The Tu nationality is one of the ethnic groups with relatively small population in China. The Tu language belongs to the Mongolian language family of Altai language family. In 1979, the state created the Tu language based on Latin letters and in the form of Chinese Pinyin letters for the Tu people.
Tu people mainly live in Huzhu Tu Autonomous County, Qinghai Province. Minhe and Datong counties in Qinghai and Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County in Gansu are also relatively concentrated, while the rest are scattered in Ledu, Menyuan, Dulan, Ulan, guide, Gonghe, Xining in Qinghai and Zhuoni, Yongdeng and Sunan in Gansu.
According to the sixth national census in 2010, the total population of Tu nationality is 289565.
Tu Nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||Tu Nationality|
|population size||289565 (2010)|
|Regional distribution||Qinghai Province, Gansu Province|
|Use text||Tibetan, Chinese|
|religious belief||Lamaism, Taoism, polytheism, Shamanism, etc|
Chinese PinYin : Tu Zu
Tu people in different places have different self proclaimed and other names.
Tu people in Huzhu, Datong and Tianzhu areas call themselves "Menger" (Mongolian), "Chahan Mongolia" (white Mongolia), most of them in Minhe County call themselves "tukun" (meaning Tu people, spit muddy sound), and others call themselves "tuhujia".
Nearby Tibetans call the Tu nationality "Khor" (a general term for nomads in northern Tibet, which was once used in Tibetan historical books to refer to Uighurs or Mongols; another is Tuyuhun), and Han, Hui and other nationalities call them "Tu people" and "Tu people".
After the founding of new China, it was unified as Tu nationality according to the wishes of its own nation.
The Tu nationality has a long history. Due to the lack of systematic written records, folklore differs from each other among the Tu ethnic groups, and the issue of ethnic origin has not been decided so far. Generally speaking, there are Mongolian theory, Tuyuhun (Huoer people), Mongolian and Huoer integration theory, Yinshan white Tatar theory, Shatuo Turkic theory, multi-source mixed theory, etc.
The Tu nationality originated from the Mongols. The Tu people call themselves "Mongolian Er" (Mongol) or "Chahan Mongolian Er" (white Mongolia), which reflects the close relationship between the origin of the Tu people and the Mongolian people. Among the Tu people in Huzhu County, there is a widespread legend that their ancestors came from Mongols and Genghis Khan's great general Gerrit (geretai) led his department to stay in sobtan (now in Huzhu County, which means Mongolian tan), died soon, and his subordinates stayed. Later, they intermarried with the local Hall people and gradually multiplied into Tu people. This legend is clearly recorded in the Tibetan document records of Youning temple in the Qing Dynasty: at the beginning of the 13th century, "Genghis Khan's Ministry Gerrit led his subordinates here, and the current hall people are about the descendants of these people." "Gerrit later turned into a powerful spirit and lived on the rocks of Guolong (the founder of Youning Temple). He told Jiasai living Buddha (the founder of Youning Temple) It shows the Dharma of wearing the costume of "suohu" (i.e. Mongolia). (Kasai) ordered (the ghost of Gerrit) to be the earth God there. "When the Youning temple was completed in 1604, Gerrit was posthumously awarded as" Nida "(local protective god), and its bronze statue was enshrined in the Youning temple, so the Tu people have long worshipped him as the ancestor of their own nation.
There are also records in Chinese historical records that the Mongolian army under Genghis Khan came to Xining. "Yuan history · Taizu Benji" records that "in March of the 22nd year of Taizu (1227), Taohe and Xining were broken". Huzhu county was governed by Xining Prefecture, only 45 kilometers away from Xining, which can be confirmed by legend. Since then, from the emperor Shizu of the Yuan Dynasty to the early Ming Dynasty, historical records have recorded that Mongols stayed or moved to Xining. Especially in Zhengde of the Ming Dynasty, the yuan clan of Anding Wei, bu yantimur, was attacked, "the tribes scattered, and only the rest moved to the east of Weiyuan City, shatangchuan, Xining". Shatangchuan and weiyuanbao belong to Huzhu Tu Autonomous County, and weiyuanbao is the seat of the county government. This shows that some of the sources of Huzhu Tu nationality are Mongols who moved from anding Wei in the Ming Dynasty.
Tu nationality comes from some Mongols. In addition to folklore and historical records, it can also be proved from the aspect of language. Tu language belongs to Mongolian language family of Altai language family, and more than half of its vocabulary is similar to karaqin dialect. Moreover, many ancient Mongolian words in the 13th and 14th centuries recorded in works such as the secret history of Mongolia and the translated language of Huayi are still retained in the local language.
Tu nationality originated from Tuyuhun (Huoer people) theory. As for the hor people, it was originally a general term for the nomadic people living in northern Tibet and the areas north of Tibet (i.e. north of the Yellow River). Tibetan historical records used to refer to Uighur or Mongolia, while in modern times they specifically refer to Tu nationality. Hur County, heltun, helji, helchuan and other places in the Tu nationality area of Huzhu county are said to be named because the hall people lived in ancient times. Hor County, called "hori River" in Tibetan, means the area inhabited by hol people. According to preliminary research, the legendary hall people of Tu nationality are likely to be Tuguhun people. In 663, Tuyuhun was merged by Tubo, and some people still lived in the hometown of Qinghai. Geographically, the main inhabited area of Tu nationality is along the coast of Huangshui, which was once the activity area of Tuguhun people. At present, there are more than a dozen villages in the Tu nationality area of Huzhu and Datong. The local language is called "tuhun", while the local Han people falsely call it "tuguan" or "tuohong", which are the sound turn of "tuhun". This may be named after the Tuyuhun people who lived in history. Luozang labdan, a famous monk of Huzhu Youning temple and the first earth view, was born in Huzhu "tuhun" village. In the future, no matter where he was born, all earth views should recognize "tuhun" village as the root place and take "earth view" as the name. According to the records in the new and old Tang books and the history of the Five Dynasties, Tuyuhun was later called "Tuyuhun" or "tuhun". These villages may be named after Tuyuhun. The word "Tu" of the Tu nationality does not mean Aboriginal, but a national title. For a long time, Han, Hui and other ethnic groups have called Tu people "Tu people" and "Tu people", also known as "Tu people" in historical books, which comes from the word "Tuyuhun". Tuyuhun was called "tuhun", "tuhun" and "Hun" after the middle of the Tang Dynasty. In Mongolian, it means "human". Therefore, tuhun became a "native" in the Yuan Dynasty. Tuyuhun "women use gold flowers as jewelry. After braiding their hair, they wear pearls and shells. In the past, Tu women also had similar headwear, which is called" tuhun twist Da "(twist Da means headdress). This title seems to be related to Tuyuhun. To sum up, after the subjugation of Tuyuhun, some of the people who moved eastward gradually integrated into the Han nationality, those who surrendered to Tubo later integrated into the Tibetan nationality, and some Tuyuhun people who stayed in Liangzhou, Qilian Mountains, Haomen River Basin and Hehuang area have become the main part of the ancestors of the Tu nationality today.
