||10586087 (2010)|
|distribution||Large dispersion and small concentration are distributed throughout the country|
|languages||Common Chinese, or the language of local minorities|
Chinese PinYin : Hui Zu
The Hui nationality is the abbreviation of the Hui nationality. The "Hui Hui" was first called by him, and later evolved into a self proclaimed. The word "Huihui" was first seen in Mengxi Bitan written by Shen Kuo of the Northern Song Dynasty. It refers to the "Huihe" people ("Uighurs") in Anxi (now southern Xinjiang and some areas west of Congling) since the Tang Dynasty. "Huihui" may be the sound conversion or popular writing of "Huihe" and "Uighur". In the Southern Song Dynasty, "Huihui" included not only the "Huihe" and "Uighur" in the Tang Dynasty, but also some nationalities west of Congling. This is different from what is now called "Hui nationality". At the beginning of the 13th century, during the western expedition of the Mongolian army, a group of people of all ethnic groups in Central Asia, Persians and Arabs who believed in Islam were constantly issued or automatically migrated to China. They spread all over China in the form of garrisons and herdsmen, as craftsmen, businessmen, scholars, officials and leaders. They were called "Huihui people" and were the main part of the "Semu people" at that time. Later, they claimed to be "Huihui".
Hui also has some, he said. During the song and Yuan Dynasties, the official documents of the Mongolian nation called the Hui ancestors "sartqul"; In the Yuan Dynasty, musulman (Muslim) was transliterated into "musuman" and "musuman", which means "Huihui" in Chinese. This situation is also seen in huihuiguan Zazi (Chinese and Persian classification vocabulary) and gaochangguan Zazi (Chinese and Uyghur classification vocabulary) in the Ming Dynasty. So far, in different regions and national languages, there are various names for the Hui nationality. Tibetans call Hui people "KACE", probably because some Hui people in Tibet come from Kashmir; The Mongols call the Hui hotun, and it is said that the local Hui comes from Hotan; Uighur, Kazak and Kirgiz in Xinjiang call Hui as "tung'gen or tung'gan". It is said that because the local Hui comes from Tongguan, it is also interpreted as "staying to live"; Because there are many Ma surnames among the Hui people, the Yi people in Sichuan call the Hui people "Majia"; The Wa and Dai people in Yunnan call the Hui people "basi", meaning people from Persia. Different appellations not only reflect the mixed living of Hui and many nationalities, but also reflect the diversity of Hui sources, as well as the characteristics of occupation and migration.
Hui nationality is a minority with a large population in China, with a total population of 9.8168 million (excluding Taiwan Province in 2000). It is distributed in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government. Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region is its main inhabited area. The whole region has a Hui population of 1862500, accounting for 18.9% of the total Hui population in China. In addition, areas with a Hui population of more than 200000 include Beijing, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Anhui, Shandong, Henan, Yunnan, Gansu and Xinjiang. In terms of the East, central and west regions, the Hui population is the largest in the west, accounting for 60.75% of the total. Followed by the eastern region, the central region is the least. From the north to the south, the Hui nationality is mainly distributed in the northern provinces and regions of the Yellow River Basin, and the Hui nationality population in the south is less. According to the data of the fifth census, among the 56 ethnic groups, the population distribution dispersion of Hui nationality according to provinces, regions and cities is second only to Han nationality and Gaoshan Nationality, ranking third, which shows that Hui nationality is one of the most widely distributed ethnic groups in China.
On the whole, the distribution characteristics of Hui nationality are mainly manifested in the pattern of "large dispersion and small settlement". The "great dispersion" is mainly reflected in the distribution of Hui nationality in almost all of the more than 2000 counties (cities) in China. This is also reflected in the proportion of Hui population in the total population of the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities where they are located. Among the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government, only two (Ningxia and Qinghai) have Hui population accounting for more than 10% of the total population of the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities where they are located, 6 (1% - 5%) and 23 (1%) respectively. At the same time, in terms of the proportion of Hui population in the total population of ethnic minorities in various regions, the highest is Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and the lowest is Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The Hui population in 10 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government accounts for more than 50% of the total population of ethnic minorities in these provinces and regions. Although the Hui nationality has a small population in Shanghai, Anhui, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Beijing, Tianjin and Jiangsu, it is the largest minority in these provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government. The characteristics of "small settlement" are mainly reflected in the living situation of the Hui nationality in the whole country. In the western provinces and regions, the Hui nationality is characterized by continuous settlement, which is reflected in that the Hui Autonomous Region, autonomous prefecture and autonomous county are all in the north or western region. The eastern region is characterized by the settlement of counties, villages and streets, mostly along the Grand Canal. Different from the northwest, the scale of Hui settlement in the southeast is about 100 to 10000.
The pattern of "large dispersion and small settlement" of Hui nationality is concentrated in the distribution of Hui autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures, autonomous counties and ethnic townships. There are 14 Hui autonomous regions, including 1 autonomous region, 2 autonomous prefectures and 11 Hui autonomous counties (including the United States); Among them, there are 1 autonomous region, 2 autonomous prefectures and 6 autonomous counties (11 Hui autonomous counties, including the United Kingdom). There are 140 Hui townships in China, only 37 in the northwest, 28 in the southwest, 27 in North China, 12 in East China, 5 in the northeast and 31 in central and southern China. It is worth noting that among the 183 cities with a population of more than one million, the main ethnic minorities in about 97 cities are Hui, especially in the eastern and central cities, with a higher proportion of Hui. In the administrative system of four cities across the country, Hui districts are specially set up, including Fuhe Hui District in Luoyang, Guancheng Hui District in Zhengzhou, Shunhe Hui District in Kaifeng and Hui District in Hohhot. It can be seen that the Hui nationality is one of the 56 nationalities in China with the highest degree of urbanization.
The origin of the Hui nationality can be traced back to the Tang Dynasty. According to the existing historical data, in the second year of Yonghui of Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty (651), Arab and Persian Muslim businessmen successively came to China by sea and settled in Guangzhou, Quanzhou, Hangzhou, Yangzhou and Chang'an. They built the first batch of worship temples in China. Many people took wives, had children, multiplied, settled for generations, and established public cemeteries. They are called Fanke or native Fanke, and are regarded as the ancestors of the Hui nationality. The Jews from the East in the Song Dynasty also became part of the Hui nationality because of their close religious relationship. In the Tang and Song Dynasties, the place where Tibetan tourists lived was called fan Fang. There is a Tibetan leader or a Tibetan leader in the Tibetan workshop. The Tibetan leader is held by a person with high moral integrity and strong financial resources. The specific posts are ordered by the emperor or ordered by the emperor to be decided by local officials. Governor fan mainly manages the affairs of fan Fang and acts according to the Koran and hadith.
At the beginning of the 13th century, during the western expedition of the Mongolian army, groups of people of all ethnic groups in Central Asia, Persians and Arabs who believed in Islam were continuously issued to China. They spread all over the country in the form of garrison herding, craftsmen, businessmen, scholars, officials, leaders and other different identities, and became the main group of the Hui nationality. In the historical development, the Yuan Dynasty was called "luolihuihui", "lvjinghuihui", and the Christians and Zoroastrians who were converted to Islam became today's Hui ancestors. In the song and Yuan Dynasties, the "Kunlun Hui" who lived in Zhancheng (now south central Vietnam), namely "Zhancheng Hui", in the south of the China India Peninsula and Nanyang islands, became the ancestors of the Hui nationality because they moved to China. After Uighurs generally accepted the Islamic belief, when they moved to the mainland, they gradually assimilated into Hui. Since the yuan and Ming Dynasties, many Mongolian nobles and their soldiers have gradually assimilated into Huihui because of their acceptance of Islamic belief. In addition, due to intermarriage, politics and other reasons, as well as the acceptance of religious beliefs and customs, Huihui has continuously absorbed some elements of Han nationality.
In the Ming Dynasty, a large number of people still integrated into the Hui nationality. For example, there are "captive returnees" from Arab, Persian, Western Turkic and Southeast Asia, as well as "resident returnees" from overseas Chinese. They often enter China in the form of "tribute envoys". Hundreds of mission members return to their own country after the tribute, and some live or settle in China. King suludong died of illness in Dezhou, Shandong Province in Yongle of the Ming Dynasty, and his descendants guarded the grave, Become the ancestor of Beiying Hui people in Dezhou.
