Salar is one of the ethnic minorities who believe in Islam in China. The national language is salar. It belongs to the Ukrainian group of the West Hun branch of the Altaic Turkic language family. Some people also believe that it belongs to sarul dialect. It has no words and is commonly used in Chinese.
Salar is named for calling itself "Salar" for short. It mainly lives in dahejia, Xunhua Salar Autonomous County, Hualong Hui Autonomous County, gandu Township, Jishishan Bao'an Dongxiang Salar Autonomous County, Gansu Province. According to the statistics of the sixth national population census in 2010, the total population of Salar is 130607.
Islam is the main belief of Salar nationality, so religion has a deep impact on its historical development, politics, economy, culture and so on.
Salars Nationality Wiki:
|Sa La Zu
|Altaic Turkic language family
|Xunhua County, Hualong County, Qinghai; Jishishan County
|Multi faith Islam
Chinese PinYin : Sa La Zu
Salar people call themselves "Salar", which is a variant of "sanrur", referred to as "Salar".
According to textual research, the name "Sala" can be traced back to the Salur tribe of the ugus during the Western Turkic period in the 7th century. Sarur, also translated as "saror" or "sarur", is the eldest son of tag, the fifth of ugushan's six sons. Sarur means "those who wave swords and hammers and spears everywhere".
There are more than a dozen titles of "Salar" in Chinese documents, most of which are different translated names of "Salar" or "Salar", such as "Salar", "Salar", "Salar", "Salar cluster", "Salar", "Salar", "Salar", etc., while the neighboring Tibetan, Han, Hui and other nationalities are called "Salar", and the Tu nationality is called "salakun".
After the founding of new China, it was officially named "Salar nationality".
According to folklore, there are many sayings about the origin of Sala Nationality, one is from Turkey, one is from Hami, and the other is from Samarkand. The consensus in academic circles is that the Salar nationality originates from Samarkand in Central Asia.
The history of Salar ancestors moving from Samarkand in Central Asia has been confirmed by some historians in recent years. The tombs of their ancestors, galemang and ahamang, and the manuscript of the Koran are still preserved in Jiezi mosque. According to the origin and development of the Hui nationality, a Turkish book, "the gelmam and ahamang brothers, who originally lived in Salak (now Turkmen), led 170 families of their own nationality to leave here and move eastward to Xining to settle down." from the perspective of national customs, Salars used to perform "camel dance" or "camel play" when they got married in the past, Its content is to trace the process of ancestors moving from Samarkand in Central Asia.
On the question of which ethnic group in Central Asia is the main component of the Salar nationality, there are still differences in the academic community. The main views are as follows: first, the theory of "samarkans" mainly holds that "as early as the Yuan Dynasty, the samarkans in Central Asia who moved into Xunhua through Xinjiang lived with the surrounding Tibetan, Hui, Han, Mongolian and other ethnic groups for a long time, influenced each other, and gradually developed." The second is the theory of "saluks". For example, the Encyclopedia of China · national volume holds that "according to folklore, the saluks of the West Turkic ugus tribe living in today's Samarkand in the Yuan Dynasty (13th century)". The third is the theory of "saluks", which is considered to be in the process of the formation of the Sala Nationality "It is not only the only source of the Salar tribe to form a new nation, but gradually integrate all ethnic groups in Central Asia and the surrounding ethnic groups. In this process, the Salar people dominate and absorb the excellent cultures of other ethnic groups to form a unity." Mi Yizhi believes that "the ancestors of the Salar nationality are the Salars of the ugus tribe". Minawar believes that "The ancestors of the Salar people belong to the gelmang tribe of the sarul people". Fourth, according to the mare state of Turkmenistan, it is more likely that the ancestors of the Salar people came from the mare state of Turkmenistan, while Samarkand is only the necessary place for their eastward migration.
After the Salar ancestors settled in Xunhua, they lived and multiplied with the surrounding Tibetan, Hui, Han, Mongolian and other nationalities for a long time, and gradually formed a stable national community - salar.
