Kirgiz, a foreign homologous nation, is called Kyrgyz in Chinese translation. The national language is Kirgiz, belonging to the kpchak group of the East Hungarian branch of the Turkic language family of Altai language family.
Kirgiz are mainly distributed in Kyrgyzstan and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. Hundreds of people also live in Wujiazi village, Fuyu County, Heilongjiang Province. They moved from Xinjiang in the 18th century.
Kirgiz is the main ethnic group in Kyrgyzstan, accounting for 69.2% of its total population. According to the statistics of the sixth national census in 2010, the population of Kirgiz in China is 186708.
Kyrgyz nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||Kirgiz nationality|
|Foreign name||Кыргыз、 Kyrgyz|
|race||Yellow white mixed race|
|Main distribution||Kyrgyzstan, China, Russia|
Chinese PinYin : Ke Er Ke Zi Zu
"Kirgiz" is not only the self proclaimed name of the nation, but also the name of other nationalities. Foreign homologous nationalities are translated into Chinese as "Kyrgyz".
There are many different interpretations of the meaning of "Kirgiz":
One is the plural of 40, which can be interpreted as "40 '100 households", that is, 40 tribes;
One is "nomads in the mountains", and the other is "ugus in the mountains", "people near the mountains and rivers" and "grassland people";
It is also said that "Kirk" is forty, "Kezi" is a "girl", and "Kirgiz" is forty girls.
The history of Kirgiz can be traced back to 2000 years ago. The earliest records of Kirgiz ancestors appeared in historical records - biographies of Xiongnu. At the end of the 3rd century BC, among the northern tribes conquered by the Xiongnu, there was "Fukun". In the book of Han, it was "GEKUN", "Fukun" or "GEKUN", that is, the ancestors of the Kirgiz nationality, and "Fukun" was the translation of Kirgiz at that time. According to the records in the historical records, the "luokun" at that time lived in the north of the Xiongnu, around the Kyrgyz Lake in the north of the current Mongolian People's Republic, and its activity area was between the Afu River (abagen River) and the Jianshui River (Yenisei River).
Before the Tang Dynasty, Kirgiz were mainly engaged in nomadism, fishing and hunting. By the Tang Dynasty, Kirgiz had a great development, with a population of hundreds of thousands, including 80000 soldiers. Although they still focus on animal husbandry, agricultural production has developed to a certain extent. They can make weapons with iron and use the zodiac, reflecting that the social economy and culture of the ancient Kirgiz were relatively advanced among the northern nationalities at that time. Kirgiz language belongs to the Turkic language family of Altai language family. In the 5th and 6th centuries, under the rule of the Turkic khanate, the Kirgiz used ancient Turkic. Kirgiz nationality is located in the west of Xiongnu and was conquered by Xiongnu in Han Dynasty. Since then, it has been ruled by Xianbei, Rouran and other nationalities.
During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the Kirgiz nationality was known as "Qigu", which was first ruled by the Turks and had an affinity with the Turks. At the beginning of Zhenguan, the Turks were destroyed by Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty, and the Qigu was attached to Xue yantuo. At that time, Qigu belonged to three chiefs and there was no unified political organization. Once Lifa lost his bowl, Xue yantuo Khan sent qu'a stack as the governor, which was subordinate to the Yanran capital guard. In the following decades, it maintained good relations with all ethnic groups in the north and the Tang Dynasty. During the reign of emperor suzong of the Tang Dynasty and the reign of emperor Qianyuan (758-760), Qigu was defeated by Huihe and surrendered to Huihe. Later, Qigu was called xiajiasi. In the 1920s, under the leadership of its leader a Ge, xiajiasi gradually became strong and launched a struggle against Uighur rule. This struggle lasted for more than 20 years. In 840 ad, when the ruling group of the Uighur Khanate had internal strife and suffered from famine, under the guidance of the Uighur general JURU Mohe, he sent 100000 troops to invade the Uighur khanate, killed the Khan and dug luowu, forcing all Uighur departments to leave their hometown and move south and West. On the basis of the territory of the former Uighur khanate, the qiagas ruling group headed by a re established a powerful qiagas khanate, with its capital in the gambling Pu (today's Tuva) area south of Laoshan (about Sayan ridge in the upper reaches of Yenisei River).