Academic circles generally believe that the Hui nationality was roughly formed in the Ming Dynasty, and the Yuan Dynasty is the preparatory period for the formation of the Hui nationality. After the Mongol army invaded the West in the Yuan Dynasty, the people of all ethnic groups in Central Asia and West Asia were incorporated into the tanma Red Army to the East. According to the regulations, the tanma Red Army "prepares for battle when on the horse, and gathers and herds when off the horse". At that time, there were places in Hexi, Ningxia, Henan, Shandong, Hebei and Yunnan. Since then, a large number of Hui sergeants have been invested in agricultural and animal husbandry production under the establishment of the society, and become ordinary farmers and herdsmen. At the same time, there are also a large number of Hui craftsmen and Hui businessmen who have been relocated to the East, most of whom live in cities and traffic arteries. Due to garrison, handicraft and commercial operations, a common economic life has initially taken shape. At the same time, because mosques are built everywhere and live around the temple, it shows the distribution characteristics of large dispersion and small settlement. In the Yuan Dynasty, Hui people have spread all over the country, and Islam has spread all over the country.
Because the Hui people had a great influence on the founding of the Yuan Dynasty and its military, political and economic. In particular, the upper level of the Hui took part in the political affairs of the Yuan Dynasty. According to the literature records, many Hui people held various positions in the government, including 320 prime ministers of the left and right sides of the central government, Pingzhang political affairs and knowledge of political affairs; Among the 10 banks, there are as many as 65 people serving as prime minister, Pingzhang, political participation and other important positions. This provides favorable conditions for the development of Hui people in all aspects.
In the early Yuan Dynasty, the famous statesman saidianchi yisiding paid attention to agricultural production, established tuntian District, advocated the construction of Kunming River, widely set up post stations, set up Confucianism, and paid attention to coordinating ethnic relations, making positive contributions to the political, economic and cultural development of Yunnan and the close relationship between the central government and Yunnan. Like Bao Zheng of the Song Dynasty, Hai Rui of the Ming Dynasty is a model of honest officials and a symbol of justice in Chinese history. He was honest and upright throughout his life, and won the respect and love of the people. His legends and stories are more widely spread among the people. Later, after being processed and sorted out by scholars and scholars, they compiled the famous long-length public case novels "Hai Gong Da Hong Pao" and "Hai Gong Xiao Hong Pao", or the dramas "Hai Rui", "Hai Rui's dismissal from office", "Hai Rui Shangshu", etc.
The Ming Dynasty was the period when the Hui nationality finally formed. After the fall of the Yuan Dynasty, the Hui people, like the Mongols, also had a gradual process of internal attachment. With the recovery and development of national social economy in the early Ming Dynasty, the distribution and economic situation of Huihui also developed and changed to a certain extent. In Shaanxi and Gansu, Huihui continued to reclaim wasteland and cultivate land, and Huihui people affiliated with the Ming government continued to migrate here, and the population gradually increased. At that time, there were many Hui people in Guanzhong, Shaanxi, Hezhou, Gansu, Lingzhou, Ningxia, Pingliang and Guyuan counties, forming the main settlements of Hui. With the exchange of Commerce and trade, the garrison of Huihui sergeants, the official travel of officials and scholars, especially the mobile migration in the peasant uprising, the distribution of Huihui has become more and more scattered. However, in rural areas, they often form their own villages, and in cities and towns, they often live in close quarters or in several streets. The characteristics of large dispersion and small settlement remain unchanged. According to the literature records of the Ming Dynasty, Hui and Hui "meet each other when they are of the same kind, and treat them as if they are close to each other." Hui and Hui "adhere to their customs and refuse to change in the end." after more than 200 years, under the influence of Islam, Hui and Hui are the main body, integrating domestic Han, Uygur, Mongolian and other ethnic components, and gradually forming a new ethnic community.
The relationship between the Ming Dynasty and the Hui nationality was relatively close. Zhu Yuanzhang once banned Semu people from changing their surnames, restricted intermarriage among Hui people, and adopted the policy of forced assimilation. It can be seen that Hui people in the Ming Dynasty had no preferential treatment status. However, Zhu Yuanzhang's "100 word praise of the supreme sage" and the decree of the Ming emperor's office on the construction of mosques and the protection of religious professionals in mosques affirmed the religious life of the Hui nationality to a certain extent. In the early Ming Dynasty, the original Huihui soldiers of military reclamation had been fixed in all parts of the country for a long time, and formed a stable living area after reclaiming wasteland and cultivating land, and the Huihui who had been engaged in business for a long time also began to turn to a stable temple. These stable residential areas have formed a common culture with mosques as the core, multiplied and lived with the surrounding Han nationality, established social production dominated by agriculture, concurrently engaged in handicrafts and animal husbandry, and are famous for being good at doing business.
In the Qing Dynasty, the social and political status of the Hui nationality fell to the lowest point in history. Hui's settlements are still increasing all over the country, especially in Northwest Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai and Yunnan, Shandong, Henan and Anhui. Like the Ming Dynasty, it has the characteristics of focusing on agriculture and concurrently engaged in animal husbandry, handicraft industry and commerce. At this time, Hui agriculture has been very mature, the agricultural population accounts for the vast majority of its total population, and the farming method is almost the same as that of Han nationality. Animal husbandry mainly focuses on raising cattle and sheep, and handicraft industry mainly focuses on slaughtering, tanning, agricultural product processing and embroidery. The Hui nationality in some places also develops mineral resources and mining. As the traditional economic sector of the Hui nationality, commerce has also been further developed at this time. The footprints of Hui businessmen have spread all over villages and cities, the mainland and border areas, and some famous Hui business groups have emerged, opening up many new long-distance transportation lines. The business scope is also very wide. The fur industry is the largest and most characteristic, and there are many fur distribution centers. In the political arena, although there are many returning officials, their positions and influence can not be compared with the past. However, the rise and continuation of Chinese translation activities and the popularization of Scripture education throughout the country have promoted the spread of Islam and the development of Hui education. In addition, the four eunuchs and their tribes of Kubu ninya, GAD ninya, Hufu Yeh and zhehninya were officially born one after another and widely spread in the northwest.
The Hui people have a glorious tradition of fighting against oppression. In the peasant uprising in the late Ming Dynasty, the Hui people in Northern Shaanxi and Eastern Gansu, led by Ma Shouying, became one of the main forces of Zhang Xianzhong and Li Zicheng uprising at that time. In the fifth year of the Shunzhi reign of the Qing Dynasty (1684), under the slogan of "opposing the Qing Dynasty and restoring the Ming Dynasty", milayin and Ding Guodong led the Ganzhou uprising that lasted for two years. In the 46th and 48th years of Qianlong (1781-1783), there were two activities against the local government, Su 43 of Salar nationality in Xunhua, Qinghai and Hui mintian 5 in shifengbao, Tongwei, Gansu. During the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom movement, with the intensification of various social and ethnic contradictions, the Hui people in Yunnan and northwest United with the local people of all ethnic groups to break out a large-scale uprising. From 1856 to 1874, the Hui uprising army in western Yunnan led by Du Wenxiu persisted in the struggle in Dali area for 18 years. The insurgents took the initiative to unite the Han, Yi, Bai and other ethnic groups and pay attention to coordinating ethnic relations. The Dali regime paid attention to building water conservancy, developing agricultural production, reducing the burden on farmers, encouraging the development of handicraft industry and commerce, and developing foreign trade. Compared with Yunnan Hui uprising, the scale of Northwest Hui uprising is larger, covering Shaanxi, Gansu, Xinjiang and other places. In 1862, the Taiping Army and the Nien army entered Shaanxi, and the Hui people all over Guanzhong responded one after another. They formed 18 camps in a short time, moved to Shaanxi and Gansu, and finally failed in 1877.
Hui people from all over the country also took part in the struggle against imperialist aggression in different forms. During the Opium War, 2000 Shaanxi Gansu Hui and Han officers and soldiers stationed along the coast of Zhejiang fought bravely against the British Invaders. In 1855, in Tacheng, Xinjiang, the trade officials of the Tsarist Russian Empire brutally prevented the Chinese people from mining gold on their own land, and brutally killed miners and their families of Hui and other nationalities, which aroused the righteous indignation of the people of all ethnic groups. Led by Hui miners Xu TIANYAO and an Yuxian, they burned tsarist Russian shops and goods in Tacheng, drove away predatory invaders, and fully demonstrated the Hui people's brave struggle spirit of resisting foreign aggression and defending national sovereignty. In 1895, during the Sino Japanese War of 1895, Zuo GuiGui, a general of the Hui nationality, led the army to guard Pyongyang. During the battle, he personally commanded on the fort. He fought for four days and nights and died for his country. In 1900, when the Eight Power Allied forces attacked Beijing, a Gansu army mainly composed of Hui officers and soldiers was brave and tenacious in the battles of Langfang and Zhengyangmen in Beijing, giving a heavy blow to the enemy. In the revolution of 1911, which overthrew the feudal autocratic Dynasty, the Hui people in Wuhan, Xi'an, Chengdu, Chongqing, Shanghai and other places participated in various struggles.