Some people also believe that huo'er is another homonym of the word "hu'er", including Xiongnu, Tuyuhun, Qidan, Mongolia, etc., especially Fupu in Xiongnu tribe, that is, zabu and Mongolia in Liao and Jin Dynasties. This puts the origin of Tu nationality back to an earlier period.
By the end of the Yuan Dynasty and the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, there were records of "Tu people" and "Tu people" in Chinese historical books. At this time, the Tu nationality had obvious national characteristics. According to some historical records of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the Tu Nationality in the Ming Dynasty has formed a stable people's community and has its own inhabited areas. In the early Qing Dynasty, the document "a brief account of the Qin border" has a specific record of the distribution of the Tu Nationality: Ba Nuan, Sanchuan, "Han and Tu live together... All the Tu people belong to Li Tusi"; Ancient Shanyi "all the Tu people and pan people in the East"; "Bazhou Fort native residence"; "Xiachuankou is also inhabited by natives"; Shangchuankou "elite natives still count on Prescriptions"; Laoya city "the mixed residence of Han and Tu"; "Mixed residence of Tu and fan" in Pingrong post; "Xichuankou is the residence of the chieftain Xiqi. The local people under the jurisdiction of the East and West Qi are known as 100000 each"; Binggoubao "inhabited by natives"; Zhuang Langwei said that "there are 100000 chieftains"; Zhuanglangwei "lives in a mixed place of soil and Han", "Zhuanglang chieftain is stationed in muliancheng, and the local people are distributed inside and outside Datong River". The above areas include Huzhu, Ledu, Menyuan, Minhe and Tianzhu in Gansu Province, which is the main distribution area of Tu nationality today. Although Tu people live in mixed places with Han, Tibetan and other nationalities, there are stable small settlements of Tu people everywhere.
On August 26, 1949, Lanzhou, an important town in the northwest, was liberated, and the basic armed forces of the Kuomintang in Gansu and Qinghai were completely eliminated; On September 5, Xining was liberated and the Majia warlord regime, which had ruled the people of all ethnic groups in Qinghai for nearly 40 years, completely collapsed. Then, with the autumn wind sweeping away the fallen leaves, the people's Liberation Army liberated Minhe, Ledu, Tianzhu, Datong, Huzhu, Menyuan, Tongren, Gannan and other places. The Tu Nationality in these areas, together with the people of other nationalities, established a new political power of the people's democratic dictatorship and opened a new chapter in the history of the Tu nationality.
Since 1950, under the leadership of the party and the people's government, the Tu areas have carried out a series of democratic reforms such as rent reduction, anti hegemony and land reform, and successfully completed the socialist transformation of agriculture, handicraft industry and capitalist industry and commerce. On February 17, 1954, with the approval of the Government Council, Huzhu Tu Autonomous Region, the first autonomous regime in the Tu region, was established. In 1955, it was changed into Huzhu Tu Autonomous County. On November 6, 1985, Minhe Hui Tu Autonomous County and Datong Hui Tu Autonomous County were established with the approval of the State Council according to the living characteristics of the Tu people in Qinghai. So far, the Turkish people who have achieved regional autonomy account for about 71% of the total population. In addition, Tu townships have been set up in some areas where Tu people live intensively but have a small population.
The Tu nationality basically believes in Tibetan Buddhism. At the end of the Yuan Dynasty and the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, Tibetan Buddhism was introduced into Tu areas and developed rapidly, especially the Gelug Sect of Tibetan Buddhism. There were many Gelug temples in Tu areas, mainly including Youning temple, Huayan Temple, King Kong temple and Mantou temple, Guanghui temple and Ping'an temple in Datong, Jinjiao temple in Ledu, etc. there were more than 40, of which Youning temple was the largest, It is known as the mother of temples in Huangbei. There are many famous monks in Youning temple, such as Zhang Jia, Tu Guan and Hua bu. Monasteries occupy a large amount of land, such as 69200 mu of land occupied by 15 monasteries in Huzhu county. Temple is the cultural center of Tu nationality and has made important contributions to the development and dissemination of Buddhist culture. In the past, the Tu people generally sent their children as monks, and there was a phenomenon that "if there are two sons, one will be appointed as a monk", and even some families "would rather have no offspring" are ignored. In addition to being local lamas, many Tu Men also become lamas in famous temples such as thar temple. In addition, most Tu villages have a small temple. Each family has a statue of God and Buddha. In case of disease, they go to the small temple to burn incense, kowtow, make a wish for charity, or ask the Lama to chant scriptures and pray; In case of trouble or going on a long trip, you should first make a wish in the small temple in order to turn bad luck into good luck and bring good luck in case of death with the help of God's blessing. There is also an important religious activity in the family, namely "Lama Gala", that is, reciting the Living Life Sutra, commonly known as "the funeral etiquette of living people". In the past, when the old people of Tu nationality were over 50 years old, they had to prepare birthday materials and clothes. At the same time, they asked the Lama to recite scriptures and repent. Relatives and friends came to celebrate their birthday. The scale was similar to that of general funeral etiquette, except that the gift was 11 birthday peaches, shoes, socks, pillows and so on. They believe that reading the Living Life Sutra before death is tantamount to becoming a monk in the temple. After death, they can enjoy glory and wealth. Among the religious activities centered on the village temple, the larger ones include the following activities: closing fast, jumping God, Langni, Skora, etc.