Liao history called xiajiasi as xiajiasi. By the 10th century, the Qidan nationality rose,
Xiajiasi became a vassal state of the Qidan regime, and Liao set up "Royal Palace of the Jiasi state" in Jiasi. In 1124, when yeludashi fled West and passed through the Hagars region, he plundered wantonly and was intercepted and expelled by the Hagars.
In Yuan Dynasty, Kirgiz people were called qierjisi or jilijsi. At the end of the 12th century, during the rise of Mongolia, Kirgiz nationality was also invaded by Mongolia. In 1206, timuzhen, known as Genghis Khan, enfeoffed the common people including Kirgiz to his brother huoerchi.
After the death of the Yuan Dynasty, the Wala Department of Western Mongolia, the close neighbor of the Kirgiz nationality, became strong, and the Kirgiz nationality became the subordinate department of the Wala. In the early 15th century, with the death of the Wara leader, the Wara forces weakened and gradually moved westward to the Ertis river. Kirgiz got rid of Wala's rule.
In the 16th century, the Kirgiz along the Yenisei River were divided into four parts, known as four kingdoms, namely Tuva Kingdom, yezer Kingdom, altier Kingdom and altissar kingdom. King aletisaar is the first of the four kings. At the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century, Junggar became stronger and stronger. Most of the Kirgiz became the genera and territories of Junggar. At the same time, it was also one of the important areas contested by Junggar Khan and Altan Khan. At this time, the spearhead of tsarist Russia's eastward aggression and expansion extended to Kirgiz area. The Kirgiz people have fiercely resisted the aggression and expansion of tsarist Russia. In the autumn of 1703, the Kirgiz, who suffered heavy casualties, obeyed the decision of their urut patriarch and, under the leadership of 2500 urut soldiers, moved to the southeast grassland of the Erqis river. In the process of migration, except for a few remaining in the valley between Sayan mountains and tangnu mountains (today's Tuva area), most of them moved to the western isek Lake area, fergan basin and its nearby mountains, and the other part moved to the Pamir Plateau, Hindu Kush mountain and Karakorum mountain and their nearby areas to meet with the same ethnic groups who arrived here earlier.
In the Qing Dynasty, the Kirgiz were called brutes. At the beginning of the 18th century, the brutes were in the feudal agriculture
In the stage of slavery, nomadic animal husbandry was the main. "Aiman" is a social grass-roots organization. Several "aimans" are an otok, and their leaders are called "ratio". Each ratio "either leads one or twenty aimans, or leads twenty or thirty aimans". In order to oppose the plundering of Junggar, brute, together with Kazak and Uighur, waged a long-term struggle against the slavery and plundering of Junggar aristocrats. In fact, this struggle echoed the struggle between the government and the serf owners and nobles in Junggar during the Yongzheng and Qianlong periods, and played a role of mutual support.
In the late 18th century, Haohan conquered the brute tribe in the Fergana basin, and began to gradually invade all parts of China in the early 19th century.
In the middle of the 19th century, Russian forces gradually invaded the East. During the second Opium War, tsarist Russia took the opportunity to sign the Sino Russian Beijing treaty with the Qing Dynasty, which imposed a boundary between China and Russia in the northwest frontier area on the Qing government and assigned a large number of Kirgiz tribes to Russia. In 1864, the Qing government was forced to sign the northwest boundary treaty between China and Russia, and most Kirgiz tribes were included in Russia. When the Qing government set up a province in Xinjiang in 1884, only one twentieth of the total population of Kirgiz remained in the Qing Dynasty edition.
After the partition of Pamir between Britain and Russia in 1895, the Kirgiz people in selekur (now Tashkurgan County, Xinjiang) in the east of Pamir fought against tsarist Russia for a long time in order to prevent tsarist Russia from continuing its eastward advance.
After the revolution of 1911, the Kirgiz people in Xinjiang experienced the rule of Yang Zengxin (1911 ~ 1928), Jin Shuren (1928 ~ 1933), Sheng Shicai (1933 ~ 1944) and the Kuomintang. In 1916, Kazaks and Kirgiz in Central Asia resisted because they could not bear the dictatorship of tsarist Russia and were brutally suppressed. About 150000 Kirgiz refugees moved to Ili in Northern Xinjiang, Aksu, Ushi, Kashgar, Jiashi and other places in southern Xinjiang.