The May 4th Movement and the founding of the Communist Party of China pointed out the direction for the complete liberation of the Hui people. During the May 4th movement, the Hui people in Jinan, Shandong Province devoted themselves to the local movement, organized patriotic groups such as "Hui diplomatic support association" and participated in the struggle to destroy the pro Japanese mouthpiece Changyan newspaper. Ma Yunting and other three leading Hui patriots were brutally killed by Ma Liang, a traitor of the pro Japanese warlord, which further aroused the patriotic indignation of people from all walks of life in Shandong, Hebei, Beijing and Tianjin. In Tianjin, Guo Longzhen, Liu Qingyang and other Hui progressive young women actively participated in patriotic speeches, publicity, petitions and demonstrations, and formed a group to study Marxism - consciousness society together with Zhou Enlai and Deng Yingchao. Later, Guo Longzhen, together with Zhou Enlai and other comrades, went to France for work study in order to explore the revolutionary truth and became an early member of the Communist Party of China. After returning to China in 1925, she has been working as a woman of the party in Beijing. In 1928, he served as a member of the Shandong provincial Party committee of the Communist Party of China. In 1930, he engaged in the workers' movement in Qingdao. The following year, he was unfortunately arrested, unyielding and killed by warlords. The revolutionary activities of Guo Longzhen and others represent the contributions made by the advanced elements of the Hui nationality during the founding of the Communist Party of China.
During the first and second domestic revolutionary wars, advanced elements of the Hui nationality also participated in local workers' movements under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, such as the "February 7th" general strike, the provincial and Hong Kong general strike, and local peasant movements. Wu Zhen, a worker of Changxindian locomotive factory, studied in the labor Tutorial school led by the Communist Party of China, received Marxist Leninist education, actively participated in the revolutionary struggle and gained the trust of the workers. He was elected a member of the railway trade union. Later, he served as the head of the investigation team in the "February 7th" strike. He was arrested by warlord Wu Peifu, tortured and killed. Wu Zhen's struggle deeds marked the awakening of Hui workers.
The long march of the Chinese workers' and peasants' Red Army sowed more revolutionary seeds among the Hui nationality. The Red Army publicized the party's ethnic policy in Hui areas and respected the Hui people's customs and freedom of religious belief, which deeply moved the Hui people and made them realize that the Communist Party of China advocates national equality, national unity, resistance to Japan and national salvation. In Shan Jiaji, Xiji County, Gansu Province (now belonging to Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region), Chairman Mao Zedong and other leading comrades talked enthusiastically with the Hui people, visited the mosque, asked the Imam about the living conditions of the Hui people, and were warmly welcomed by the Hui people. During the Long March, the Hui people took the initiative to send information to the Red Army, act as guides and support the Red Army. Many young Hui people also enthusiastically participated in the Red Army, went north to resist Japan, and set up Hui cavalry divisions in the Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia border region.
As early as the agrarian revolution, with the help of the Shaanxi Gansu Red Army, longzuizi, Zhengning County, Gansu Province, established the Hui Autonomous regime, established party organizations, developed Hui party members, and carried out the revolutionary movement of dividing grain and land. In August 1936, the Red Army helped the local Hui people to establish the "Yuhai Hui Autonomous Government" in the Hui inhabited areas of Yuwang and Haiyuan at the junction of Gansu and Ningxia, elected Ma Hefu, who was a farm worker, as the chairman of the autonomous government, and also established a county guerrilla group with the Hui people as the main body to carry out the anti feudal struggle of fighting local tyrants and dividing land. This is the early practice of the CPC's policy of regional national autonomy among the Hui nationality.
During the war of resistance against Japan, people from all walks of life of the Hui nationality took part in the national salvation movement one after another. In the Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia border region and the Anti Japanese base areas, the Communist Party of China led the Hui people to establish various anti Japanese and national salvation organizations. In places with a large number of Hui people, it has also helped to establish an autonomous regime at the township level. Under the leadership of the Communist Party of China and with the help of the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army, dozens of Hui Anti Japanese armed forces were established from scratch in the Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia border region and Hebei, Shandong, Shanxi, Anhui and other places. In the Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia border region, the Hui Anti Japanese cavalry regiment was established. They fought in Longdong and made positive contributions to the protection of the border region and the development of Hui work. In central Hebei, the Hui people's detachment led by Ma Benzhai studied and applied Comrade Mao Zedong's strategic thought and the tactical principles of the Eighth Route Army, and made positive contributions to uniting the Hui and Han people in central Hebei and adhering to the Anti Japanese guerrilla war behind the enemy. During the war of liberation, most of the Hui people's armed forces in various places were incorporated into the field army and continued to fight for the liberation of the whole of China. In the face of the tyranny before the collapse of the Kuomintang government, the Hui people at all levels in the areas ruled by the Kuomintang actively participated in various patriotic and democratic movements such as class strike, strike, market strike, tax resistance and so on. Hui people in Henan, Yunnan and other places took an active part in the local struggle against Chiang Kai Shek behind the enemy lines. Hui party members engaged in underground work in Beiping, Tianjin, Nanjing, Xi'an, Kunming and other places broke through the darkness before dawn and made positive contributions to welcoming the liberation of these cities.
In Yan'an period, the Communist Party of China was very concerned about the work of the Hui nationality. At that time, Hui cadres were actively trained in the Central Party school and the Institute for nationalities, and Hui mass organizations were established to help Hui people build mosques and Halal canteens. Chairman Mao Zedong also inscribed characters for the Yan'an mosque. In 1941, the issue of Hui nationality was published in Yan'an. The book scientifically demonstrated that Hui is a nation from the perspective of Marxism for the first time, refuted Chiang Kai Shek's fallacy of denying that Hui is a nation, expounded the CPC's policy towards Hui nationality, and pointed out the direction of Hui National Liberation and development, It had a great impact on the revolutionary struggle of the Hui people.
In terms of politics, economy and culture, the Hui nationality has emerged many outstanding figures in history and made positive contributions to the people's life, production and construction at that time.
In order to manage the Muslims who came to China, the Yuan government established the "Department of Huihui and Kazakhstan" to take charge of the religious affairs, criminal names and lawsuits of Muslims, so as to make them self-governing. In the 14th year of Hongwu (1381), the Ming government officially established the Lijia system and improved the grass-roots administrative organization system. Therefore, the Hui people everywhere were also included in the jurisdiction of their Fang, Xiang and Lijia. In view of the particularity of Hui religious life, on the basis of Fanfang in the Tang, song, yuan and Yuan Dynasties, a Jiaofang organization roughly consistent with the Fangxiang administrative unit was formed. In the middle and late Yuan Dynasty, "huihuiha's Department" was cancelled and replaced by "Jiaofang system". The so-called "parish system" is actually a special form of organization and does not have the color of official political power, that is, it is not a first-class administrative institution and has no subordinate relationship with the local institutions of the imperial court, but a form of religious organization in which Muslims engage in common religious activities under the Royal system.
The famous villagers elected by the congregation as the head of the community (school directors and church directors) form the "ISLI" (board of directors) and other management organizations, which are responsible for Tianke finance, temple construction, hiring imams, setting up Scripture education, preparing to build Hui cemeteries and other related ethnic and religious undertakings. Except that the local grass-roots administrative organs exercise jurisdiction over the Muslims in the workshop in terms of administration, justice, taxes and servants, all other folk and religious activities such as marriage, funeral, ceremony, birthday and Ramadan, as well as the mediation of civil disputes that do not violate the criminal law, shall be arranged and arbitrated by the workshop. The characteristics of the church are first manifested in the three palm teaching system in the mosque, that is, the Imam (Palm teaching), mu anzin (Zanli) and haitubu (Palm teaching method) are in charge of the power. Secondly, taking Gedi's "kailiangmu" (Allah's language) as the basic doctrine, but also integrating the views of some Sufism and Han Confucianism to form a unique theoretical system. Third, each teaching workshop is independent of each other. Fourth, the believers in the workshop are generally called "Gaomu (religious people)" and "township elders". They are equal regardless of high or low. In the early Qing Dynasty, the Sufi school spread widely in Northwest China and formed a door official. The sect leader of the sect official exercised strict control over the workshops to which he belonged, and the "Reyes" sent by the sect leader managed part of the workshops, resulting in the phenomenon that the small temple belonged to the leader of the big temple and the head of the small temple was appointed by the big temple. However, due to different sects, the relationship between their workshops is sometimes close, sometimes loose, and the situation is different.