After the Salar ancestors moved into China from Samarkand in the Yuan Dynasty, they were given preferential treatment by the rulers of the Yuan Dynasty. Their leader, GA lemang, was awarded the hereditary "Daru Huachi" of Jishi Prefecture. Han Bao, the grandson of GA lemang, was attached to the Ming Dynasty in the third year of Hongwu of the Ming Dynasty (1370). Three years later, he was awarded the hereditary hundred households of thousands of households in Jishi Prefecture, and the title was "Zhaoxin colonel in charge of the army" , the chieftain system was officially established and assigned to the weijishi chieftain in Hezhou. Han Bao became the first chieftain in the history of the Salar nationality, and later passed on to his descendants. In the first year of orthodoxy (1436), Han GUI was granted the post of deputy chieftain and transferred to Liangzhou to resist the enemy. The Qing Dynasty inherited the old system of the Ming Dynasty and was appointed by local officials, known as the entrusted chieftain.
In the middle and late Qing Dynasty, the Salar people carried out many armed struggles against religious and feudal oppression, such as the 46th year of Qianlong (1781) , the anti Qing uprising led by Su 43 and Han of the Salar nationality was directly due to the struggle between Protestantism and old religion within the Salar nationality. However, its profound social background was the general intensification of national spear and shield and class contradictions caused by the cruel oppression of the feudal rulers of the Qing Dynasty and the chieftains and leaders of the Salar nationality. With the development of the feudal economy, a large number of land was concentrated in the chieftains , head of household (Salah called "Hal") And the leaders of Islamic temples. The leaders control the land and property of the temples, and their children and grandchildren inherit and inherit, thus forming a feudal official system of leaders and landlords. The struggle for power and profits among different officials and sects has brought endless disasters to the Salar people. The poor Salar farmers are suffering from high rent and heavy profits, and their lives are very difficult Difficult. The Protestant slogans such as getting rid of the door officials and eliminating the chieftains reflected the desire of the Salar farmers to resist feudal oppression. In this regard, the feudal rulers of the Qing Dynasty adopted the "amnesty and suppression" of "helping the old religion" and "washing the Protestant religion" The policy of provoking division was essentially to support the old forces such as chieftains, so the struggle quickly turned into an armed uprising against the Qing Dynasty by the Salar people, including many believers of the old religion. Su 43 and other uprising leaders killed the prefect and Deputy General of Lanzhou in the Qing Dynasty, led more than 2000 people, crossed Dalijia mountain from Xunhua, captured Hezhou and surrounded Lanzhou, which shocked the Qing Dynasty During the Tongzhi period (1862-1874) and the twenty-first year of Guangxu period (1895), the Salar people launched two more anti Qing struggles. The uprising in 1895 spread throughout Hehuang, known as the "Hehuang incident" in history. Although these uprisings failed, they fully demonstrated the heroic struggle spirit of the Salar people against feudal oppression.
Since then, such as the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the anti Qing uprising of the Northwest Hui people, as well as the war of resistance against Japan and the war of liberation, the Salar people have responded positively and played an important role.
The social grass-roots organizations in Salar history, namely "Agni" and "kongmusan", have long affected the daily life and production activities of Salar people. At the beginning of the settlement of Salar ancestors in Xunhua, the population was small and the living area was broad. With the growth of each family's population, except for the young son who inherits the family business, the other sons should set up another door to marry and run the family. Thus, Agni, a close relative organization based on paternal blood, was formed. When "Agni" develops to 2-10 households, it forms a "kongmu San". The "Kong Mu San" of this distant relative organization gradually became a geographical organization and lived next to the same religion of different nationalities (Hui, Baoan, Dongxiang and other nationalities believe in Islam). Several "Kong Mu San" constitute a village.
Intermarriage is strictly prohibited in "Agni". "Agni" has priority in selling houses, pawning or a series of other things. If Agnes agrees, the owner can sell it. After selling, Agnes has the right to redeem it. The personnel of the same "Agni" have the obligation to help each other in some large and small affairs.