After the outbreak of the Anti Japanese War, the Kirgiz people took an active part in Anti Japanese activities. Many young people participated in the anti imperialist meeting, and herdsmen donated livestock and various items for the Anti Japanese front line.
On September 25, 1949, the Kirgiz people, together with the people of all ethnic groups, ushered in the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang. From then on, the bitter history ended. On July 14, 1954, Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture was announced to be established. The Autonomous Prefecture includes Atush City, Wuqia County, AHEQI county and aktao county. Today, Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture has written the history of national autonomy for more than 50 years in the annals of the Republic.
The basic form of social organization in ancient Kirgiz was clan tribal system, which was still completely retained in the Qing Dynasty, but it was essentially different from the clan tribal system in the primitive society. There are class antagonisms within the clan and tribe, and the blood relationship has been broken. The ancestors of people from the same clan may belong to another clan, tribe or even another nation. The clan tribe has actually become an administrative system.
In the Qing Dynasty, the Kirgiz tribes mentioned in Chinese documents mainly include: sayak, salbagash, buku, huosuochu, Qitai, Salou, edegna, monkordor, qilik, baszi, chongbagash, hushiqi, yuevash, tiit, Naiman, xibuchak, nuigut, suletu, etc. If the above tribes are divided according to nomadic areas, they can be divided into East and west along the narin River and Fergana mountains; According to the kinship between tribes, these tribes can be divided into "ishkrik" (internal) and "seltk" (external), and "ishkrik" and "seltk" can be divided into left and right.
"Ishkrik" and "seltek" are roughly two major tribal consortia composed of large and small tribes according to their kinship. In most cases, the tribe is called "otok", governing ten or twenty or thirty clans (Aiman), and the chief is called "Bi". Aiman is composed of several ayinle, whose head is called "ahlakzi". Ayinle is a grass-roots unit where tribal and clan members live and work together. It is generally composed of 5 ~ 7 households, with its own name and fixed pasture. Members assist each other in agricultural and animal husbandry production and hunting activities. Each ayin Le has a leader (bash) who presides over various internal production labor. Households or herdsmen (accounts) are the cells of Kirgiz society.
After the establishment of Xinjiang Province in 1884, with the strengthening of centralization and the establishment of various administrative institutions, the Kirgiz traditional clan and tribal system changed significantly and began to disintegrate gradually. The traditional social organization based on paternal blood relationship has been transformed into a social organization based on geographical relationship. A yinle became a simple production organization. Since the 1930s, Kirgiz area has been completely incorporated into the administrative system at all levels of county, District, township and village. Major problems among ayin Le members and between ayin Le members are no longer handled by the head but by the District, township and village government. After the founding of new China, although the clan and tribal organization of Kirgiz nationality has disappeared, it still exists due to the influence of traditional customs, tribal ideas and tribal leaders, which is more obvious in pastoral areas.
The ancestors of Kirgiz nationality entered the class society very early. Archaeological materials confirm that there is a polarization between the rich and the poor among tribal members. During the reign of Xue yantuo khanate, tribal affairs were divided into three chieftains, i.e. Lun Xi generation, Ju Shabo generation and AMI generation. Xue yantuo sent a jielifa to supervise. In the Tang Dynasty, the Han literature and history books called the chief of xiajiasi as "a re" (the later Turkic Khanate and Uighur Khanate were called Khan). Under a re, there were Prime Minister, governor, envoy (the mistake of Assassin), long history, general, Dagan and other official positions. In the Qing Dynasty, the Kirgiz nationality had a wide range of activities, but the interior was not unified. The large and small tribes were divided into different levels. According to customary law, in the early Qing Dynasty, the left and right wings of Kirgiz had to choose a big "ratio" from their older ratio to manage public affairs every year. The left-wing proponent was called Mamut huri and the right-wing proponent was called karaboto. The two dabis did not have the ruling power of each tribe and the big feudal lord, but were only equivalent to the leader of the tribe alliance. The actual ruling power of each tribe is in the hands of tribal chiefs called "urukbi". After the unification of Xinjiang in the Qing Dynasty, the leaders of the affiliated Kirgiz tribes were given two to seven top hats, and the management of the old headquarters remained unchanged, but they had the obligation to pay tribute to Beijing. The entire Kirgiz area is under the exclusive management of the counsellor Minister of Kashgar, while for areas close to ILI, the leader minister sent by the general of Ili will patrol once every two years. After the establishment of Xinjiang Province, the Burke system was abolished, and the road, government, Department, state and county systems became the political system for managing Kirgiz areas. The grass-roots management below the Department, prefecture and county level has implemented the 1000 or 100 head of household system in Northern Xinjiang and the township treaty system in southern Xinjiang. Thousands and hundreds of heads of households and village conventions were still held by tribal leaders and appointed by the government. This management method for Kirgiz areas was used until the period of the Republic of China.
