Originated from the ancient Qiang, it is an ancient nationality in Western China. The ancient Qiang has a wide and far-reaching influence on the development of Chinese history and the formation of the Chinese nation. The national language is Qiang language, belonging to the Qiang branch of Tibeto Burmese language family of Sino Tibetan language family, which is divided into northern and southern dialects.
Qiang people call themselves "Erma" or "Erbao" and are known as "the nation on the clouds". They are mainly distributed in Maoxian, Wenchuan, Lixian, Songpan and Heishui counties of Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, and Beichuan Qiang Autonomous County of Mianyang City. The rest are scattered in Danba County of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, Pingwu County of Mianyang City, Jiangkou county and Shiqian County of Tongren Prefecture, Guizhou Province. Most of the Qiang people live in high mountain or mid mountain areas, while a few live near the towns along the highway and live with Tibetan, Han and Hui people.
According to the sixth national census in 2010, the total population of Qiang is 309576.
The Qiang nationality originated from the ancient Qiang. The ancient Qiang people are famous for herding sheep. They are not only an important part of the Chinese people, but also have a broad and far-reaching influence on the development of Chinese history and the formation of the Chinese nation. "Qiang" was originally a general term for nomadic tribes living in the western part of the motherland. During the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, the Qiang people in the Northwest were forced by the pressure of the state of Qin to carry out large-scale and long-distance migration. After the Song Dynasty, some of the Qiang people who moved to the South and all the Qiang people in Xishan developed into the present Qiang people, and retained the name of Qiang.
Since the 1950s, Neolithic cultural sites have been discovered in the upper reaches of Minjiang River and along Zagunao River in Wenchuan County, jiangweicheng, jianshanzhai, Lixian County and Yingpanshan, Maoxian county. There are also many stone coffin tombs from the spring and Autumn period to the Western Han Dynasty, such as cuojishan stone coffin tombs in Maoxian County, Mutuo stone coffin tombs and accompanying pits, Jiashan stone coffin tombs in Lixian County. Unearthed artifacts include pottery, stone, wood, bronze and so on. These archaeological discoveries not only show that human beings inhabited and multiplied in the areas where Qiang people are distributed today, but also provide new information and clues for exploring the origin of ancient culture in the upper reaches of Minjiang River. Qiang nationality originated from ancient Qiang. The ancient Qiang people are famous for herding sheep. They are not only an important part of the Chinese people, but also have a broad and far-reaching influence on the development of Chinese history and the formation of the Chinese nation. "Qiang" was originally a general term for nomadic tribes living in the western part of the motherland. Today, the Yellow River, Huangshui River, Taohe River, Datong River in Gansu and Qinghai and the upper reaches of Minjiang River in Sichuan are the activity centers of the ancient Qiang people. According to historical records, during the Yin and Shang Dynasties, Qiang was one of the "Fangguo" and had a leader as an official in the court. Some of them lived a nomadic life, while others were engaged in agricultural production. According to the book of songs, Shang song: "in the past, there was a great deal of soup. Since the Diqiang people there, I dare not come here to enjoy it. I dare not come to the king..." It reflects the close relationship between the ancient Qiang and the Shang Dynasty. Many records about "Qiang" in oracle bone inscriptions show that Qiang people were very active in the historical stage at that time. During the Zhou Dynasty, there was a close relationship between the other Qiang species "Jiang" and the Zhou Dynasty, and a large number of Qiang people integrated into China. During the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, the Yiqu state built by the Qiang people, covering the areas of today's eastern Gansu, Northern Shaanxi, Ningxia and the south of Hetao, was an important force of the Central Plains, which had fought with the state of Qin for more than 170 years. With Qiang people as the main component, zhurong was gradually integrated by the state of Qin. The Qiang people living in Gansu, Qinghai, the upper reaches of the Yellow River and the Huangshui River Basin are still in the state of "less grain, more livestock and shooting". In the biography of Xiqiang in the history of the later Han Dynasty, there is a record that Qiang people were captured by Wuyi Yuanjian and fled back to their hometown to teach Qiang people "farm animals". Since then, Qiang people began to have primitive agricultural production, which increased their population and economic development. Since then, the Qiang people have further developed and differentiated. According to the biography of Xiqiang in the book of the later Han Dynasty, when Yuanjian's great grandson Ren was born, Qin Xiangong was first established He attached his seed people to the South and sent them out to the west of the Zhihe river for thousands of miles. He was so far away from all the people that there was no more traffic. After that, their descendants were of their own species, Ren suisuo, or Zhuniu, Yueyi Qiang; or Baima, Guanghan Qiang; or shenlang, Wudu Qiang. " During this period, the Qiang people in the Northwest were forced by the pressure of the state of Qin to carry out large-scale and long-distance migration. the Qiang people in the Han Dynasty were widely distributed and had many tribes. In order to isolate the Xiongnu from the Qiang people, the Han Dynasty set up four counties in Hexi Corridor, namely Dunhuang, Jiuquan, Zhangye and Wuwei, established a local administrative system, and set up important official positions such as protecting the Qiang people to manage the affairs of the Qiang people. At the same time, a large number of Qiang people moved in, which could be divided into eastern Qiang and Western Qiang. After entering the Central Plains, the eastern Qiang people lived in the great wall and mixed with the Han people. They engaged in agricultural production. The private economy developed to a certain extent and gradually entered the feudal society. Most of the Western Qiang people who did not enter the central plains are scattered in the northwest and southwest regions. There are many Qiang tribes in the