Traditional Hui areas often have social welfare organizations. During the reign of Emperor Kangxi, there was a "eisenie Association for the elderly" in Guangzhou, which was responsible for raising funds to buy property and collect interest, so as to enrich the funeral expenses of various families and implement economic mutual assistance. Later, there were "Hui longevity Association for the elderly" and "Hui economic Funeral Association", which continued to carry out mutual assistance and mutual assistance, help funeral, respect and love for the elderly, commemorate their ancestors and other activities, and handled institutions such as elderly care centers and widow houses. During the same period, there were also relief organizations, board cloth organizations, shelf organizations and other public welfare organizations in Huaiyang, Henan Province. The main content of the relief association is to provide relief to the poor Hui people, and the cost comes from the income from the fund-raising for the Hui people or the mu of land of the mosque from the directors or imams of the mosque; The banbu meeting is that the mosque uses the daily classes collected during the annual Eid al Fitr, the income per mu of mosque land and temporary donations to buy boards and white cloth to bury the dead; The shelf association is to organize Hui people to help Hui people lose their homes and take care of the dead. During the Tongzhi period of the Qing Dynasty, the Qingshan hall was founded in the East Mosque of Chengdu. The villagers took turns to fund the imam, hailivan, temple master and widowed, lonely, old, weak and disabled Hui people. In the Qing Dynasty, Yibu, Taojiang County, Hunan Province, set up a grain accumulation Association, specially built a social warehouse, and set up a warehouse manager to manage it. Each family donated rice for famine preparation. In the sixth year of Guangxu (1880), the local infant rescue association was also established to protect female infants. Each family will donate rice to buy fields as a fund. Every poor family who gives birth to one daughter will be given one load and two buckets of rice. Generally, those who give birth to more than five daughters will also be given the same for their parents to marry in the future. If those who return from famine have a baby girl, they will give relief at their discretion, and those who drown the baby girl will be heavily responsible. The association has played a good role in protecting baby girls. In the late Qing Dynasty, awe halls also appeared in other parts of Hunan to help Hui people bury, dig, bury and stand. Since the Qing Dynasty, there have been cold shelters in Shouxian county and banbuhui in Dingyuan County, Anhui Province. During the period of the Republic of China, Shouxian county also established water dragon Association, Taihe County and Hui people's fire fighting Association, which were mainly responsible for fire fighting in case of fire.
After the Opium War, a group of Hui bourgeois intellectuals established political, economic, cultural and religious associations and actively committed themselves to national construction. At the end of the reign of Emperor Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty, the Muslim autonomous public welfare association and the Qinghe security association were established in Hankou, Hubei Province, which played an important role in maintaining local public security and supporting the operations of the rebel army. In 1911, the Shanghai halal business group was established to actively publicize revolutionary ideas. In the late Qing Dynasty, Hui gangs such as wenxiaoge and Qingsheng palace were established in Sichuan. The former is dominated by dock workers, while the latter is dominated by hawkers. These two organizations and the Muslim road protection comrades' association played a great role in the road protection movement. During the May 4th movement, the Tianjin Islamic Federation was established to strongly support the patriotic actions of all walks of life in Beijing. The Jinan national salvation group headed by Ma Yunting used the main hemp day to publicize the anti imperialist and patriotic ideas in the mosque. After the May 4th movement, the national consciousness of Hui people from all walks of life further increased, safeguarding national unity and striving for national equal rights became the common requirement of the majority of Hui compatriots. In 1929, the Islamic Alumni Association was established in Beijing and later renamed the Chinese Hui Youth Association. We advocate equality and unity among all ethnic groups and oppose Han chauvinism. During the Anti Japanese War, Xi'an Hui people's Anti Japanese and National Salvation Association was established in Xi'an to organize mass demonstrations and spread Anti Japanese propaganda materials. Under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, the Islamic society was established in Lanzhou in 1937. At the same time, the more active anti Japanese associations include the branch of Xi'an Hui students' anti enemy support association and Xi'an Hui youth field service group. The Northwest Hui National Salvation Association was established in Baotou. Hui ethnic groups with the purpose of publicizing Anti Japanese have been established in Henan, Hubei, Hebei, Sichuan and other places. Founded in Wuhan in 1938, the China Muslim National Salvation Association is the most influential Hui community in the Kuomintang ruled area. In 1948, the association had 39 branches, 388 branches and 322 District associations in China. He has published the Journal of China Muslim National Salvation Association, Muslim culture and so on. During the Anti Japanese War, the Anti Japanese patriotic organization initiated and led by the Communist Party of China was the Hui people's national salvation Federation in the Hebei Shandong border region, which published Zhengdao weekly and Zhengdao magazine. After the liberation of Northeast China, Harbin Hui people's Federation, northeast Hui people's Federation and Heilongjiang Ning'an Hui people's Federation were successively established. In 1949, Beiping Hui people's working committee was established. According to the requirements of different regions and times, these organizations have played an important role in maintaining social security, land reform, supporting the war of liberation, Training Ethnic Cadres and solving the problem of Hui people.
Cultural associations include the East Asian mumin Education Association, the halal Education Association in East China and the Chinese Muslim Progressive Association. One of the most influential is the China Muslim Progressive Association, which was established in 1912 with the purpose of "revitalizing education, consolidating groups, returning to Han and being friendly". In 1936, there were more than 200 branches. Other educational associations include zhenxue society in Yunnan, Muslim persuasion Institute in Lanzhou, halal society in Beijing, Changde Hui Education Assistance Association in Hunan, Qinghai Muslim Education Promotion Association in Qinghai, Muyou society in Beijing, pursuit society, etc. The basic goal of modern Hui associations is to love the motherland, love the nation, improve religion and help each other. In modern history, they mobilized the majority of Hui compatriots to participate in the Anti Japanese struggle; Enhanced national consciousness; Safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of the Hui people; Promoted the development of Hui culture and education; It has enhanced friendly exchanges between Chinese Muslims and Muslims abroad. More importantly, it has established and developed the historical tradition of Hui nationality's patriotism and love of religion.
Before the founding of new China, under the oppression of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucratic capitalism, the Hui people had no political status and their economic and cultural development was slow. The national government did not recognize the existence of Hui nationality. The Hui nationality can only be called Muslims, and the Hui people are called "citizens with special living habits in the mainland".
After the founding of the people's Republic of China, the Hui nationality, like the people of other ethnic minorities, gained new life and became the master of the country. According to the different degrees of Hui inhabited areas, the party has implemented the policy of regional national autonomy in Hui inhabited areas, including the establishment of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, two Hui autonomous prefectures of Linxia, Gansu and Changji, Xinjiang, and six Hui autonomous counties of Zhangjiachuan, Qinghai, Menyuan, Hualong, Yanqi, Xinjiang, Dachang and Mengcun, Hebei. In addition, there are autonomous counties jointly established by Hui and other nationalities, such as Weining Yi, Hui and Miao Autonomous County in Guizhou, Weishan Yi and Hui Autonomous County in Yunnan, XUNDIAN Hui and Yi Autonomous County, Qinghai Minhe Tu Hui Autonomous County, Datong Hui and Tu Autonomous County, etc. So as to realize the national equal rights and autonomy rights.
The scattered Hui people also have the equal right to be masters of their own affairs. Their national characteristics are also respected. The political status of the Hui nationality has been greatly improved. Among the deputies to the successive National People's congresses and relevant local people's congresses, there are an appropriate number of Hui deputies, and Hui cadres from the central to local party and government departments at all levels also participate.
Hui people's customs are generally respected. Towns with more Hui people have Hui restaurants and Hui food supply outlets. In units with more Hui workers and students, Hui canteens are generally set up, and Hui food subsidies are given to those without Hui canteens. Every time there are three major festivals of Hui people (Holy Ji, Eid al Fitr and gurbangh), all localities take care of material supply and celebrations. The burial custom of Hui people is respected. Many places have set up Hui funeral service offices, and set aside wasteland and mountains as Hui cemeteries. The policy of freedom of religious belief has been fully implemented among Hui people everywhere.
Before the founding of new China, under the oppression of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucratic capitalism, the exploitation and slavery of the Hui people were quite heavy, the economic and cultural development was slow, and the development level was extremely unbalanced. The phenomenon of bankruptcy and flight of Hui people in rural areas is relatively common; In the city, the life of more Hui people is very unstable. After the founding of new China, the social and economic life of Hui nationality has undergone fundamental changes. After democratic reform and socialist transformation, some industrial and commercial enterprises run by urban Hui capitalists have been changed into state-owned enterprises and some into public-private partnerships. After transformation, the vast majority of them have become self-supporting workers. Some of the Hui merchants, vendors and handicraftsmen unite to become members of the collective economy, and some change jobs to become employees of state enterprises. At the same time, the industrial construction of each Hui Autonomous Region has also developed. In 1978, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region established modern industries such as coal, electric power, machinery, metallurgy, chemical industry, light industry, petroleum and electronics, and the total industrial output value increased from more than 12 million yuan in 1949 to more than 1 billion yuan in that year.