While believing in Tibetan Buddhism, the Tu people also have many folk beliefs. The first is Shamanism. The belief of the Tu Nationality in shamanism has a long history, but with the changes of history, especially the strong infiltration of the Gelug Sect of Tibetan Buddhism, the Shamanism belief of the Tu nationality has changed greatly. The retained activities mainly include the following: sacrificing tengge re (heaven) and sacrificing OBO (OBO is an ancient Mongolian language, and the Tu language is called "gabulai" It means duizi, a place for sacrificing mountain gods, road gods and other activities), white tiger sacrifice, selecting God sheep, etc. Others, such as walking around the sacred flame in the Tu wedding, asking Farah (wizard) to exorcise ghosts and cure diseases, are also the remains of ancient Shamanism customs. The second is bon. Bon, commonly known as "black religion", is a primitive religion prevailing in ancient Tibet. It was believed by the Tu people in the early stage of the formation of the Tu nationality. After the 14th century, with the spread and development of Gelug Sect of Tibetan Buddhism in Tu areas, bon gradually declined and failed to establish special Bon temples in Tu areas. Nowadays, there are only a small number of Bon clergy Hu Gu'an father in some Tu villages of Huzhu and Datong. Thirdly, Taoism. Taoism was introduced into the Tu nationality areas in the yuan and Ming Dynasties, and then developed continuously. It also has new characteristics, that is, there are Buddhas in Taoism, the combination of Taoism and Buddhism, and even some Shamanism contents were mixed. In the past, many Taoist gods were enshrined in the areas of people's harmony and mutual assistance. Especially in Minhe area, one or two or three or four Taoist gods are enshrined in each village temple, mainly Erlang God, Kitchen God, wealth God, door god, etc. Taoist religious activities are mainly carried out through Yin and Yang masters. Usually, they give people divination and look at the days, make disaster lists for the dead at funerals, get married when they get married, build houses, and show people Feng Shui when choosing tombs. In addition, there are several religious activities such as inserting signs, setting up thunder platforms and offering sacrifices to Shennong. In addition, the Tu nationality has the tradition of ancestor worship. Many Tu villages in Minhe area have a family temple. In addition to Buddhist and Taoist statues, the temple also offers a wooden tablet of an ancestor, which reads "dedicated to the spirit of a certain clan of three generations". The family temple sometimes asks lamas to chant scriptures, and sometimes yin-yang masters to be Daoists. During the Spring Festival, families go to the family temple to worship their ancestors; On Tomb Sweeping Day, the same family goes to pay homage to their ancestral graves.
The eating habits of Tu nationality have a historical process of change.
Before the Yuan Dynasty, the Tu nationality was mainly engaged in animal husbandry, with a relatively single food structure, mainly meat and dairy products, and eating highland barley fried noodles. After the yuan and Ming Dynasties, Tu people gradually turned to agricultural economy, and their diet was mainly highland barley, wheat and potato.
In general, the daily staple food of Tu families is highland barley, followed by wheat. There are less vegetables in Tu nationality, mainly more than 10 kinds, such as radish, cabbage, onion, garlic and lettuce. They usually eat more pickled vegetables, supplemented by meat, like to drink milk tea and eat fried noodles with butter. On festive festivals, the Tu people must make all kinds of fried food, hand grasping big meat (pork) and hand grasping mutton. The Tu people pay great attention to food hygiene. Everyone has fixed bowls and chopsticks when eating.
Tu people like to drink. Wine plays a very important role in Tu People's diet and forms a unique wine culture. In history, almost all Tu people can brew "moo", that is, a kind of low-grade highland barley wine. Wine making has become one of the important industries in Tu areas.
The traditional costumes of Tu nationality have bright colors, unique styles and strong national characteristics.
Traditional men's clothing, wearing brocade trimmed felt hat, embroidered high collar slanted white jacket, with a color embroidered pattern on the chest, black, blue or purple waistcoat, or a robe with wide edge, embroidered belt at the waist, white cloth socks and cloud embroidered cloth shoes at the feet. In addition, Tu Men are also used to inlaying four inch wide red or black trim on the neckline, lapel, cuffs and hem. Women's clothes are even more gorgeous. They wear colorful round brocade velvet felt hats on their heads, long silver ornaments on their ears, and a small collar slanted robe. They wear a purplish red waistband on the outside of the robe, and a wide and long colored belt on their waist. There are exquisite embroidery at both ends of the ribbon, which is hung with decorations such as purses, needles, copper bells and so on, Wear skirts and trousers, and step on colorful cloud embroidered long shoes. The most distinctive of their costumes is colorful flower sleeves, which are made of red, yellow, green, green and purple colored cloth. They said proudly that it was made according to the color of the rainbow in the sky, and it was particularly eye-catching on their bodies. Compared with young people, the dress of old women is much simpler. They don't wear colorful sleeved shirts or embroidered ribbons.
Traditional Tu women's headdress is very complex, wearing all kinds of "twist Da" (twist Da is headdress). Because women in different places wear different headwear, there are 89 kinds of twist Da, including touhun twist Da, Shige twist Da, gastwist Da, xuegulang twist Da, Jiamu twist Da, sob Dou twist Da, etc. Among them, Tuyuhun is said to be the oldest and most noble. It is said that ancient Tu women were good at fighting and galloping the battlefield. They were brave and tenacious, wearing war robes and very handsome. Later, the Tu nationality gradually settled down to graze, and even transitioned to farming as well as animal husbandry. The Tu women put the images of war robes, helmets and even weapons on their headwear. Therefore, these twists are extremely gorgeous, like the headwear of ancient palace maids. After women turned to housework and agricultural production, heavy agricultural production and housework were no longer suitable for wearing ancient clothes. In addition, after 1938, Qinghai warlord Ma Bufang forcibly changed Tu costumes. Since then, these various styles of twist are no longer popular and have disappeared among the people. Since then, Tu women often comb their hair into two long braids, hang at the back, connect the ends, and wear felt hats or top hats decorated with silk brocade.