south of Tarim Basin in Xinjiang, such as ruqiang, Faqiang and Tangya in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin, yakniuqiang, baimaqiang, Qingyi Qiang, shenlangqiang and ranfuqiang in the southwest region. Among them, yak Qiang was first distributed in Shenli county (now Jiuxiang Town, Hanyuan County, Sichuan Province), and then went south to Yueyi county (now Anning River Basin and lower reaches of Yalong River, Sichuan Province). Baimaqiang is mainly distributed in the northwest of Mianyang City, Sichuan Province and the south of Wudu City, Gansu Province. Qingyi Qiang people live in the area of Ya'an City in Western Sichuan. Shenlangqiang is mainly located in Wudu city of Gansu Province, especially in Bailongjiang area. Ranjue and Qiang are distributed in the upper reaches of the Minjiang River and the vast areas of Northwest Sichuan. According to the biography of the Southwest Barbarians in Nanman in the later Han Dynasty, ranjue and Qiang were founded by Emperor Wu and regarded as Wenshan County in the sixth year of Yuanding There are six Yi, seven Qiang and nine Di in the mountain, and each has its own tribe ", which shows that Qiang people occupy a large proportion of them, and the development level of each tribe is very uneven, and most of them are still in the stage of clan tribe. During the Wei, Jin and southern and Northern Dynasties, Fu Jian, a di nationality, established the former Qin regime, while Yao, a Nan'an Qiang nationality, established the later Qin regime. The power of the post Qin Dynasty was located in the south of the Northern Wei Dynasty and the north of the Eastern Jin Dynasty. It ruled the Qiang people and all ethnic groups in the Central Plains for 33 years. After that, several Qiang tribes rose one after another. They are TangChang Qiang in Longnan, Deng Zhiqiang in Sichuan Gansu border and upper reaches of Minjiang River. They have existed for more than 140 years. From the Eastern Han Dynasty to the end of the Western Jin Dynasty, most of the Qiang people in the north had basically integrated into the Han people. During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, there were Dangxiang, dongnu, Prynne, Xishan eight, Baigou, Fuguo, etc. among them, Xishan eight was the general name of all the mountains in the west of Chengdu Plain and the upper reaches of Minjiang River. They were between the Central Plains Dynasty and the Tubo forces. Some of them assimilated to the Tibetans, some attached to the Central Plains Dynasty, or assimilated to the Han nationality, or lived in the crevice. They were able to survive and develop independently under the situation of long-term peace and war between the Tang and the Tibetan. after the Song Dynasty, some of the Qiang people who moved to the South and all the Qiang people in Xishan developed into the ethnic groups of Tibeto Burmese, and some developed into the present Qiang people. The popular narrative poem "battle of Qiang Ge" describes that in ancient times, Qiang people lived in the northwest prairie and were forced to move to the West and South due to war and natural disasters. A group of Qiang people who moved south met the strong "Geji people". They fought against each other and were losing many battles. They were preparing to abandon their land and move far away, but they got inspiration from God in their dreams. They tied wool thread around their necks As a symbol, he defeated the "goki people" with hard dolomite and wooden sticks as weapons, and finally he was able to live and work in peace and contentment, and he was divided into nine branches and scattered all over the country. This legend reflects the history of Qiang people's migration. Combined with historical documents and archaeological data, it confirms the origin of Qiang people. at the end of Ming Dynasty and the beginning of Qing Dynasty, a part of Qiang people moved from Sichuan to Tongren area of Guizhou Province. So far, the distribution pattern of Qiang people was basically formed. After 1840, China gradually became a semi colonial and semi feudal country. Like other nationalities in the country, the Qiang nationality was also faced with imperialist aggression and exploitation and oppression by the feudal ruling class. To this end, the Qiang people, together with the people of other nationalities, fought bravely and unyielding against imperialism, reactionary government and feudal ruling class, and made their own contributions to the independence and liberation of the Chinese nation. In 1841, during the Opium War, the Qiang people, Tibetan and Yi people formed an army of 2000 people and went to the front line of Zhejiang Province. In the battle of Zhenhai in Ningbo, they severely damaged the British invading army. In 1894, the remnant forces of a chieftain surnamed Kun in the Qiang area exploited their people by virtue of feudal privileges, which aroused strong opposition from more than 170 Qiang people in heihuzhai and other places. They all listed 23 counts of Kun Chieftain to the Qing government, and launched a face-to-face struggle with the remaining evils of feudal chieftain. Finally, they forced the Qing Dynasty to "take off the top of Kun chieftain and hand it over to the prefecture for inspection.". In 1905, the Qing Dynasty set up the "official salt shop" in Maozhou to monopolize and monopolize the salt, which aroused the armed resistance of the Qiang people and forced the Qing government to cancel the "official salt shop" and allow the free sale of salt. In 1921, after the birth of the Communist Party of China, the Qiang people's struggle against imperialism and feudalism entered a new historical stage. The Qiang people in jiashanzhai, Tonghua Township, Lixian County, in order to fight against the excessive taxes and levies of the Kuomintang government, they killed the troupe leader. From 1924 to 1926, the Tibetan and Qiang people in Lixian County resisted the oppression of feudal warlords' exorbitant taxes and levies. More than 2000 people captured Lixian County, and also attacked Wenchuan, Maoxian, Songpan and other places. The struggle lasted for three years, severely attacking the arrogance of the Kuomintang reactionaries. In 1935, the Chinese workers' and peasants' Red Army passed through the Qiang region during the long march. Under the leadership of the party, the Qiang people established the workers' and peasants' revolutionary regime and carried out a vigorous agrarian revolution. They love the people's army and actively participate in the front of the army. Mao County alone has 1000
Chinese PinYin : Qiang Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:23:59
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