After the founding of new China, in accordance with the provisions of the common program of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference on "regional national autonomy should be implemented in areas inhabited by ethnic minorities", and on the basis of widely listening to the opinions of people from all walks of life and in-depth investigation, the Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Region was established on July 14, 1954. The autonomous region is an autonomous unit at the regional level, which is composed of Atush County, Wuqia County, aktao County, Aheqi and other counties. In October 1955, Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Region was renamed Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture. "Kizilsu" means "red water". In Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture, there are 11 ethnic groups, including Kirgiz, Uighur, Han, Tajik, Uzbek, Kazak, Manchu, Hui, Xibe, Russia and Tatar. Atushi, the capital, has become the political, economic and cultural center of the Autonomous Prefecture and one of the important towns in southern Xinjiang.
Before the founding of new China in 1949, the productivity level in Kirgiz inhabited areas was very low. People were mainly engaged in animal husbandry and raised livestock by heaven. At the end of 1949, the total stock of cattle, horses, donkeys, sheep and other livestock was only 335500.
After the founding of new China, a series of principles and policies were implemented in pastoral areas, such as "focusing on animal husbandry, combining agriculture with animal husbandry and diversified management", and the household contract responsibility system linked to output in pastoral areas was actively implemented and improved, which greatly changed the backward appearance of animal husbandry production. With the continuous improvement of livestock breeding and survival, the quality of livestock has also been improved. In the 1950s, Xinjiang Fine Wool Sheep and Askania fine wool sheep with both wool and meat were introduced. The improved fine wool sheep made of the two hybrids has better performance. In the 1980s, Tashkurgan big tailed sheep were introduced, and Altai breeding sheep were introduced in recent years. While improving sheep, improved breeds of cattle have been introduced to improve local breeds. The government has also established veterinary stations and grassland stations to strengthen the prevention and control of livestock diseases and grassland construction. More advanced animal husbandry management methods such as cultivating artificial grassland, rotational grazing, artificial insemination and herd grazing have been popularized. The transformation of traditional animal husbandry with modern science and technology has been widely recognized by cadres at all levels and the majority of herdsmen. Animal husbandry production developed rapidly. By the end of 2005, the number of cattle, horses, donkeys, sheep, pigs and other livestock had reached 1559900.
Before the founding of new China, agricultural production was extremely backward. There are only two oxen to raise the bar and cut down the earth, and wooden plows are also used in some remote areas. Agricultural farming is primitive and extensive. Without fertilization and weeding, the yield is very low. In 1949, the total grain output was only 23129 tons, 64.5 tons of cotton and 601.5 tons of oil. In the 1950s, large-scale capital construction such as land reclamation and water conservancy was carried out, which changed the situation that grain and feed had to rely on foreign supply. In 2005, the area of cultivated land reached 302300 hectares. With the introduction and improvement of crop varieties, the unit yield of crops has also increased greatly. The output of grain crops has reached 170911 tons, 7761 tons of cotton, 954 tons of oil and 12974 tons of vegetables. The mechanization level of agriculture has also been continuously improved. The whole prefecture has 2143 agricultural large and medium-sized tractors and 1990 supporting agricultural tools; 4463 small agricultural tractors and 6099 agricultural tools.
With the development of agriculture and animal husbandry, local industries in Kirgiz have been built from scratch. Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture has established industrial and mining enterprises such as coal and iron, machinery, cement, electric power, non-ferrous metals, papermaking, food and fur processing. The road network centered on Atush city has been established, running through all counties, townships and towns. State owned and private commercial institutions are scattered to various residential areas, which facilitates the production and life of the people of all ethnic groups. Turgat port and irkeshtan port have made full use of the geographical advantages of Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture, and their foreign trade has improved greatly.