The characteristics of Tu architecture are outstanding. In rural areas, Tu people generally live in villages and are used to building houses near mountains and rivers. The enclosure wall of the house is high. There are rooms on two or three sides of the wall, mostly three rooms as a group, and a few rich families have quadrangles. The house is a civil structure with flat and smooth roof, on which grain and grass can be stored. Facing the courtyard gate in the north is the main room, with wing rooms in the East and West and corner rooms in the four corners. There are three rooms in a row in the main room, separated by wooden boards. In the middle is the main room. On the front is a red painted wooden cabinet, on which God cards and sacrifices are provided; On the left is the bedroom. There is a fire basin and Kang Table on the fire Kang. The Kang in the bedroom is a warm Kang, connected with a cooker. The fire for cooking can warm the Kang. Generally, the elderly live at home; On the right is the storeroom or Buddha Hall; The East-West wing room is the children's living room, and the corner room is used as kitchen, warehouse, toilet, livestock pen, etc. Most of the pillars, doors and windows of the house are carved or painted with colorful patterns symbolizing the health of cattle and sheep and the bumper harvest of grain, which are bright and beautiful. Each family has a courtyard, which is called "Rima" (i.e. Zhuangkuo) in the local language. There are livestock sheds in the courtyard and toilets, vegetable gardens and threshing grounds outside the courtyard.
The Tu people have a tradition of emphasizing etiquette, especially respecting the elderly. If they meet the old people they know, they should get off their horses and greet them.
There is a saying among the Tu people that "when the guest comes, the blessing comes". When a guest comes to visit, they first invite the guest to sit down on the Kang covered with red wool felt, then offer a cup of thick Fu tea with green salt, and then serve a watermelon sized "Kong Guo Mo". When entertaining distinguished guests, a "Western shopping day" (that is, a fried noodle box with butter flowers) is placed on the table, with a large piece of fat meat on a wooden plate, a five inch knife on it, and a pinch of white wool on the wine pot to show good luck. The Tu people think this is the most respected reception for distinguished guests. When drinking, the host first proposes three glasses of wine to the guests, which is called "three glasses of wine on the horse". People who can't drink can avoid drinking by dipping their middle finger in three drops and three times on an empty bullet. When drinking, the Tu nationality has the habit of singing while drinking, and it is happy to drink and get drunk. Tu people entertain guests with covered bowl tea, which is popular in Northwest China. They put the tea bowl in a small dish, put tea, medlar, red jujube, Guiyuan and rock sugar in the bowl, flush it with boiling water and cover the bowl. The tea brewed in this way is sweet, delicious and nutritious.
The Tu language belongs to the Mongolian language family of Altai language family. Its basic vocabulary is the same or similar to Mongolian, but closer to Baoan language.
Tu language is divided into three dialect areas: Huzhu, Minhe and Tongren, which have some differences.
At the same time, the Tu nationality has been friendly with the Chinese and Tibetan people for a long time, and its language has also been greatly influenced by Chinese and Tibetan. Tibetan loanwords are more used in religious terms, and Chinese loanwords are more in life terms and new nouns.
The Tu nationality has no characters and uses Chinese characters and Tibetan. After the founding of new China, on the basis of investigation and research and according to the wishes of the Tu people, the state created the Tu language based on the Latin alphabet and the Chinese Pinyin alphabet for the Tu people in 1979.
The folk literature of Tu nationality is handed down from generation to generation in the form of oral transmission. After the founding of new China, under the care of the party and the government, writers and artists collected and sorted out some oral literature of Tu nationality. Most of these works reflect real life and enthusiastically praise the hard work, wisdom and brave spirit of the working people to fight against evil forces. According to the available information, according to its content and genre, Tu folk literature can be divided into "flowers", narrative poems, family songs, legends, fables, ballads, etc.
"Hua'er" is not only called folk song, but also called "Youth", and the local language is "song sung outside" (it can't be sung at home). The melody of "Hua'er" is loud and clear, with free and unrestrained rhythm. It is a folk literature treasure created and developed by the people of Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai Nationalities. The "Hua'er" of Tu nationality has its own characteristics. It is not the same as the "Hua'er" of Han nationality, but also different from the "Layi" of Tibetan nationality. The main content of Tu "Hua'er" is to describe the love life between young men and women, so "Hua'er" is also known as the medium and bridge of love. "Hua'er" generally has four sentence patterns, the first two sentences are more interesting, and the last two sentences express the real meaning. There are also three sentence "flowers", which are mainly popular in the Guanting and Zhongchuan areas of Minhe county. Singing "flowers" is one of the main forms of Tu People's cultural life. Almost all men, women, old and young love to sing and everyone can sing, whether in fields, hills or temple fairs. At the traditional "Hua'er" meetings held regularly in various places, Tu folk singers often sing in pairs. Most singers can feel the scenery, improvise words, speak out and answer fluently. Therefore, the hometown of Tu nationality is known as "the hometown of flowers".
Narrative poetry plays an extremely important role in Tu folk literature. Its representative works include La Renbu and jimensuo, Deng dengma show, Qi jiayanxi, Taiping Ge'er, gesari, Prince Lausanne, bu rouyou, etc. among them, La Renbu and jimensuo is the most popular and the most important long narrative poem of Tu people, People call it the Pearl of narrative poetry. The whole poem is more than 300 lines long. Through the vivid and delicate description of a love tragedy story, it puts forward a powerful complaint to the dark feudal society. It is a typical work combining realism and romanticism. It not only shows the rich imagination of the Tu people, but also expresses their indomitable will to yearn for a free and beautiful new life.
Family songs, also known as banquet songs, are mostly short and concise, including hymns, Q & A songs, wedding songs, etc. Hymn is a song that the Turkish people praise each other when they entertain distinguished guests. It praises each other by means of metaphor, exaggeration, symbolism and exaggeration. There are many tunes of the hymn, with soft and beautiful melody. There are more than ten kinds of popular songs in Huzhu area, such as "Xing a Lang lie" and "Lala Ying Ge lie". Q & A songs, also called duets, are extremely rich in content, including astronomy, geography, meteorology, production, religion, local customs, living customs, etc. the lyrics are implicit and vivid, and the tunes are melodious and changeable. They mainly include Tang degma, he Ni, Qiran, simusili, choice and other tracks. Wedding song is a song sung by the Tu people at the wedding. Its lyrics and tunes are specific and vary with the wedding process.