Since the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee, the Hui people all over the country have invested in the wave of reform and opening up with great enthusiasm, not only improving their income, but also making their own contributions to the development of the national economy. In the northwest, Linxia in Gansu and Tongxin in Ningxia quickly became the distribution center for local Hui and local merchants to carry out business activities. A number of township enterprises have emerged along the coast and in the mainland, making some Hui villages well-known rich villages. In large and medium-sized cities, with the development of economy, many Hui self-employed and private households have emerged, and gradually developed from a single small-scale operation to a large-scale and high-tech field. Their industries are becoming more and more diversified and specialized.
Since the reform and opening up, each Hui Autonomous Region has also further developed. Especially under the guidance of the CPC's scientific outlook on comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development, many Hui areas have vigorously promoted the process of new industrialization, urbanization and agricultural industrialization, accelerated the pace of economic structure adjustment, cultivated new advantages of economic development, changed the mode of economic growth, improved the quality of economic growth and promoted the development of a harmonious society. Since the central government put forward the decision of "western development", the economy of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region has achieved rapid growth, and the fiscal revenue has increased well; Agricultural production remained stable. With the continuous adjustment of agricultural industrial structure, the level of agricultural large-scale and specialized production has been continuously improved; Industrial production maintained rapid growth. The income of urban residents has increased significantly and their living standards have further improved.
After the founding of new China, Hui education has made great progress. As early as the 1950s, the party and the government formulated educational principles and policies, established institutions specifically responsible for ethnic education, allocated special funds for the development of education, and vigorously supported the educational undertakings of ethnic minorities throughout the country, so that Hui schools gained new life. By the end of 1989, the state had established a large, middle and primary education system in areas inhabited by Hui nationality, and primary and secondary schools had been set up in counties, townships and villages inhabited by Hui nationality. The school respects Hui customs and has built a halal canteen to facilitate students' life. All kinds of schools at all levels give priority to Hui students under the same conditions. Since the 1950s, especially since 1978, the score line has been reduced in college and technical secondary school enrollment to admit Hui students. Some colleges and universities have set up ethnic preparatory classes (departments). Some Hui areas have set up Ethnic Classes in key middle schools. The state and local governments have allocated special funds to subsidize Hui schools, issue fixed living expenses and scholarships, and hold boarding Hui Primary and secondary schools (some provinces and cities have set up Hui Primary and secondary schools in Hui inhabited areas). Since the 1980s, people from all walks of life and the masses of Hui nationality have been enthusiastic about Hui education, raised funds for running schools, and established Hui Education Promotion Association, Hui education foundation, inter school cooperation of some Hui middle schools in China, etc. This has greatly promoted the prosperity and development of Hui education. By the end of 2001, there were 303 Huimin primary schools and 45 Huimin middle schools in Hebei Province. In Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the autonomous region has started the "standardization construction project of 100 Hui Primary and secondary schools" since 2001, which has promoted the development of Hui education. Since the tenth five year plan, Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu Province has invested more than 420 million yuan to build 397 schools of all kinds. At the same time, the prefecture has raised 12 million yuan to implement the information education project and set up 120 computer classrooms, which has greatly changed the appearance of the school. By the end of 2006, there were 224 independent ethnic schools in Ningxia, including 174 primary schools, 48 middle schools, 1 College of Ethnic Preparatory Education and 1 College for ethnic minorities. A relatively perfect ethnic education system from basic education to higher education has been basically formed. There are 492000 Hui students in various schools at all levels, accounting for 36.75% of the total number of Hui students in the region, reaching the natural proportion of the Hui population in the region.
At the same time, with the realization of political equality and economic development and prosperity, the culture, press, publishing, radio, film and television industries are booming, and the medical and health undertakings in Hui areas have also been further developed. At the end of 2005, the construction of radio and television infrastructure in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region was fully strengthened, the coverage of radio and television was continuously expanded, the "village to village" project of radio and television was carried out smoothly, and the entry of cable television into households was actively promoted and improved. Throughout the year, the region published 19 newspapers, 35 magazines and 600 books. Since 2005, the medical and health undertakings in this area have also been further developed. The work of creating a health city and a health county has been fruitful. The construction of national sports facilities in Hui areas has been strengthened. By the end of 2005, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region had completed 194 national fitness path projects, with a total investment of 22.46 million yuan.
With the development of social and cultural undertakings, various talents of Hui nationality are constantly pouring in. Such as historians Bai Shouyi and Yang Zhijiu; Translator and educator Ma Jian and Na Zhong; "Father of Chinese Symphony" (music conductor) Li Delun; Crosstalk artist Ma Sanli; Writers Sha Yexin, Zhang Chengzhi, Huo Da; Zhang Guangxue, Jiang Xikui and Liu Guangjun, academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wang Shiwen, academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering, and Zhan Tao, mathematician, have made remarkable achievements in their respective fields.
Contemporary Hui people use Chinese, and different regions hold different dialects. In the early stage of the eastward migration of Hui ancestors, Arabic, Persian and Chinese were used at the same time. Due to the long-term coexistence with the Han people, especially the increasing number of Han people in Huihui, in the long-term development process, they have gradually become accustomed to taking Chinese as the common language of their nation, and retained some Arabic and Persian vocabulary. The "Huihui script" in the Yuan Dynasty refers to the new Persian script, also known as the "pushuman character". At that time, the government of the Yuan Dynasty had a history of Hui Hui translation, Hui Hui "history and Hui Hui order history, which were full-time personnel who used Hui Hui Hui to draft and translate documents. At the same time, there were also official Huihui Guozi school and Huihui Guozi prison in the Yuan Dynasty. The main teaching content was new Persian. In the Ming Dynasty, although there was an official "Hui Hui Pavilion" engaged in Muslim language teaching and translation, Chinese as the common language of the Hui nationality has been fixed. In the middle of Ming Dynasty, with the rise of Jingtang education, Jingtang language and children's Brocade appeared.
Sutra language is a special language used in the Sutra education of Chinese Islamic mosques. It transliterates Arabic or Persian in Chinese, or translates Persian and Arabic freely in Chinese vocabulary, and absorbs and transforms the components of classical terms and folk languages of Chinese Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism.
Children's Brocade is a kind of Pinyin created by Confucian teachers under specific historical conditions in China. It is made by spelling Chinese in Arabic letters, including Arabic and Persian vocabulary, occasionally mixed with individual Chinese characters. It is not only used in Scripture writing, but also sometimes used in communication, recording and other communication.
Hui people living together with other nationalities will also use the languages of other nationalities and be influenced by their culture. For example, the Hui people in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, still use Dai language and Dai language, wear Dai clothes and live in Dai style bamboo buildings; The Hui people in Eryuan County, Yunnan, wear Bai clothes and use Bai language; The Hui nationality in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan and Lhasa region of Tibet use the Tibetan language; The Hui people in Liangshan, Sichuan, who live together with the Yi people, also speak the Yi language. In addition, many Hui people in Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang also speak Mongolian, Uighur or Kazakh.
Islam has always played an important role in the formation and development of Hui nationality. After the formation of Hui nationality, Hui Nationalities everywhere have continued this belief. Islam was known as the "big food law" in the Tang Dynasty. In the yuan and Ming Dynasties, it was called the Hui law, the gate of Islam, Islam and so on. The faith of Hui nationality includes three parts: inner integrity, recitation and confession, and practice. Specifically, according to the provisions of Islam, the Hui must maintain six major beliefs: believing in Allah (Allah) is the core of the six major beliefs, that is, believing that Allah is unique, creating all things in the world, the sun, moon, stars and everything that dominates the universe. Hui religious scholars compiled this creed into 16 words "pure truth", that is, "all things are not God, but Allah; Muhammad is the messenger of Allah." believing in immortals means that there is a wonderful world in addition to the human world, and the immortals created by Allah with light belong to the world category of the wonderful world. Immortals are created by Allah. They have no gender, age or child. They manage all turnover, good and evil and natural phenomena in heaven and on earth according to Allah's will. Believing in the classics means believing in the Koran and all the classics before Muhammad. In addition to the Koran, he also attached great importance to the hadith. The Hadith is a record of Muhammad's words and deeds. Believing in rebirth means that the whole universe and all its life will be destroyed one day, and then Allah will revive all life. People can also rise after death. It is believed that the length of life, the rich and the poor, the rich and the poor, the good, the evil, the ugly and the beautiful are all decided by Allah long before you live.