Kirgiz people first believed in Shamanism, which is still believed by Kirgiz people living in Fuyu County, Heilongjiang Province. Kirgiz in Tacheng and Emin counties in Xinjiang believe in Tibetan Buddhism. However, most Kirgiz believe in Islam and have remnants of primitive beliefs.
Kut belief is one of the original religious beliefs of Kirgiz nationality. Kurt, Kirgiz means imaginary mascot. Kirgiz believe that Kurt can bring good luck. Only those with a broad mind and a kind heart can get it. Gadatash is a sacrificial utensil used by Kirgiz to pray for rain. People think it has magic and can get rain. Once there is no rain for a long time, some people will hold a rain stone to pray for rain. The rain praying ceremony is simple, that is, put the magic stone into the water bowl and stir the water in the bowl for rain. The amulet is a small cloth bag specially sewn to eliminate disasters and evil spirits. It is mostly triangular and contains Scriptures or spells written by mullahs or sages. It must be taken with you and taken care of carefully. Kirgiz people's totem worship stems from their worship of animals. The Kirgiz people engaged in nomadism and hunting in ancient times had special feelings for animals, especially for their strength and bravery. They want to develop themselves with the help of the divine power of animals, and seek the protection of fierce animals. They regard these animals as their protective gods, and tattoo the graphics of these animals on their bodies or embroider them on fabrics and hang them in yurts.
Kirgiz ancestors believed that Shaman was the messenger of God and the messenger of communication between man and God. Kirgiz believe that shamans can not only predict good and bad luck, but also refer to mazes and eliminate disasters. In the minds of the ancient Kirgiz, shamans had the ability to dominate everything in the world, call the wind and rain, exercise magic power and change everything in the world. The words of the shaman are the will of God. Now Kirgiz people call "Shaman" Bakxi. Bakxi's main activities are to preside over Shamanism ceremonies such as offering sacrifices to heaven, praying for blessings, eliminating disasters, treating diseases, praying for children and praying for rain.
The Kirgiz in Tacheng city and Emin County of Xinjiang are influenced by the Mongols, and most of them believe in Tibetan Buddhism. Kirgiz call the Lama Temple "Kuriya". Lamas are invited to chant scriptures, worship the heaven and worship the Buddha in large and small ceremonies such as door recognition, wedding and marriage recognition. Funerals, seven day sacrifices and forty day sacrifices all have to be slaughtered and rituals held. Lamas are asked to chant scriptures and pray. In addition, the Kirgiz in Fuyu County, Heilongjiang Province also believe in Tibetan Buddhism. They offer sacrifices to Taibai Venus and tree gods on April 18 every year. During the sacrifice, they kill animals, gather for one day, and horse racing and archery. On October 25, the Big Dipper was sacrificed, and buckwheat flour was used to make Buddha lanterns for offering.
From the end of the 9th century to the beginning of the 10th century, Islam was introduced into Xinjiang. After the rulers of the Kara Khan dynasty believed in Islam, they launched Jihad and forced the residents to believe in Islam. Some Kirgiz who moved to the south of Tianshan changed to Islam. Later, Kirgiz people who moved to Tianshan and Central Asia also believed in the religion. By the 18th century, most of the Kirgiz believed in Islam. The teachings, rules, sharia, marriage, funeral and other systems of Islam had completely penetrated into all fields of Kirgiz's thought, culture, morality and life, especially its language, literature, education, art, architecture and customs.
Kirgiz people usually wear small hats with a black cloth or black velveteen on the lower edge. In winter, they wear leather hats made of fox skin or lamb skin (don't be too dependent).
The man wore a round neck shirt with rusted white lace, a "formate loop" made of sheepskin or blue and black cotton cloth, a belt around the waist or an embroidered cloth belt. Wear panties inside the lower body and wide leg trousers made of blue and black flannelette and other cloth outside. Generally wear felt boots and felt socks in winter. The old people like to wear leather pants and self-made light boat shaped leather shoes in winter.