"Kong Mu San", some write "Ku Mu San", also known as "orimu" in Xunhua Mengda area, which means "clan", which means "distant brother", "one surname person", or "one root". Two or more "Kong Mu San" form an "agler". In the past, the same "Kong Mu San" men and women were forbidden to marry, but in fact, it has not been eliminated. "Kongmusan" has a public cemetery, and "Agra" has public forests and pastures. In production and life, members of the same "Kong Mu San" have a tradition of helping each other. At the time of marriage, the members of this "Kong Mushan" are responsible for sending off the marriage, while the man's "Kong Mushan" is responsible for welcoming the marriage and arranging accommodation; During the funeral, the people with "Kong Mushan" are responsible for the funeral, including digging tombs, sending funerals, etc. "Kong Mu San" has the priority of buying, selling and pawning. Each "kongmushan" has a "Hal", which means an elder. In the past, the township head sent grain difference to each village to find "Hal" for arrangement. Hal informed the people of this "kongmushan" that "Hal head" was written in Chinese historical books. Before 1896, the position of "Hal" was hereditary. Later, it was held in turn. In the village, each "kongmusan" chooses a representative as the school director of the mosque to be responsible for the religious life of the "kongmusan" people. The organizational forms of "agnai" and "kongmusan" were used by the feudal ruling class and have existed for a long time in the Salar society.
With the development of economy and the multiplication of population, Salar nationality formed an administrative division unit called "Gong" during the Yongzheng period of the Qing Dynasty. Work is the inflection of the word "dry". "Gan" is a Turkic language, which means town. The name of "Gong" first appeared in the grain book of the eighth year of Yongzheng in the Qing Dynasty. It is divided into twelve "Gong" centered on Xunhua County. "Gong" includes several villages, which are equivalent to administrative units at the township level. There are six "workers" in the west of the city, namely, Jiezi, caotanba, Chajia, bielie, Chahan temple and Suzhi; In the East are the lower six "works", namely, Qingshui, dasugu (today's Dashi ancient), Mengda, Zhang GA (HA), Xichang and yaman (Naiman). The terrain here is high in the West and low in the East. The water of the Yellow River flows from west to East, so it is up in the West and down in the East. It is collectively known as the "Twelve works of Sarah". In order to strengthen management, the Qing government built an earth city named "Xunhua" at the caotan dam in the center of the 12th industry in the eighth year of Yongzheng (1730), set up Xunhua camp and stationed 800 troops. In the 27th year of Qianlong's reign (1762), Xunhua hall was changed to be subordinate to Lanzhou government. In the third year of Daoguang (1823), Xunhua hall was changed to Xining mansion. In 1896, the chieftain system was abolished.
In the struggle against oppression, Sarah's "work" changed repeatedly. In the 46th year of the reign of Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty (1781), after the failure of the Protestant uprising led by Su 43 and Han, the population decreased sharply, and the "Twelve workers" were merged into the "eight workers". In the last six works, caotan dam works together with Jiezi works, other works together with Suzhi works, in the next six works, dasugu works together with Qingshui works, and Xichang works together with Naiman. Since then, Jiezi, Suzhi, Chajia and Chahan temples in Xunhua Xixiang have been called the "upper four workers", while Qingshui, Mengda, Zhang HA and Naiman in Dongxiang have been called the "lower four workers", collectively known as the "Salah eight workers". At that time, there were 46 villages in the upper four workers and 36 villages in the lower four workers, a total of 82 natural villages. Other Salars moved to Hualong county. After more than 100 years of reproduction and growth, the population increased greatly, and gradually formed five workers: gandu workers, kalgang workers, Shangshui geoworkers (also known as qunko workers), Heichengzi workers (also known as Zaba workers) and shiwuhui workers (near Hualong county). Compared with the local "eight workers" in Xunhua, it is called "five foreign workers", with a total of 13 workers.
The political and social system of the Salar nationality in the Qing Dynasty was basically the same as that in the Ming Dynasty. Before 1949, under the self-sufficient natural economy, the Salar nationality completely preserved the characteristics of the feudal economy, and the people lived in extreme hardship.