According to legend, its main contents are divided into the following categories: some expose the cruel oppression of landlords on farmers, such as killing dog landlords with Qi and red ditch; Some reflect that the Tu people fight against the evil forces that harm the people with their courage and wisdom, such as black horse third brother Zhang, manggus, flower calf, etc; There are also performances of young men and women pursuing a free and happy life, such as when the tit calls, peacock, frog son-in-law and so on. Fables and fairy tales, full of philosophy, alluded to the social reality at that time and mercilessly lashed out at the crimes of collusion between feudal landlords and chieftains and killing the common people. They are widely spread, mainly including dove who wants to eat the sun, rabbit, wolf and sugar man, red fox and yellow eyed wolf, Phoenix and sparrow, rabbit and lamb, lazy man will be poor and brother hungry and cold Wait.
The songs of the Tu nationality are interesting, unique and well-known. The widely spread ones include brother bee with the shape of sheep dung and egg, a Gu of the Jiang family, etc. Proverbs are the experience and summary accumulated by the Tu people in long-term social practice, and have become the proverbs that people practice.
Tu people have many taboos, mainly as follows: it is taboo to eat the meat of round hoofed livestock (horses, mules and donkeys); Avoid defecating and defecating in the livestock pen; It is forbidden to let people who have been to the darkroom (Moon room), filial sons (mourners) and women into the temple hall or family Buddhist Hall of Tu nationality; It is forbidden for women to walk in front of their elders without hats or long shirts; It is forbidden to enter the courtyard of Tu people without greeting or permission; It is forbidden to pour tea to guests in cracked bowls; Taboo to ask guests "have you eaten" or "have you eaten"; Taboo the number of visitors to their sheep; It is taboo to go out in the morning and touch empty buckets, empty back buckets and unclean things when going a long way or getting married; It is forbidden to smoke, spit, rummage and make noise in the Buddhist hall and hall; It is forbidden to cross the monk's kneeling pad and other items; Avoid sneezing and coughing on butter lamps; It is forbidden to turn from right to left when turning the Sutra wheel in the Buddhist hall, but strictly follow the turn from left to right; It is forbidden to hunt near the temple and defecate anywhere.
In addition, Tu people have the habit of avoiding doors, such as giving birth to children, installing new doors, discovering infectious diseases, etc. when others are not allowed to enter the courtyard, it is called avoiding doors. The sign of avoiding the door is: stick a side of red paper next to the door, insert cypress branches or simmer a fire next to the door.
The music of Tu nationality is mainly folk songs, which are divided into folk songs "flowers" and family songs.
There are many orders for "Hua'er" of Tu nationality, such as "gailian hand order", "haohua'er order", "Yangliu sister order", etc. there are more than 10 kinds popular in Huzhu Tu area. Tu "Hua'er" has great ups and downs in the melody process, wide range, and mostly three beats in rhythm. An obvious feature is that the ending sound is long and falling, giving people a deep feeling.
The range of Tu's family songs is wide, including narrative long poem, hymn, question and answer song, waltz, wedding song and so on. Each long narrative poem has its own unique melody, usually two phrases up and down. The melody is beautiful and can't be bothered to hear it often; The melody of the hymn is soft and beautiful, melodious and unrestrained; The tune of the Q & a song is simple and lively, and there is a pause at the end of the sentence; Waltz is a song sung during an Zhao dance. It is more cheerful and has an obvious rhythm than other songs.
The Tu dance is mainly an Zhao dance and wedding dance.
An Zhao dance is a combination of song and dance. During the dance, people are arranged in a circle, usually led by one person (usually elderly men), singing in harmony, singing melodious and dancing lightly. Every new year's festival or wedding, Tu Men and women like to gather in the courtyard or on the wheat field to dance an Zhao dance.
Wedding dance is a wedding dance, usually starring two nashkin in white and brown robes, accompanied by others, with different movements from place to place.
The traditional handicrafts of Tu women are embroidery and winding thread.
The embroidery art of Tu people is obviously reflected in the careful decoration of clothes. Tu women like to embroider various patterns on the collar, sleeves and bottom of clothes to form a beautiful pattern.
Most of the Tu young men in the area of Huzhu Danma have a four inch continuous pattern on their chest, which is called "wealth never ends". It is not only rich in national style, but also very bright and gorgeous; The cloud pattern embroidered on the shoes is delicate, symmetrical and bright in color.
Tu women have to learn embroidery since childhood, master various sewing skills, and spend several years preparing a set of dowry for themselves, including exquisite clothes, embroidered pillows, embroidered cigarette bags, etc. at the same time, they also need to prepare embroidered pillows for the elderly of their mother-in-law, embroidered long waist shoes and many other female works for other women in their family.
Whenever the traditional festivals or temple fairs of Tu people come, Tu girls have to dress up carefully, bring all kinds of embroideries they make, and get together to discuss with each other to see who is skilled.
The embroidery of Tu nationality is unique. No matter what patterns are embroidered, they are embroidered with "coil thread". "Winding thread" is a unique needlework of Tu nationality. At the same time, two needles and threads are used. The workmanship is exquisite, complex and symmetrical. The embroidered patterns are beautiful, simple and durable.
In history, Youning temple is a complete architectural complex composed of many temples, sutra halls and monk houses. It absorbs the characteristics of Tibetan and Han architecture and the artistic achievements of "Hezhou brick carving" in Gansu. Its exquisite wood carvings and clay Buddha statues fully show the architectural and carving artistic level of the Tu people.
The Tu people also paint or carve patterns symbolizing the health of cattle and sheep and the bumper harvest of grain on the walls of houses, the pillars, doors and windows of monasteries.
The Tu People's festivals mainly include the official Scripture meeting of Youning temple on the 14th day of the first lunar month, the challenge arena meeting in Weiyuan town on the 2nd day of February, the temple fair on the 3rd and 8th of March, the Danma opera meeting on the 11th of June, the "Youth" meeting in Songpan temple and tuhun village on the 13th and 29th of June, the "naton" (harvest celebration meeting) in Minhe and Sanchuan areas from July 23 to September 15, among which the challenge arena meeting, Danma opera meeting and "Naton" has the most national characteristics. At that time, in addition to traditional entertainment activities such as horse racing, wrestling, martial arts and singing "flowers", material exchange meetings will also be held.