In daily life, the basic cultivation of faith is to perform the five skills of reading, ritual, fasting, class and Dynasty. "Reading" means that men, women, old and young should learn to read the truth clearly. "Ritual" refers to worship, which mainly includes daily morning ritual, noon ritual, bu ritual, dusk ritual, Xiao ritual, etc., the gathering ritual of main hemp every Friday, and two large-scale ceremonies on Eid al Fitr and gurbangh every year. "Fasting" is fasting, also known as "fasting, closed fasting and fasting". With the advent of September (Ramadan) in the Islamic calendar, the East turns white every day, fasting after eating, fasting after sunset, drinking and eating during the day and sexual intercourse. "Class" is also called day class. It belongs to the "poverty relief tax". It can be distributed to the poor, those who manage accounts, those who can't redeem themselves, those who can't pay their debts and those who have no one to rely on. It can also be used for bridge repair, education and other charitable and public welfare undertakings. "Pilgrimage" means pilgrimage. Islam stipulates that all Muslims, both men and women, who are healthy, economic conditions permit and have a safe journey, should make a pilgrimage to the heavenly house once in their life. In addition to the five merits, it also requires children to be filial to their parents, husband and wife to love each other, Hui compatriots to tolerate each other, friends to treat each other sincerely, and so on, which are regarded as part of faith.
Mosque is the place where Hui people hold daily five o'clock worship, main Ma gathering ceremony and festival meeting ceremony. It was called "auditorium" in the Tang Dynasty, "chapel" in the Song Dynasty, "worship Temple" in the Yuan Dynasty, and "mosque" since the middle of the Ming Dynasty. The mosque is not only a place for Hui Muslims to bathe and clean their bodies and carry out religious activities, but also a forum and scripture hall for religious education, spreading religious knowledge and cultivating religious professionals. It is also a center for Hui people's politics, economy, culture, life and public welfare undertakings. At ordinary times, the Imam tells the Hui people "Waltz (admonition)" in the mosque, and also gives lectures to Manla, presides over weddings and funerals, marries, slaughters edible livestock and other related activities.
Scripture education refers to the special education in mosques where imams recruit Muslim children, learn Islamic classics, impart basic religious knowledge such as Islamic teachings and Sharia, and cultivate successors of religious propaganda and education and Muslim professionals. It was first created by Hu Dengzhou, a Hui from Weicheng, Shaanxi Province, in the 16th century. Later, its own disciples and re disciples were active in the East, West, North and south, forming Shaanxi school, Shandong School and Yunnan school. In the long-term development, Jingtang education has gradually formed a relatively complete system. Mosques are important places to promote Scripture education. So far, many mosques around the world have attached Scripture schools. It is generally divided into University, middle school and primary school. Jingtang education is the most far-reaching and longest lasting form of religious education in the history of Chinese Hui education.
Although after the formation of Hui nationality, it is a nation dominated by agricultural economy, it is famous for being good at doing business. In the Tang and Song Dynasties, Tibetan tourists were active on the "Silk Road" and "spice road". Chang'an (today's Xi'an), Hexi Corridor Area and southeast coastal cities such as Guangzhou, Yangzhou, Quanzhou and Hangzhou are the main areas where they do business and live. They set up "Hu shop" and "Persian shop", dealing in spices, jewelry, ivory, rhinoceros horn and Chinese silk, medicinal materials, bronzes, ceramics, etc. The commercial activities of the ancestors not only communicated the economic and cultural exchanges between China and the west, strengthened the connection between the border areas and the mainland, promoted the prosperity of cities and towns along the way, but also laid the foundation of Hui commercial culture. In the Yuan Dynasty, the commercial activities of Huihui extended to the north and south of the great river and inside and outside the Great Wall. Spices, jewelry, gold and silver jewelry, grain and leather sheets are their main commodities. After the formation of the Hui nationality in the Ming Dynasty, the commercial economy continued to develop.
The traditional businesses of the Hui nationality mainly include jewelry, spices, medicine, diet, slaughtering, horse vendors, camel teams, sheepskin rafts and long-distance trafficking. Jewelry industry and spice industry are the main industries engaged by Hui ancestors. As early as around the 7th century, many Persians came to Yangzhou, Chang'an and other places to engage in jewelry business. This tradition was greatly developed later. Before the founding of new China, about 70% of the jewelry industry in Beijing was operated by Hui people. Moreover, the spice industry, pharmaceutical industry and porcelain industry operated by the Hui people are also famous at home and abroad. Catering industry is a common traditional industry of Hui nationality. As the saying goes, "there are two lines in Huihui, small buying, small selling and slaughtering cattle and sheep"; "Return two knives, one for beef and the other for cut cakes"; "Three lines of Hui nationality, mutton, steamed bread, selling grain", and so on. This shows that the catering industry is the way most people return to their livelihood. Horse vendors and camel caravans are also a traditional industry widely operated by the Hui nationality. Historically, the Hui people liked to raise horses, mules, donkeys and camels, and often trafficked cattle, sheep, horses, donkeys, mules and camels. Because the Hui people in Baotou and other places were backed by the grassland of Inner Mongolia, the general Hui people made a profit by selling livestock. At the same time, most "horse vendors" mainly use donkeys, horses and camels, often go out for long and short-distance trafficking, and find several companions to walk together. Therefore, in the past, Hui people used to call horse vendors "driving feet", "horse Gang", "camel Gang" and "shouting mules", and call the people driving cars, horses and mules "foot households".
Hui nationality has a strong Islamic color in eating habits, dress decoration, birth naming, adult ceremony, marriage and funeral, festivals and other customs.
According to the provisions of Islam, the Hui nationality fasts on pigs, horses, donkeys, mules, dogs and all self dead animals and animal blood, and fasts on all ugly birds and animals, including cattle, sheep, camels, chickens and birds, which must be slaughtered by the Imam or worshippers in the name of Allah, otherwise they cannot eat. In daily life, Hui people do not smoke or drink alcohol, but they especially like drinking tea and entertaining guests with tea. Different tea drinking customs have been formed due to their dispersion. There are cans of tea in northern Hui areas; Yunnan Hui people have roasted tea; There is Lei tea among the Hui people in Hunan. Covered bowl tea is a special hobby of the Hui nationality in Northwest China. The most representative is the "eight treasures covered bowl tea", that is, the covered bowl is soaked with tea, rock sugar, medlar, walnut kernel, sesame, red jujube, longan, raisin (or dried apple), etc.
Hui women generally wear white round mouth hats and caps (also known as caps). Whether in Quanzhou, Guangzhou, Hainan and other coastal areas, or in the mainland, they are generally green, green and white, including girls, daughter-in-law and the elderly. Generally, girls wear green, married women wear black, and elderly women with grandchildren or older women wear white. The green cap is handsome and beautiful; The white cap is clean and prudent; The black cap is simple, elegant and upright. Most of them are made of high and medium grade fine materials such as silk, silk, georgette and Dacron. The cap of the elderly is long and should be put on the vest; The girl and daughter-in-law's head cover is relatively short, and the front can cover the front neck.
Headdress is the most typical and characteristic dress of Hui nationality. Because Islam is still white, Hui people regard white as the cleanest and most joyful color. The colors of clothes and crowns are mainly white, green and black. The small white hat without eaves worn by Hui men is also called "Hui hat" or "worship hat". There are five colors: white, gray, blue, green and black, which can be worn in different seasons of spring, summer, autumn and winter. Generally, white hats are worn most in spring, summer and autumn, and gray or black hats are worn in winter. The styles of hats vary from sect to sect and region to region. For example, the Hui people of zhehrenye sect love to wear hexagonal pointed hats. The six petals represent their belief in the six major beliefs, and the round hat represents the unity of all religions. In addition to the white hat, imams, Manla and religious old Hui people in the mosque like to wear headbands.
According to religious regulations, on the day or within three days of the birth of a Hui baby, an imam must be invited to give the baby a naming ceremony, that is, the Scripture, also known as Huihui. The naming ceremony begins with the family owner holding the child to the threshold. The Imam stands at the door or outside the threshold and whispers "bank" (Declaration of rites) to the child's right ear. Then read "shamaiti" to the child's left ear, that is, the greeting for the people to gather in the mosque to prepare for worship. Then, the boy slowly breathed or bit in his left ear, and the girl breathed in his right ear. It means to call a newborn from outside the mosque to inside the mosque, and he will become a natural Muslim. After the ceremony, he chose a good name from the many sages of Islam and told his family. On this day, sheep are slaughtered if conditions permit. In general, they also need to fry oil incense, sprinkle seeds, flowers, etc. Please ask the Imam to send them to neighbors, relatives and friends to celebrate. After the naming ceremony, the children should be given sweet things such as red dates, white sugar, brown sugar and rock sugar water.