In September 1949, Xunhua was liberated, and the feudal land ownership was abolished after the Qing bandits, anti hegemony and land reform. On February 24, 1954, the first people's Congress of Xunhua County was officially held, announcing the establishment of the "people's Government of Xunhua Salar autonomous region". In September, it was renamed "Xunhua Salar Autonomous County". The Salar people realized the right to be masters of the country and manage their own internal affairs. In 1958, the Salar people, together with the local Hui and Dongxiang People, abolished the religious feudal privilege and the system of oppression and exploitation. In June 1981, "Jishishan Bao'an Dongxiang Salar Autonomous County" under the jurisdiction of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu Province was established from Linxia county with the approval of the State Council, becoming another Salar Autonomous County.
Salar is one of the ten ethnic groups that believe in Islam in China. They strictly abide by the religious system and basic beliefs of Islam, practice the five merits of chanting, ritual, fasting, class and pilgrimage, and worship the Koran and the hadith.
During the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty, the "door official system" of Hezhou Hui inhabited area and some different sects were successively introduced into the Salar area, and the Salar began to have sectarian division and sectarian disputes. Disputes and fights among the masses of different sects have caused great disasters to the working people. In the past, Salars were divided into old religion, old Protestantism, Protestantism and new Protestantism, but there were no differences in the basic beliefs of Islam, except for different interpretations of doctrines and religious laws or only slight differences in etiquette details. After the founding of new China, the Salar people gained freedom of religious belief.
In terms of religious system and religious rituals, Salar nationality also has many different characteristics from other nationalities and regions. Mosques are built in natural villages inhabited by Salars. Each temple employs one university imam, two academic imams and one or two "Manla" people. The mosque also elected a special person to serve the Imam at the beginning of school, called "muzavi", who must be smart, diligent and quick.
Salar people once had a patriarchal system called "gazhi" who was in charge of religion. According to legend, after the Salar ancestors settled in Xunhua, in order to prevent misinterpretation of Islamic teachings, 40 Islamic scholars led by Sulaiman were invited from Central Asia, and one of them was selected to take charge of religious rules and laws and be responsible for managing religious affairs. Under the "kazui", there are various religious professionals who specialize in chanting scriptures, calling believers and leading believers to worship. Under the "gazui" system, the "wooden pavilion" church system gradually lost its original pure religious nature. With the development of social economy, the mosque amassed a lot of property and occupied a lot of land. On this basis, the religious hereditary feudal privilege and the system of being in charge of religion and landlords were formed. "Gazui" is the supreme ruler of religion, under which the so-called "three heads" of Haiyi, hattib and Imam (or palm sect, Fu palm sect and small palm sect) are formed.
Salar people have three meals during solar eclipse (add meals appropriately according to the situation during busy farming). The food is mainly wheat, supplemented by highland barley, buckwheat, potatoes and various vegetables. The staple food is usually made into flower rolls, steamed bread, pancakes, Wong pot steamed bread, noodles, noodles, ramen, rolling noodles, loose rice, dough and paste. Meat is mainly cattle, sheep and chicken. Meat and poultry are slaughtered by the Imam. Avoid eating the meat of non ruminant animals such as pigs, dogs, donkeys, mules and horses, the meat, blood and self death of all ferocious birds and animals. Salar people have a traditional specialty food called "Billy buy Sea", also known as "oil stir ball", which is made of vegetable oil and flour. During the new year's festival, people come to fry Youxiang, Sanzi and chicken cake, cook meat, steam sugar steamed buns and vegetable steamed buns, stew "bowl dishes", cook rice and put hot pot. On the wedding day, cattle and sheep should be killed, boiled and fried, and the food is more abundant.
Milk tea and wheat tea are the favorite drinks of Salar men, women, old and young. Every family has tea sets such as fire pots and covered bowls. In addition to green tea, milk tea and covered bowl tea, we often drink wheat tea and fruit leaf tea. When making wheat tea, the wheat grains are fried, baked, half burnt, mashed, added with salt and other ingredients, and boiled in a pottery pot. The taste is like coffee, sweet and delicious; Fruit leaf tea is made of fruit tree leaves that are dried and fried into half coke. It has a unique flavor.
Salar people are hospitable, pay attention to etiquette, meet each other, say hello to each other with "seram" (meaning "peace" and "peace" in Arabic), respect the old and love the young, and live in harmony with their neighbors. When men and women meet, they should keep a certain distance. To be a guest in Salar's house, you must first say hello to the host before you can sit down; When the host brews tea, the guest should hold the tea bowl in his hand; When eating steamed bread and bread, break the steamed bread into pieces and put it into your mouth. Don't gobble it up. When you say goodbye to your host, you should express your gratitude. Salar people have great respect for their "uncles" and believe that "iron comes out of the furnace and people come out of the uncle's house".