Women often wear long dresses with folds. The outer cover of the skirt is embroidered with various patterns with silk thread, decorated with silver buckle and copper wire, colorful golden velvet camisoles, and bright leather boots. Unmarried women wear red golden velvet domed flower hats or large red domed hats with beads, Tassels and feathers made of otter and marmot skins. Young married women like to wear red and green headscarves, red, green and purple tops and skirts, and wear more decorations. Middle aged and elderly women wear white headscarves, blue and black coats and coats with little decoration.
The diet of Kirgiz nationality is mainly beef, sheep, horses, camels, yak meat and dairy products. Almost three meals a day are inseparable from meat, milk and dairy products.
Wheat, highland barley and vegetables are only supplementary food in the diet of Kirgiz nationality.
"Kemozi" (mare's milk wine) and "Bozuo" (sporozi wine) are the best drinks for Kirgiz to entertain guests in summer and autumn.
Modern Kirgiz have basically settled down, but they still retain the traditional characteristics of some nomadic nationalities.
There is a slight difference between houses in rural and pastoral areas. There are many courtyard houses in rural villages, and there are many flat roof houses with brick and wood structures. Kirgiz people in pastoral areas like to cover yurts with white felt, which is called "Bozi Wuyi", which is related to their advocating of white. Herdsmen often live near rivers in high mountains with cool climate in summer, which is called "xiawozi"; In winter, most people live in the valley with warm climate, which is called "winter nest".
The Kirgiz family is generally a patriarchal family composed of three generations of grandparents and grandchildren or less. The family includes seven generations of immediate and collateral relatives, namely, great grandfather, grandfather and father, and children, grandchildren and great grandchildren. Collateral includes the brothers and sisters of great grandfather, grandfather and father. The concepts of ethical hierarchy and descent, family rules and family obligations between the immediate and collateral relatives of the Kirgiz nationality are relatively strict. Parents shall have the obligation to name, raise, educate and marry their children, and children shall have the obligation to support and die their parents and the right to inherit family property.
After the founding of new China, the remnants of Kirgiz's feudal patriarchy, feudal ethics and bad habits gradually disappeared with the development of production and the improvement of culture. In particular, some old traditions in family marriage, such as abdominal marriage, widows who cannot remarry and return to their dead brothers, polygamy and early marriage, have changed significantly due to the continuous improvement of the ideological level of the Kirgiz people and the continuous advocacy of the new socialist fashion. The traditional patriarchal extended family is gradually divided, and the family size is gradually becoming smaller. The nuclear family and the backbone family composed of grandparents, parents and a married son (usually a young son) have become the main form of family. Family relations have become more democratic and equal. With the publicity and implementation of the family planning policy, the concept of family fertility has changed greatly. Divorce is no longer a man's privilege, and the dissolution of marriage must go through relevant procedures according to law.
Kirgiz language belongs to kepuchak group of East Hungarian branch of Turkic language family of Altai language family.
Most Kirgiz use their own language. Kirgiz residents living together with Uighur in agricultural areas of aktao county and other counties speak Uyghur or both; Most Kirgiz residents in Tekes, Zhaosu and other counties in Northern Xinjiang also use Kazakh; Most Kirgiz residents living together with Kazak and Mongolian in Tacheng city and Emin County speak Kazakh and Mongolian; Kirgiz residents living together with Han and Mongolian nationalities in Heilongjiang speak both Chinese and Mongolian.
More and more Kirgiz in cities and towns, especially teenagers, speak Chinese and Chinese.
In the Kirgiz literary heritage, folk literature occupies the primary position. Its forms include myths, legends, stories, epics, narrative poems, fables, folk songs, proverbs, riddles, tongue twisters, etc., with rich content and diverse themes.
Manas is a heroic epic with grand scale and wide spread, which enjoys a high reputation at home and abroad. The long poem describes all aspects of Kirgiz society and is an encyclopedia of Kirgiz language, history, religion, culture, politics, economy, philosophy, aesthetics, military, medicine and customs. Its main content is that Manas and his descendants led the Kirgiz people's struggle against foreign aggression, expressed the people's desire for freedom and peaceful life, and praised the spirit of patriotism and heroism.
Kirgiz folk sports are mostly derived from folk games, which are difficult to distinguish.