The annual "naton" is a festival for the Tu people in Minhe county to celebrate the harvest. Because the carnival in naton starts in July of the lunar calendar, it is also called "July meeting". Naton is a group activity dominated by various village communities. It lasts for nearly two months from the end of the wheat field in late summer to autumn, so some people call it "the longest Carnival in the world" It can be held by one village alone or jointly by two villages. One village acts as the "master" and the other is the guest. When the male villagers of the two villages line up, carry colorful flags and beat gongs and drums to the wheat field, "naton" The prelude to the dance was opened. The first was the hand dance, which was a large-scale dance attended by 40 or 50 people, and the hands were arranged in order of age. At the front of the dance were the old people in long shirts and holding fans. They were often the organizers of naton and the descendants of naton dance. Young people holding colorful flags and children holding wickers followed in turn, and the team looked happy While dancing, the LORD kept toasting the participants with sea bowls, so as to boost the fun. The climax of celebration and joy went higher and higher.
In addition, the traditional festivals of the Tu nationality, such as the Spring Festival and the Dragon Boat Festival, are similar to those of the Han nationality. However, some Tu nationalities in Huzhu area taboo the Mid Autumn Festival, and they often throw a handful of ash at the moon on the night of the Mid Autumn Festival.
The marriage of Tu nationality is generally divided into marriage proposal, engagement, gift giving, wedding ceremony, Appreciation Banquet and other procedures. The ceremony was grand and warm, and was carried out in singing and dancing from beginning to end. Whether it's free love or parents' decision, it's up to the man's parents to invite a matchmaker and propose to the woman's family. After the woman's family agrees, invite the parents of each family, and invite the father or uncle of the man's family to discuss the engagement with the matchmaker.
Most marriages are held in the first month of each year. About a month ago, the man held an auspicious day ceremony. The Tu people call the wedding banquet "huoren" and the auspicious day "tuorang huoren", that is, the first banquet. The day before the wedding, it was the wedding banquet at the woman's house, which was called "Mazie" by the Tu nationality. At this time, the girl wants to marry in tears. The words are euphemistic and moving. She thanks the mountain god, the earth Lord and her mother's family for their upbringing. In the evening, the man sent two "nashkin" (welcoming relatives) who are good at singing and dancing and good at words to the woman's house with a live sheep, three bottles of sprinkles, three buns and the clothes worn by the bride when she got on the horse. The woman's companion closed the door at the woman's house and sang the song "don degma", while nashkin had to answer the song before he was allowed to enter. When nashkin stepped into the threshold, they splashed water from the top of the door, laughing and joking, praying for good luck. When nashkin went to the Kang to drink tea and eat, the aunts began to sing instead of scolding, sing the song "nashkinsko", ridicule and welcome their relatives in every way, which was witty and funny. After the aunts finished singing, nashkin also sang and danced until the chicken crowed for the first time. This night, the woman can't sleep at home. There are two ways for Tu girls to marry, one is "small out and small in", and the other is "big out and big in". The so-called "small out and small in", that is, the bride changes her hair style after she goes to her mother-in-law's house. This way is more complex and solemn. The so-called "big out and big in" is to change the hair style at her mother's house and worship heaven and earth immediately after arriving at her mother-in-law's house. This method is relatively simple and easy. When the bride enters the door of her mother-in-law's house, two young women pull a red felt or a white felt in front of her. The bride and groom follow the felt, male left and female right, holding a cloth doll made of red cloth, and slowly step into the courtyard side by side. The bride of "small out and small in" went to the kitchen god, and the woman selected in advance began to comb her hair, change her hair style, wear wedding clothes and hold an opening ceremony. Then worship heaven and earth. The matchmaker or an elder of the "red benevolence" (wedding team) presided over a speech: "the flower like aunt walked through the door of the gold building, came to the gold inlaid courtyard, and kowtowed to the gods and Buddhas of the world!" the bride and groom should worship four times in a row and enter the bridal chamber. Then thank the matchmaker. The Tu people call it "wariwa ximala". At noon, the mother's family sent her relatives to place a dowry in the mother-in-law's yard and dress the groom.
In the past, there were some bad habits in the marriage of the Tu people, such as the custom of "wearing the head of heaven", that is, when the Tu girl was 15 years old and was not engaged, she had to accept the adult ceremony of "wearing the head of heaven", which was decided by her parents. On New Year's Eve, she married Tian, changed the girl's hair style to that of an adult woman, and decorated with various headwear. From then on, the woman could freely choose the object, live in her mother's home Inherit family property and other unique rights of matrilineal society, and give birth to children to their mother's family without social discrimination. For another example, in the past, most of the Tu areas implemented sales arranged marriages. Young men and women were bound by "the orders of their parents and the words of the matchmaker". Marriage was not free, and the bride price was heavy, so it was very difficult for the poor to get a wife. Some women don't accept bride price, but they need a man to work for their daughter's family for several years before they can get married, or recruit a son-in-law to become a burden, or the two families marry each other, which is called "changing relatives". After the founding of new China, under the leadership of the party, the Tu people automatically got up, abolished a series of bad habits in traditional marriage, and established a healthy marriage concept based on free love and monogamy.
Cremation is a traditional custom of the Tu nationality. Except for the sky burial of the dead children, the Tu Nationality in Minhe County usually carries out cremation.
When Tu people die, they are usually buried within three to seven days. When a funeral is held, the Lama should be invited to chant scriptures for three days and the old people in the village should chant mani. On the last day of the funeral, relatives and friends came to offer condolences, hada and steamed bread. On the day of cremation, send the spirit sedan to the cremation site, put the deceased facing the West into the furnace, light the fire with cypress branches, smash the spirit sedan, put it into the furnace and burn it at the same time. Generally, on the third day of cremation, the ashes are put into a wooden box or porcelain pot more than one foot long and temporarily buried in a temporarily selected place. They will be buried in the ancestral cemetery on the Tomb Sweeping Day next year. Abnormal deaths cannot be buried in ancestral graves. After the dead are buried, their descendants mourn for 49 days.
The Tu people have no special filial piety clothes, do not wear colored clothes and hats during mourning, do not stick Spring Festival couplets for three years, and do not visit relatives and friends in those years.