When Salar people eat, the first bowl is given to old men by women; When entertaining guests, the Imam and elders sitting in the middle of the Kang should be given a hand by the young men, and women should not show up. Men are generally not allowed to work in the kitchen, otherwise they will be laughed at.
Sala people mainly live in Xunhua and Hualong counties in Qinghai and dahejia in Jishishan, Gansu. They live in concentrated areas, so their costumes are relatively unified. In terms of color, men are mainly white and black, and red, yellow and red clothes are taboo; In addition to the occasions where women participate in religious ceremonies, their clothes and trousers are bright and colorful, and then put on black or purple shoulders, which is charming, handsome and distinctive. Sala people's clothing is generally the same as that of Hui people. The difference is that the coat is generally wide and cloth is tied around the waist.
Salar men like to grow beards and wear hexagonal black or white round hats. Young people wear white blouses, black waistcoats, black hats and blue trousers. Women wear caps, colorful clothes with large lapels, black camisoles, earrings, bracelets, rings and other gold and silver jewelry. The girl wears a veil after marriage.
In the past, men wore embroidery around their stomachs; Women wear a right Lapel coat, a waistcoat, trousers and a cap. The color of the clothes is fresh. Some use flower silk as fabrics. In addition, women pay attention to pricking blue patterns on their forehead or back of their hands. Both men's and women's tops are longer than the waistcoat, and the exposed edge is beautiful when wearing. With the development of economic life, salarians gradually changed to uniforms or suits. Even if someone wears a traditional leather jacket, its sleeves are not too wide. Therefore, today, many salarians hold prices under sheep's fur coats. Those who specialize in the sale of sheepskin shall cover their hands with sheepskin and trade.
Sala people create distinctive national costumes according to the differences of times and environment, different economic lifestyles and even different climate characteristics.
The earliest clothes were worn in the style of nomadic people in Central Asia. Men usually wore rolled lamb skin hats, half waist leather boots, dressed in "formaki clip" (similar to the "formaga" of Uygur), and tied with red tatting cloth at the waist.
Women dress the same as men, but wear red and blue silk headscarves. Later, men usually wear a wide jacket or long shirt, trousers, cloth belt around the waist, silk belt for the rich, black or white six tooth hat on the head, and flat cloth shoes on the feet. Old people often wear long clothes. When they worship, their heads are wrapped with "Darth Dahl" (headscarf).
Young men love to wear white jacket with a red cloth belt or embroidered belt around the waist. The coat is fitted with a short black waistband. The contrast between black and white is distinct, which looks fresh, clean and elegant. When getting married, the waist band is sewn with red and blue satin, embroidered with various flower patterns and embroidered with embroidered belt, and the feet wear embroidered socks and cloth sandals.
Middle aged women's clothes are long, their trouser legs generally touch the ground, and their feet wear embroidered and pointed "Gugu shoes". Young women like to wear colorful clothes with big skirts. The coat is black and green with long or short camisoles. It looks slim and handsome. It likes to wear gold and silver earrings, rings and bracelets.
In the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties, when women went out to work, they wrapped their heads with green cloth and wore a spacious cloak embroidered with lace for festive festivals. Later, he changed to wear a "hood" and put it on the back, like a windbag. "Capping" is exquisite, and the color varies with age. Generally, girls and newlyweds are green, symbolizing vitality and prosperity; Those who have children in middle age or after marriage wear black, symbolizing maturity, maturity, poise and seriousness; Older people are mostly white, symbolizing white, flawless, natural and simple.
In the past, Salar working people often wore sheep fur coats without cloth or "Brown" made of wool, and their feet wore cloth shoes or "Loti" made of cowhide crepe. Nowadays, with the improvement of people's life and the prosperity of the market, greater changes have taken place in men's and women's clothes. Women wear colorful chemical fiber, silk, satin and wool fashion, and wear high-quality Georgette covers; Men wear wool Zhongshan suits and suits, and wear new leather shoes.