Games can be divided into three types: sports, intelligence and entertainment. Sports type, such as "horse racing", "holding sheep", "tug of war", "horse wrestling", "rabbit kicking", "one leg running", etc; Intelligence type, such as "nine trough flag", "cross flag", "hidden condyle", "flying, flying" and so on; Entertainment type, such as "looking for a partner", "blindfolded looking for a partner", "asking for a ring", etc. The three types are often interspersed and permeated with each other, integrating sports in entertainment.
Most Kirgiz folk games are closely related to history, production and life. Among them, "horse racing", "holding sheep" and "horseback wrestling" have been included in the national official sports.
Kirgiz have a long history of traditional handicrafts, including wood making, metal processing, textile embroidery, etc. The animals, figures, flowers, trees, sun, moon and stars carved and embroidered are rich in content, beautiful in shape, vivid in image, full of distinctive national characteristics and strong flavor of life, reflecting the wisdom and talent of Kirgiz nationality.
The earrings and rings inlaid with gold, silver and red copper of Kirgiz nationality have a unique national style. Tableware and household utensils made of iron and copper, such as teapots, pots, swords, buttons, bells, etc., are exquisite, strong and durable. More animals and dragons are carved on ornaments and utensils.
Kirgiz are famous for their good at making felt products. Almost every family has curtains (tuxituk), which is an indoor decoration with a long history. There are many kinds of Kirgiz grass woven fabrics, most of which are made of Achnatherum splendens. This kind of woven fabric is local, simple, economical and practical. It is not only an indispensable daily necessities, but also a unique handicraft.
Kirgiz women are good at weaving and embroidery, mainly including tapestries, curtains, headscarves, handkerchiefs, bedding, etc. The Kirgiz always carry a "Hu Erjun" with exquisite and exquisite organization on their horses, which is an indispensable "treasure bag" in daily life.
Kirgiz have rich musical heritage. Folk artists such as "Akon" (playing and singing artist), "Erqi" (folk singer), "kumziqi" (zither player) have enriched people's life through a variety of singing forms.
The national music (Kuyi) and musical instruments of Kirgiz nationality are one of the most precious national cultural heritages. Musical instruments popular among the people include "kumuzi", "OZI kumuzi", "keyak", "qiuur", suona, "duohule" (hand drum), "bath" (copper cymbal), "bangdaru", etc.
Kirgiz people call dance "Biyi", which mostly reflects the production and living conditions of animal husbandry, agriculture, handicraft industry, hunting and so on. Among them, dances reflecting animal husbandry production and life are the most common.
Kirgiz dance has many forms, such as single dance, double dance, group dance, men's and women's pair dance and joint dance. It is lively, vigorous and rhythmic. It is very close to life.
Kirgiz people practice exogamy. Traditionally, relatives of the seventh generation of the direct line and the fifth generation of the collateral line cannot intermarry, nor can they intermarry with children of other clans, tribes or nationalities and men and women who grow up on Mother's milk. Therefore, before engagement, we should understand each other's situation very carefully.
The engagement ceremony of Kirgiz nationality is grand, which is usually held at the woman's house. The man organized a "blind date group", took a live sheep, brought clothes, jewelry, etc., especially a pair of earrings as an engagement token. The blind date's mother-in-law or aunt or aunt came forward to kiss the girl's forehead and solemnly put on earrings, which means that the girl is already in her family. At the same time, we should comb the "engagement head" for the girl, put all the gold and silver jewelry, clothes, shoes and hats on the girl, and sing the "engagement song" when dressing up. At the engagement banquet, the gifts brought by the "blind date group" are given to the relatives of the girl's family according to their intimacy and generation. The two sides negotiate the wedding date and other relevant matters.
In the year or six months before the wedding (usually after the engagement ceremony), the marriage recognition ceremony shall be held, and the parents of both parties shall not participate. During the marriage recognition ceremony, the groom, accompanied by his sister-in-law and a group of best men, took the bride price to the woman's home. The groom sent a representative to the woman's home about one kilometer away to ask for marriage recognition. The bride, accompanied by a group of bridesmaids and sister-in-law, went to meet her. According to the habits of Kirgiz, after the engagement and engagement ceremony, both parties can't break the engagement, especially the woman can't break it at will.