There are many forms of Hui wedding around the country. The more consistent procedures are to invite the matchmaker to propose marriage, say color and two eyes (also known as fixed tea), arrange flowers (also known as fixed marriage), marry, read nicaha, Sahi, make the bridal chamber, lay needles and thread, return to the door, etc. At the wedding, families of men and women also have to hold banquets to entertain guests. When the bride enters the bridal chamber and sees off the guests, on the one hand, the host arranges to receive the guests. On the other hand, the host asks the Imam to read "nicaha" to the bride and groom: set a square table in the middle of the main room, sit the Imam above, sit the witnesses and parents on the left and right, spread blankets on the ground, and the bride and groom kneel or stand on it to listen to the Imam's teachings and read out relevant fragments of the Koran, Then explain it in Chinese. After the marriage ceremony, the bridegroom and bride enter the bridal chamber.
Hui people avoid saying "death". They generally call "death" as "impermanence", and in some places they call "Guizhen" or "Maoti". "Guizhen" is the name given by the Hui people to those who believe in religion, religious professionals and religious elites. The funeral should go through the procedures of mortuary, good face, preparation for burial, purification, burial, commemoration of the dead, etc. The funeral ceremony (the one standing) is the most important part of the Hui funeral. All participants in the funeral ceremony must be clean. Generally, the leader of the funeral ceremony is the priest in the mosque of our square. Some are determined according to the will of the deceased. Regardless of their seniority and status, as long as they understand the Islamic rules and have high prestige among the masses. Generally, commemorative activities of different scales and methods are adopted according to the length of the impermanence of the dead. From the night of burial, there are "first seven", "second seven", "third seven", "fortieth day", "hundred day" and "anniversary".
Because of their belief in Islam, the Hui people mainly celebrate three major festivals every year, namely, Eid al Fitr, gurbangh and jihad, which are calculated according to the Islamic calendar. Ramadan falls in September of the religious calendar every year. Muslims over the age of 12 for men and nine for women must fast. At the end of fasting, on Eid al Fitr, I get up at dawn, wash and bathe, change into new clothes, and go to the mosque. "Gurbang" is generally held 70 days after Eid al Fitr. Before the festival, everyone cleaned up, fried oil incense, Sanzi, flowers, etc. At dawn on the festival day, bathe, burn incense, put on neat clothes and go to the mosque to attend the ceremony. After that, a grand slaughter ceremony will be held. One portion of the meat will be eaten by oneself, one will be sent to relatives, friends and neighbors, and one will be given to the poor. Jihad is a day to commemorate the birth and death of Muhammad. It is said that his birthday and death are on March 12 of the Islamic calendar, commonly known as "holy discipline" and commonly known as "holy meeting". On the festival day, first go to the mosque to chant scriptures, praise the holy, tell the life story of Muhammad, and educate the Hui people not to forget the holy teachings and be a real Muslim. On this day, Muslims have to do penance (repentance). After the ceremony, the dinner began.
Other festivals mainly include Ashura day, DengXiao Festival, balata Festival, Gelder Festival, fatuma Festival and the day of the dead. Fatumi Festival, also known as "female saint", mother's meeting or aunt's day, is a festival in memory of Muhammad's daughter, on the 14th of Ramadan every year. The women personally sent out to collect money and food, set up several iron pots, boil bean porridge, burn some oil incense or fried oil incense, ask the Imam to chant scriptures, pray and praise the deeds of the saints, and then let the men, women and children of the whole neighborhood eat together. Ashura date originates from Hebrew, meaning "the tenth day", which generally refers to January 10 of the Islamic calendar. It is said that this day was the day when the prophets Adan, Nuha, Ibrahim and Musa were saved; It is also said that Allah created man, heaven and fire prison on this day, so this day is regarded as a sacred day. In 680 ad, Hussein, the son of Ali, was killed by the Umayyad Dynasty on that day, which became a day of mourning for the Shiite to commemorate Hussein. On Azura day, we eat porridge made of various beans. This is called Azura rice, also known as recalling hardships and thinking of sweetness. DengXiao is a free translation of "milraj" in Arabic, originally meaning "ladder". On the evening of DengXiao Festival, everyone gathered at Benfang mosque. In addition to worship and prayer, the Imam also focused on the significance and scene of Muhammad's DengXiao Festival and the special gift of Allah to Muhammad. In addition, in Kunming, Weishan, Dali, Baoshan and other Hui areas of Yunnan Province, the tenth day of the fourth lunar month is designated as the day of the dead in memory of the Hui people killed by the Qing army during the reign of Xianfeng and Tongzhi of the Qing Dynasty. On the day of the dead, Hui Muslims held activities one after another. Among them, Kunming Muslims gathered in Nancheng mosque, preached by the imam, and then boarded Mayuan cemetery to recite the Koran and sweep the tomb.
Fire does not think
Another translation is muddy. It is a kind of Persian plucked instrument liute. It is shaped like a lute, with a neck, no product, a small groove, a round belly like a half bottle cap, with skin as the surface and four strings. It was introduced into China in the Yuan Dynasty and was used for banquets in the palace of the Yuan Dynasty.
The form is like "fire does not think", curling neck, dragon head and two strings, which are pulled with a bow. The bowstring is made of horsetail. In the Yuan Dynasty, the instruments for banquets in the palace became one of the main national musical instruments in China.
Ox head ridge
Hui folk musical instrument, also known as "whoming". Generally, yellow clay is kneaded into empty lentil shape, ox head shape and egg shape, and a blow mouth and several small holes are tied. When playing, you need to put holes and press holes. The range is narrow and the volume is small. You can only play simple songs. It is easy to get materials and simple to make, and is deeply loved by the majority of Hui people.
Also known as "mouth" or "mouth string". It is made of metal sheet, which is shaped like a pliers, and the ring is connected with a reed. When playing, place the chord between the lips with the left hand, play the reed with the right hand, and pronounce by air oscillation. Narrow range, beautiful and elegant. The tune was improvised. It is mostly used in the love life of young men and women, especially loved by Hui women and children.
Sheep head string
The piano body is made of wood and the speaker is oval. It is covered with lamb skin and the head of the piano is like a sheep's head. It is set with two string shafts and two silk strings. It can be played with a paddle or with an M finger. The tone is crisp and can be used for self playing, self singing or accompaniment.
Wind instruments. Take the reed, willow skin or wheat straw as the tube, cut out the middle section, scrape thin or break into several strips, squeeze the two ends into the middle by hand, bake them into an olive shape with fire, and stick reed film and tissue paper on the outside. There is no spring at the upper end of the nozzle. The upper section is provided with three holes and the lower section is provided with four pressing holes. When playing, it often sends out trills and plays lyric and sad tunes.
Wind instrument, also known as Mimi, curved Xiao. It is made by baking one end of the bamboo tube and burning 6 holes on it. The mouthpiece is not provided with reed, and the sound is solid and thick.
A wind instrument, with a wooden tube body and a shape close to the suona, is provided with 8 press holes (7 in the front and 1 in the back). The lower end of the tube is covered with all mouth gourds, and the mouth is a double reed. When playing, the left thumb presses the hole, the food, middle and ring fingers press three holes, and the right index finger, middle finger, ring finger and little finger press the hole. The range reaches two octaves and the timbre is rich.
Wind instruments. It evolved from mud whistling. The wooden shape is like a horn. There are single tube and double tube. The single tube is small, about 33cm long, with 6 press holes, horizontal blowing, blowing in a thicker section, with a range of up to two octaves and bright timbre; The double tube is large, about 83cm long, with a blowing hole at the top and bottom of the thick end. There are two tubes in the body, with 6 pressing holes respectively. The near convex tube is short and thin, with high pronunciation and melodious timbre, while the near concave tube is long and fine, with low pronunciation and deep timbre. The range is two octaves. Both horn flutes are not provided with membrane holes, and the rear end is blocked. An air hole is arranged above the tail. The flute body is painted and decorated with tassels.
Percussion instruments. It is composed of three iron rings, the main ring is larger, the lower part is connected with the ring handle, and the lower part of both sides of the main ring is connected with two middle rings. Each ring is sleeved with three small rings, the handle end is decorated with colored ears, and at the same time, it shakes or shakes up or down with the ring handle, which is used for instrument ensemble or song and dance accompaniment.
Percussion instruments. It is composed of cymbals and copper rings of different sizes. The diameter of the larger one is about 40 cm. The cymbal body is tilted up around and decorated with dozens of small copper rings. When in use, hold the cymbals with both hands and shake them to make a loud "Shua Shua Shua".
Percussion instruments. The drum body is made of wood and is in a long cylinder shape. There are cylinder hoops at both ends and copper rings on it. Drum face with lamb skin. When playing, the left hand holds the drum obliquely in front of noon, and the right hand claps. You can also shake while hitting. It is mostly used for seat singing and table singing accompaniment.