Salar men mostly wear cross collar long shirts, crotch pants, cloth belts or silk scarves around the waist, sheepskin rolled brimmed hats, short boots, and women wear gauze scarves and dresses. Later, with the transformation from animal husbandry economy to agricultural economy and the influence of the surrounding Hui and Han Dynasties, the style and raw materials of clothing gradually changed. There were more and more short clothes, and the use of cotton and silk increased, but the influence of Islam was still very obvious.
Each Salar family has its own courtyard, called "Zhuang outline", which is composed of four parts: the hall, the kitchen, the guest room and the circle room: the hall is in the middle, the kitchen and the guest room are set on both sides, and the circle room is built in the southeast or southwest corner of the courtyard.
Salah people hang Islamic scriptures written in Arabic on the middle wall of the main room to express their pious admiration.
Salar people have their own language, no words.
Salar belongs to the West Hun branch of the Turkic language group of Altaic language family, and some people think it belongs to sarul dialect. Sala, like Uygur, Uzbek, Turkmen, Kazak and other ethnic languages, is an adhesive language. The basic word order of a sentence is "subject object predicate". Salar has no dialect difference, but is divided into "Jiezi" and "Mengda" according to some differences in pronunciation and vocabulary.
Due to the influence of Islam, Salar language is mixed with a small number of Arabic and Persian loanwords, mainly in religious life and daily life. Due to long-term exchanges with the surrounding Han, Hui and Tibetan Nationalities, it has also absorbed a lot of Chinese and Tibetan vocabulary.
In history, the Salar people used the Salar language based on Arabic letters, which is called "Turkic" by their own people. By the 18th century, this kind of "Turkic" was not only used for religious annotation of scriptures, translation of classics and church education, but also became an applied text for social communication, writing contracts, chronicles and books. So far, Salar folk still keep some documents (handwritten copies) about history, religion, literature and so on written in this kind of language.
Most young and middle-aged people have a good command of Chinese and Chinese.
Salar literature is rich in stories, myths, legends, fables, proverbs and jokes, and its language is humorous and implicit.
The myth has a tengqigen · Ma sengbao, which describes the deeds of the young hunter Ma sengbao who killed demons and eliminated harm for the people. The most important and popular legend of Salar nationality is the ethnic origin legend which is similar to "camel dance".
The stories include agugaraji, anayun Hongji, peach blossom girl, tsesel, pigeon girl, frog as a lion for farmers, fair county magistrate and so on. They all focus on people's yearning and pursuit for freedom, happiness and a happy life. The Hezhou incident song and Han Er Er are two folk narrative poems of the struggle against the Qing Dynasty.
Fairy tales and fables, mainly through personification, express the Salar people's view of good and evil, right and wrong standards and moral norms, which are full of philosophy and interest of life. Many fairy tales and fables are related to animals, such as fox and rabbit, rabbit and wolf, greedy wolf and so on.
Joke works such as steamed bread scare people to death, the deaf family and the fool looking at the mirror laugh at and joke about the greedy "rich man", the self righteous "deaf family" and the rare "fool", which makes people have endless aftertaste from humor and humor.
Salar people generally don't drink or smoke.
It is forbidden to spit or bring dirty things into the mosque in and around the mosque; No one is allowed to walk past during worship; Avoid washing clothes near wells and ponds; Avoid coughing and blowing your nose when talking to others; Don't be rude in front of the old man.
If you want to drink water or wash when visiting a Salar family, please ask the host to do it for you. Do not do it yourself; To eat oil incense, pancakes, Sanzi, etc., you should break it off before eating.
When slaughtering cattle and sheep, others should say "kill" instead of "kill"; If someone in a Salar family dies, he should say "it's settled" and avoid saying "it's dead".
When visiting the mosque, generally do not enter the chapel. If you want to enter, you should obtain the consent of the priest and imam, and take off your shoes; Don't smoke, sing or make noise in the temple, let alone read classics.
Salar folk songs include Salar songs, banquet songs and flowers.