Qi Tusi of Tu nationality is a big family with deep history from the ancestor Gongge Xingji to Qi Changshou during the Republic of China.
The Tu Li surname is originally the chieftain surname. Although the population of Tu nationality is small, there are many people surnamed Li. It is said that these Tu Li surnames come from the surnames of the former chieftain (descendants of the Xixia royal family). In the history of the Tu nationality, there were dozens of chieftains, such as Xi Li chieftain, Dong Li chieftain and others. Some people under the jurisdiction of chieftain Li later took the chieftain's surname and became Li.
The famous Tu Li family includes Li Wen, an official of the Ming Dynasty, Li Nange, an official of the Tu nationality at the end of the Yuan Dynasty and the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, Li Yang, an official of the Ming Dynasty, Li Tianyu, an official of the Tu nationality at the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty.
Li Ying (unknown year of birth and death) is the son of Li Nange, the commander of Xining Wei, the eight Xipan tribes who had been appeased by the Ming Dynasty. Because of his outstanding military achievements, Li Ying was granted Huining Bo by Emperor Xuanzong and became one of the highest knights in Li Tusi's family. In the first year of Hongwu (1368), Li Nange led the people to the imperial court, granted the Tongzhi of Xining Prefecture and the command of Xining Wei. Later, Li Ying inherited his father's position. He has courage and talent, is good at shooting and riding, and is very familiar with the dangerous terrain and ethnic conditions of the four guards of Gansu and Qinghai. During the northern expedition of Chengzu in the Ming Dynasty, the soldiers led by Li Ying often acted as pioneers and often captured more victories than other armies, so Li Ying was trusted and favored by Chengzu. In the winter of the tenth year of Yongle (1413), a leader of the Tu nationality rebelled, Li Yingxing attacked, captured 360 soldiers, and beheaded them all. Emperor Yongle conferred the post of commander of the capital for his meritorious service in fighting the rebellion.
Zhang dalima, a Tu monk, is proficient in Chinese. Emperor Chengzu of the Ming Dynasty granted Zuo Jueyi. He acted wantonly in Xining and stole the tribute from Xifan. The government wanted to capture Yan, but he fled to the Mongolian border and committed crimes for more than ten years. When Li Ying found his whereabouts, he led the army to capture him and copy him all over the door. All the border residents applauded. In 1425, the Ming Dynasty sent envoys Qiao Laixi and Deng Cheng to the western regions via anding and Quxian. The departments of Anding and Qu Xian forgot their righteousness in the face of profit, robbed the gold and silver property given to the western regions, and killed the envoys Qiao Laixi, Deng Cheng and their entourage. There was also a commotion in the border areas. Emperor Renzong ordered Li Ying, who was the local official of Shaanxi Xingdu at that time, to lead the soldiers of Xining guards to put an end to the rebellion. Li Ying led his troops to chase after Kunlun Mountain, captured and killed more than 1000 people, captured and killed more than 140000 camels, horses, cattle and sheep. In his imperial edict to Li Ying, Emperor Xuanzong spoke highly of Li Ying and named Li Ying Huining Bo.
(1897.2.16-1972.3.16), the words are the same. Descendants of Xixia royal family, from Ledu County, Qinghai Province. Folk historian and Xixia historian.
Since 1915, Mr. Li Hongyi has been studying and managing the history of Li's family in Xixia after class. After that, he studied the history of Xixia without asking about the cold and heat. Fifty years have been like a day, with fruitful results. In 1965, she was accused of writing a genealogy and suffered a cruel struggle. Ten thousand volumes of books in the house were burned by the red guards. He loved books as much as his life. Seeing this, he cried bitterly and became seriously ill. He died on March 16, 1972 at the age of 76.
(1919-1977), Tu poetess, descendant of Xixia royal family and native of Minhe County, Qinghai Province, was praised as "rare female talent of ethnic minorities" by the famous scholar Mr. Zhang Shizhao. Li Yiqing had a bumpy life and created a large number of poems, which attracted the attention of the literary circles. Looking at her poems, they were fresh, graceful, harmonious and neat; Words are bold and unrestrained, or sad and sad. His works are sincere, lingering, vivid and touching, and have high artistic charm and aesthetic value. It is a milestone in the achievement of Tu literature. Notes to the poems of Li Yiqing, a Tu poetess, contains 40 poems, 79 poems and 6 fragments.
(1934 -), Zi Zhi, Bei ye, from Ledu County, Qinghai Province. He is a world-famous expert in abacus history, a famous Chinese mathematician and mathematics educator.
In 1953, he was admitted to the Department of mathematics of Northwest University. In 1956, he was recommended by Mr. Yang Yongfang, chairman of the Department, to stay in the Department of mathematics. It was not until 1959 that he left Northwestern University to teach calculus in the Department of mathematics of Ankang University. In 1962, Ankang University was closed and went to work in his wife's hometown of Langao County as a mathematics teacher and head of mathematics teaching and research in Langao middle school. In 1978, he was transferred to the Mathematics Department of Ankang normal college to teach mathematical analysis. In 1981, he was transferred to Shaanxi College of finance, successively served as director of the foundation department and director of scientific research, taught calculus, linear algebra, probability theory and mathematical statistics, computing technology and other courses, and was promoted to associate professor and professor. Later, he was a professor of Shaanxi Institute of economics and trade. In 1992, he was employed as a part-time professor and graduate tutor by Northwest University to guide graduate students in mathematical history. In 2004, he was employed as a consultant and part-time professor by the world China abacus College of mental arithmetic in Malaysia. He is now a professor of Xi'an University of Finance and economics, a professor of mathematical history and a graduate supervisor of mathematical history of Northwestern University. He used to be a member of the second session of Shaanxi Association for science and technology, vice president of the fifth session of China Abacus Association, consultant of China Abacus Association (renamed China Abacus Mental Arithmetic Association on January 1, 2006), vice president of China abacus History Research Association, operation member of Japan abacus history research Association, President of Shaanxi Mathematics History Research Association, vice president of Shaanxi Abacus Association and consultant of Xi'an Abacus Association, Honorary president of Sichuan Qiang society.