In terms of science and technology, the Hui nationality has made great contributions to the motherland. The perpetual calendar written by astronomer zamaludin to the emperor Shizu of the Yuan Dynasty was promulgated throughout the country, and an observatory was established to manufacture seven kinds of astronomical instruments, such as armillary sphere, theodolite, planetarium, globe, azimuth, celestial sphere and Observatory. It occupies an important position in the history of Chinese astronomy. Heidier Ding, a famous architect in the Yuan Dynasty, was the designer and project organizer of the Yuan Dadu palace and palace city. His design laid the foundation for the architectural development of the whole city of Beijing. Huihui medicine has remarkable curative effects in surgery and drug use, and its medicine also has its own system.
In terms of literature, philosophy and art, many famous artists have emerged since the yuan and Ming Dynasties, such as Sadula, Gao Kegong, Ding Henian, Ding Peng and gaiqi. The encyclopedic scholar of the Yuan Dynasty made outstanding achievements not only in classics, literature and history, but also in astronomy, geography, water conservancy and mathematics. Li Zhi, a famous thinker in the Ming Dynasty, believed that the universe was based on the material Yin and Yang, and after countless changes, everything was born, with some simple materialist factors. It emphasizes the theory of social equality, opposes the distinction between saints and mortals and between wisdom and fool, opposes feudal dogma and the concept that men are superior to women, and opposes "Taking Confucius' right and wrong as right and wrong". Denounced the evil acts of officials, put forward the "childlike innocence theory" in literature, advocated that creation should express its own opinions and opposed retro imitation. He has written Li's book burning, continued book burning, book collection, continued book collection, Li's anthology, Li's series, etc. His anti feudalism enlightenment thought full of fighting spirit influenced the social trend of thought in the late Ming Dynasty. Before and after the May 4th movement, it still played a positive role in emancipating the mind.
The Hui nationality in Northwest China has developed rich folk quyi in its long history. The more famous ones are "flower" and "banquet song". "Hua'er" is a folk song with the most Hui characteristics. Especially the Hui people in Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang have the habit of singing "Hua'er" behind their ears and facing the green mountains. "Hua'er", also known as "Youth", originated in Linxia, where Hui people gathered. Later, it developed from Gansu to Qinghai and Xinjiang, mostly singing among Hui people. After hundreds of years of evolution, there are more than 100 kinds of tunes, which have formed different schools and styles, such as Hezhou flower, Lianhuashan flower, Ningxia flower, Qinghai flower and so on. It is generally forbidden to sing "flowers" at home and in villages, but only in the wild. In addition to singing "flowers" at ordinary times, some "flowers" meetings have been gradually formed in various places.
Banquet music is a tune sung by Hui people in Northwest China on wedding banquets and other festive occasions, especially in Linxia, Gansu, Minhe, Hualong, Qinghai and Ningxia. When some Hui youth hold weddings, they invite some famous singers in advance to congratulate them. There are soloists, duets and chorus, one after another, increasing the festive atmosphere of the wedding.
Hui people have the custom of practicing martial arts. Many mosques also set up martial arts training grounds. Some imams are both literate and martial arts. In addition to lecturing, they also serve as martial arts coaches to help and guide Manla to practice martial arts. There is a proverb that "when Nanjing comes to Beijing, boxing comes from the sect". There are many kinds of Hui Wushu. It was once called "Kunlun school" in history. It is one of the four major Wushu schools in China. Chaquan, Huihui 18 elbow, Jiaomen bullet leg, Baji Quan, bamen Quan, Xinyi Liuhe Quan, Tongbei Quan, majiaquan, hand guard boxing, Muslim Bafeng Taijiquan, White Ape tong arm boxing, double knife, big knife, Ali sword, telescopic sword, Gulan sword, swallow tail sword, fishtail sword, Hezhou stick, majiagun, Shajia gun, ring hammer, etc. are all Hui martial arts. Among them, Huihui 18 elbows, Jiaomen bouncing leg and chaquan were included in military training projects during the period of the Republic of China as national skills.
The traditional sports of Hui nationality also include stepping on feet, playing wooden ball and throwing cattle. Stepping can be one person to one, or two people to four. The basic actions are flat stepping, broken feet, back feet, continuous rotation, flying feet, etc. Playing wooden ball is commonly known as "playing basket", "playing lock" or "driving wool ball". Wooden ball is a small ball made of wood with strong hardness and not easy to crack. It is about 8 cm long and 10 cm thick. Playing wooden ball is simple, clear and easy to master. Each person only needs to prepare a 60cm long stick or board to hit the ball. The playing field is generally about 30 meters long and 20 meters wide. There is a midfield line in the middle. There is a 3-meter-wide and 0.5-meter-high goal in the middle of the bottom line on both sides, similar to the ice hockey goal. The competition time is generally about 20 minutes to 2 hours, with points on and off. There are three or four kinds of folk wooden ball playing methods, such as playing circle bar, Diao bar, driving dragon and so on. Whipping cattle is a special performance sports activity on Eid al AdhA every year. Generally, there are no strict rules. The purpose is to throw the cattle down within a certain period of time according to everyone's strength and skills. Through a series of actions such as twisting, carrying and pressing, throw the bull down and make it stand on its four feet. These activities are both recreational, fitness and self-defense activities.
With the development of social and cultural undertakings, various talents of the Hui nationality are constantly emerging, and they have made remarkable achievements in their respective fields.
Historians Bai Shouyi and Yang Zhijiu;
Translator and educator Ma Jian and Na Zhong;
"Father of Chinese Symphony" (music conductor) Li Delun;
Crosstalk artist Ma Sanli; Writers Sha Yexin, Zhang Chengzhi, Huo Da;
Zhang Guangxue, Jiang Xikui and Liu Guangjun, academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wang Shiwen, academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering, mathematician Zhan Tao, etc.
At first, Mongolia was only the name used by one of the Mongolian tribes with Donghu as its ethnic origin. Later, it gradually absorbed and integrated the forest hunting and grassland nomadic tribes living in Mobei area, and developed into the common name. Meng Gu Zu
The Zhuang nationality (Zhuang: bouxcuengh, English: bourau), formerly known as the Zhu long nationality, is a minority with the largest population in China. The national language is Zhuang, belonging to the Zhuang Dai branch of the Zhuang Dong nationalit. Zhuang Zu
Yao nationality, one of the oldest nationalities in China, belongs to the Yao language branch of Miao Yao language family of Sino Tibetan language family, the Miao language branch of Miao Yao language family of Sino Tibetan language family, and the Dongsh. Yao Zu
Tujia nationality (Tujia Language: bifzivkar) is a nation with a long history. It has a national language. It belongs to the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family, close to the Yi language branch. There is no national languag. Tu Jia Zu
Hani nationality, known as aka nationality in Southeast Asia, whose national language is Hani Language, belongs to the Yi branch of Tibetan Burmese language family of Sino Tibetan language family. Modern Hani nationality uses newly created Pinyin characte. Ha Ni Zu
Dongxiang nationality is a minority nationality in Gansu Province, China. The national language belongs to the Altaic Mongolian language family. There is no national language. Most Dongxiang Nationalities also speak Chinese. Chinese is the common language. Dong Xiang Zu
Daur nationality is one of 56 nationalities in China, mainly distributed in Molidawa Daur Autonomous Banner of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, meiris Daur autonomous region of Qiqihar City, Heilongjiang Province and Ewenki Autonomous Banner; A few live . Da Wo Er Zu
Bulang Nationality is a minority nationality with a long history. The national language is Bulang language. It belongs to the Bulang branch of the mon Khmer language family of the South Asian language family. It can be divided into Bulang and AVA dialects. Bu Lang Zu
Tajik belongs to the Europa Indian Mediterranean type. The national language is Tajik, including two dialects of selekkur and wahan. It belongs to the Pamir branch of the Iranian language family of the Indo European language family.. Ta Ji Ke Zu
Nu is one of the ethnic groups with a small population and a large number of languages in China. Lushui (formerly Bijiang county) of Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture, Fugong, Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County, Lanping Bai Pumi Autonomous County, Weix. Nu Zu
Oroqen nationality is one of the nationalities with the least population in Northeast China. According to the fifth national census in 2000, the population of Oroqen nationality is 8196. Oroqen language belongs to the Tungusic branch of man Tungusic langu. E Lun Chun Zu
Hezhe nationality is a minority nationality with a long history in Northeast China. Its national language is Hezhe language, which belongs to the Manchu branch of the Manchu Tungusic language family of Altai language family (there is also a view that it s. He Zhe Zu