"Sala song" is a lyric folk song sung by Sala people in their own national language. It is composed of many short poems with independent significance, and makes a lot of use of Bixing techniques in folk songs to express feelings and aspirations through things. Sala has a wide spread and great influence. The works familiar and loved by the masses include Alima, ancient Brazilian Yo Yo, salasai Xi Ji, etc.
Banquet music is mainly popular in Xunhua, Mengda and Linxia dahejia. It is sung when guests are entertained on festive days. Often touched by the scene, improvised words, can be sung by one person, or by all. Popular songs include yixiu'er, code Xiu'er, uncle day, Wure hesus, etc. Hui's "banquet music" Fang Si Niang and Ma Wu Ge are also widely spread among Salar people.
Sala "flower" is a popular singing form among Sala people. It absorbs the essence of Hui banquet songs, Tibetan folk songs and Han folk songs, plus salads, and forms its own unique style. It is characterized by high and loud tone, euphemism and melodious, and is good at lyricism. There are many tunes of Sarah's "flowers", and the more famous ones are "mengdaling", "saladaling", "Qingshui Ling", "sanhuacao Ling", "shuihonghua Ling", etc.
Thin mouth (musical instrument)
"Mouth thin" is a musical instrument loved by Salar people and loved by Salar women. The production of "mouth thin" is to make a thin copper (or silver) with the thickness of a matchstick into a horseshoe shape, with an extremely thin and thin brass sheet embedded in the middle, and the tip is bent. The mouth is moved by the tip of the tongue or clamped between the teeth, and the pronunciation is dialed with finger bullets to converge the size of the lips and the strength of the blowing, adjust the volume and master the notes. Its volume is very weak, notes fluctuate, melodious and lingering.
The most popular Salar dance, the "camel dance" of four people, is the only preserved and relatively complete play in the traditional Salar drama. Generally, four people perform at the wedding, two of whom turn into sheep's fur coats to dress up as camels, one as Mongol and one as Salar ancestor GA lemang. GA lemang was wearing a robe, wrapped his head around "dasdar", holding a crutch and leading a camel. The first half is a dialogue between the two, one question and one answer, describing the journey of Salar ancestors during their migration. In the second half, a man dressed as geleman recites and chants verses in Salar language, describing how Salar ancestors moved to Xunhua. Most of the performances were performed in the moonlight at night. The audience sat in a circle and participated in the dialogue. The atmosphere was warm.
Salar women's embroidery is very exquisite. Paper cutting and window flowers are also women's specialties.
Architectural art is mainly reflected in the architectural decoration of the worship temple. It is generally a cornice type classical temple structure, which is a combination of mosque architecture and Chinese classical architecture.
Eid al Fitr, Eid al AdhA and jihad are the three major festivals of Salar people. Whenever the festival comes, Salars will entertain guests, cook mutton, stew chicken, make sugar bags, fried cakes, fried Sanzi, make "Billy buy the sea" (oil stir group), "wood silk day" (a kind of steamed stuffed bun filled with oil and cooked noodles) and various stews.
Festivals with national characteristics include "bairat night" festival, "Fatima" Festival and "Gadel" festival.
The "bairat night" festival was held on the night of the 15th day before Ramadan. Every household invited imams to come home and chant scriptures.
"Fatima" festival commemorates Fatima, Muhammad's daughter, on the 12th day of Ramadan. Generally, only adult women participate, and every seven people get together to preside over the annual "Fatima" festival.
"Gadel" Festival is held on the 27th day of Ramadan, also known as "little Eid al Fitr". It takes a "Kong Mu San" as the unit to make wheat kernel rice, oil incense and steamed stuffed buns. Imam and Manla are invited to chant scriptures at home and prepare for Eid al Fitr.
Salar marriage implements monogamy and out of family marriage. Marriage is prohibited between the close relative family "Agni" and the distant relative "Kong Mushan" (Salar means "one root"), but the restriction on "Kong Mushan" is not very strict.
The conclusion of marriage depends entirely on the orders of parents, and the wedding is presided over by the Imam. The bride, surrounded by her mother's family, wants to "squeeze the door" and forcibly enter the house, while the groom's house closes the door to salute. Usually we have to "face the committee", that is, perform "camel play". The bride wants to "marry in tears" and go out of the house crying and singing. When the bride comes to the groom's house, she has to show her needlework, that is, "lay the needle and thread".