(1934 -) descendants of Xixia royal family, from Ledu County, Qinghai Province. He is a famous educator in Gansu Province, executive director of senior high school education professional committee of China Education Society, director of China success Research Association, and subject professor of Hong Kong Modern Education Theory Research Association. In 1981, he served as president of Lanhua No. 1 middle school and President of Xining Boya foreign language school. In January 2000, he participated in the Millennium symposium held in the Great Hall of the people with the qualification of 100 principals, and won the title of advanced personal representative of "contemporary Chinese spirit". Determined to reform, we have implemented "four rectifications", "three reforms" and "two broadening", and blazed a new path to run enterprise middle schools well. 86 and 87 have been jointly awarded "national advanced collective of education system", "national advanced collective of experimental instruments in primary and secondary schools" and "national advanced collective of traditional school sports projects" by the State Education Commission, the National Federation of education trade unions and the State Sports Commission The title was incorporated into the famous Chinese schools. After he became the principal of Lanwei middle school in July 1993, he worked hard to build a weak school into a vibrant comprehensive characteristic school. He has published nearly 300000 word papers in national and provincial journals, such as "how do I work as a principal", "on patriotism education in middle schools", "education must adapt to economic and social development", "art education in primary and secondary schools", "entering society - the fundamental strategy of secondary education reform in the 21st century", etc.
GUI Jun e
(1942 -) from Xining, Qinghai Province, oil painter and first-class artist. A member of the Communist Party of China. E Guijun graduated from Qinghai culture and art school in 1960. He once worked in Xining Hongqi cinema and Xining cultural center. He taught himself oil painting and printmaking in his spare time, and engaged in art creation. During this period, he served as a member of Qinghai Youth Federation and a director of Qinghai Foreign Friendship Association. In 1987, e Guijun transferred to Shanghai oil painting and Sculpture Institute as a full-time oil painter and first-class artist. More than ten of his works have participated in large-scale national art exhibitions organized by the Chinese Artists Association and the Ministry of culture. Among them, the oil painting "welcoming the bride" won the first prize in the national minority art exhibition held in 1982; The oil painting footsteps of spring won the bronze medal in the sixth national art exhibition; The printmaking "farmhouse" won the excellent award of the Eighth National Printmaking Exhibition, and "feeling on the plateau", "setting cattle" and "distant guest" won eight provincial cultural creation awards in Qinghai. E Guijun's works have participated in cultural exchange exhibitions such as the exhibition of excellent works of modern China held in Japan, the Berlin International Printmaking Exhibition and the Shanghai modern art exhibition held in Shanghai. Some works have been collected by China Art Museum and Beijing National Culture Palace, and have been selected into large collections such as selected paintings in China art collection and Chinese contemporary oil painting.
(1962 -) Shen Yan, Tai le and light garden owner, from Ledu County, Qinghai Province. Founder and theoretical founder of difficult diseases of traditional Chinese medicine, the seventh grandson of Li Shitai, a medical scientist in the Qing Dynasty. He graduated from Shaanxi College of traditional Chinese medicine and Beijing University of traditional Chinese medicine, and later received a doctor's degree in traditional medicine from the World University of traditional medical science and technology. He has successively served as the chief physician of aikele Hospital of traditional Chinese medicine in the United States, professor and doctoral supervisor of Hong Kong Chinese Academy of traditional Chinese medicine, vice president of the world society of difficult diseases of traditional Chinese medicine, chairman and chief expert of the professional committee of gynecology. He is now a medical expert member of the world education, science, culture and health organization, a lifelong professor of the discipline school of the world society of difficult diseases of traditional Chinese medicine, and the director and researcher of Shaanxi Kaiyuan medicine and traditional Chinese medicine research center. He has long been engaged in theoretical research on difficult diseases of traditional Chinese medicine, and has made in-depth research on the clinical treatment of gynecological difficult diseases and diseases related to sexual dysfunction of men and women. The academic thought of "establishing the theoretical system of difficult diseases of traditional Chinese medicine" is put forward, which is praised by the academic circles as the founder and theoretical founder of difficult diseases of traditional Chinese medicine. Put forward the academic thought of the diagnosis and treatment system of "diagnosis and treatment based on syndrome differentiation", put forward the academic thought of the pathogenesis theory of "deficiency of blood stasis, phlegm and toxic water", put forward the pathogenesis theory of "kidney deficiency and blood stasis" of difficult gynecological diseases of traditional Chinese medicine, and summarized and invented "Li Shenyan fault impact therapy". These theories and methods have made outstanding contributions to the establishment, development and progress of difficult diseases of traditional Chinese medicine. The discovery of "Li Shenyan's breast quantification law" provides a quantitative scientific basis for the diagnosis and treatment of breast diseases. The viewpoint of establishing a "palace centered framework theoretical system" in gynecology has attracted extensive attention in the academic community. Founded the "Nangong Mountain Natural Therapy" system, actively advocated, promoted, sorted and studied Nangong mountain natural therapy, summarized and invented the "Chinese cautious health preservation method", and promoted the international exchange project of Chinese traditional medicine. Won five domestic academic awards and five international academic awards. More than 60 academic papers have been published, including "China's traditional medicine famous doctors special effects collection", "the essence of clinical experience of TCM gynaecology and difficult diseases", "quality education series of national universities, school health education", and the representative works are Li Jimin's medical corpus. Clinical expertise: TCM treatment of difficult diseases such as uterine dysplasia, endometriosis, hysteromyoma, breast dysplasia, breast hyperplasia, vulvar white lesions (vulvar leukoplakia), female vulvar condyloma acuminatum, female sexual dysfunction, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and so on.
In 1994, he was awarded the honorary title of "China Science and technology star" and in 1998, he was awarded the title of "young TCM expert with outstanding contributions"; In 2000, he was awarded "the most outstanding contribution award of the 20th century" and "Lifetime Achievement Award" by the world society of difficult diseases of traditional Chinese medicine. In 2001, it was selected as one of the "ten outstanding figures who have the most influence on the academic development of traditional Chinese medicine in the past 100 years of the 20th century". His achievements have been recorded in the key projects of China's ninth five year plan, such as the World Department of traditional medicine · outstanding figures of contemporary world traditional medicine, the son of the East, and the world who is famous (United States).
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