Before the bride goes on the road, the woman's parents should entertain the guests welcoming the bride with the prepared "Billy buys the sea" and good tea.
Salar funerals are carried out in accordance with the provisions of Islam. It is customary to bury quickly and bury all in earth without coffins.
When a person is critically ill, all kinds of noise are prohibited. No one is allowed to enter the ward except his own flesh and blood. Only those who have a deep understanding of the doctrine can serve the patient personally. After the patient died, his family closed his eyes, closed his chin, trimmed his hair and beard, followed his hands and feet, and then placed the body on the public corpse box, and the family cried around. At the same time, send people to inform relatives and friends far and near and the Imam of the mosque in the village.
When relatives and friends arrive at the funeral home, they offer condolences to the mourner and carry out a sad "mourning", which is called "yasyagra" in Salar language. Its content is to miss the dead, talking about how to work hard to run a family, how to treat people and things, how to serve others and win everyone's respect, and so on. To purify the body of the dead, the Salar language "sutut" (catch water) wraps his body with white cloth, which is called "wear open the world". After wearing, the bereaved man shall be carried to the mosque or cemetery to "zhinazi" and pray for the dead. Gently put the "buried body" into the side hole in the tomb, build the side hole with adobe, and then fill the tomb with soil. Several stones are built on the tomb as identification marks. At the same time, the Imam read the Koran. On the third day after the funeral, the funeral home slaughtered sheep and cooked "MaiRen rice", which is called "Gaoji yinat" in salar. Relatives and friends were invited to eat with the old and children of the village, and oil cakes and meat were distributed to them.
This custom is still popular. The clothes and bedding worn before death must be given to the uncle's family. The rest are given to the poor, and some are given to the Imam. They cannot stay at home. In the first seven, 27, 37, 40 and 100 days after the death, the family invited the Imam to go to the grave and read "Haiting". Salarians attach great importance not only to the burial of the elderly and adults, but also to the burial of children or newborn babies.
Salar people regard the birth of children as a major event in writers, and take special care of pregnant women (Salar called boyagri) and prevent her from engaging in manual labor. When a woman gives birth, her husband shall not wait beside her. After the baby is born, the midwife will wash the baby. The next day, the Imam was asked to give a naming ceremony, which was named in Arabic. Some baby boys can also be named by numbers, that is, by the age of their grandfather when the child was born. The host will give a banquet in honor of the Imam. On the third day of postpartum, relatives of her mother's family came to visit, which is called "Xiaoyue" or "Wenyue" by the people. The gifts she brought were mainly brown sugar or oil stir dough. In a few days, there will be a formal "looking at the moon" or "looking at the big moon". My mother's family and neighbors fried oil cakes to celebrate. The mother's family will also make a pair of shoes and socks for her parents in law, a suit for her son-in-law and baby, and a sheep. When visiting women in confinement, they should take "Billy buy the sea" and ask them to nourish their bodies. The host lined up at the gate to wait for the congratulatory guests. After saying "color two eyes" to each other, please enter the house, and then invite the guests to the table. First eat dried fruit, drink three bubbles, cover a bowl, and then serve a fixed set of meals in order. The hand grabbed mutton must be made of the sheep brought by the woman's house. After dinner, the guests went to visit the baby and the mother in turn to bless the baby's healthy growth and comfort the mother to keep healthy. When your child is full moon, you should choose an auspicious day with "Nine" to hold your child out. At the child's full moon, the host should use walnuts, dates and thin dough slices cut into square or diamond pieces, fry them into a kind of food called "Gu Gu Ma Ma", distribute it to the congratulating guests, and distribute dried fruits such as fruit candy to the adults and children in the alley, so that the neighbors can share the joy of having a child.
Salar boys have to undergo "circumcision" when they are seven or eight years old. When a girl is eight or nine years old, she should wear a "cap" to show that she has reached adulthood. After the completion of these two ceremonies, adult men and women should shoulder religious obligations. At the same time, parents began to look for objects for their children. At the age of fifteen or sixteen, they all got married and had children.
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