The wedding is generally held for three days, and the ceremony is held at the woman's house. On the first day, the groom's parents, relatives and friends accompanied the groom to the bride's house. When he came, he brought a live sheep, some livestock and other gifts. After the woman entertained the man's guests, a "chassilo chasside" ceremony was held, that is, pack balsac (fried lozenges), milk pimples, box sugar and fruit sugar in bags, put wooden poles on the yurt skylight, let them spread naturally, and let the food fall to the ground, so that the children can eat. This ceremony means that the wedding officially begins. The next day, a "Nica" ceremony was officially held. The bridegroom and bride came to the village head and the Imam. The Imam read "Nica Han" (marriage testimony) and ate Nang or oil pimples soaked in salt water, indicating that both sides will share joys and sorrows all their lives. After the ceremony, rich and colorful traditional entertainment activities are generally held, including dancing, duets, poetry competition, etc. On the third day, the bridegroom took the bride back to his new house. The bride had to cry goodbye to her family. The woman prepares clothes, bedding and other daily necessities for her daughter as a dowry.
Except for Heilongjiang and Emin counties, Kirgiz people hold funerals according to Islamic customs, including earth burial (without coffin) and quick burial (parking for no more than three days).
During the funeral, the coffin is carried to the mosque or the flat ground, and under the auspices of the Imam or imam, a collective prayer is held for the dead. The funeral ceremony cannot be held in the main hall of worship. It must also avoid sunrise, sunset and noon.
Relatives and friends should attend the funeral. Relatives and women wear black clothes and black head yarn. Children cannot comb their hair or have a haircut during the 40 day mourning period. The widow shall cover her face with a headscarf so that no one can see her. When buried, the head is north and the foot is south to the west, filled by the son, close relatives and mourners.
On every third, seventh, fortieth, seventieth, hundred day and anniversary death day, a small flag shall be erected in the house (tent) of the deceased, and the condolence of relatives and friends shall be received here as "naizil" (making grab rice and asking relatives and friends to bless the deceased).
Uighurs mainly live in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, mainly distributed in the south of Tianshan Mountain. The oasis around Tarim Basin is the center of Uighur settlement, especially Kashgar oasis, Hotan oasis, Aksu River and Tarim River Basin. Turpan. Wei Wu Er Zu
Bai nationality is the 15th largest ethnic minority in China, mainly distributed in Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan and other provinces. Among them, the Bai nationality in Yunnan Province has the largest population, mainly living in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture,. Bai Zu
She nationality is one of the ethnic minorities with a small population in China, with a total population of 708651 (2010). It is distributed in some mountainous areas in more than 80 counties (cities) in Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, Anh. She Zu
Shui nationality has its own language and traditional characters. Shui language belongs to the Dongshui (Dongtai) language branch of Zhuang and Dong language in the Sino Tibetan language system. The ancient font of Shui nationality retains the characteris. Shui Zu
Kirgiz, a foreign homologous nation, is called Kyrgyz in Chinese translation. The national language is Kirgiz, belonging to the kpchak group of the East Hungarian branch of the Turkic language family of Altai language family.. Ke Er Ke Zi Zu
The Tu nationality is one of the ethnic groups with relatively small population in China. The Tu language belongs to the Mongolian language family of Altai language family. In 1979, the state created the Tu language based on Latin letters and in the form . Tu Zu
Bulang Nationality is a minority nationality with a long history. The national language is Bulang language. It belongs to the Bulang branch of the mon Khmer language family of the South Asian language family. It can be divided into Bulang and AVA dialects. Bu Lang Zu
Salar is one of the ethnic minorities who believe in Islam in China. The national language is salar. It belongs to the Ukrainian group of the West Hun branch of the Altaic Turkic language family. Some people also believe that it belongs to sarul dialect. . Sa La Zu
The population of Korean nationality is 1830929 (2010), mainly distributed in Jilin, Heilongjiang and northeast Liaoning, and mainly lives in Tumen River, Yalu River, Mudanjiang, Songhua River, Liaohe River, Hunhe River and other basins. Among them, the K. Chao Xian Zu
The De'ang Nationality, also known as "Bulong nationality", is a mountain minority in the border area between China and Myanmar. Its national language belongs to the wa De'ang language branch of the mon Khmer language family of the South Asian l. De Ang Zu
Baoan nationality is one of the ethnic groups with a small population in China. Its national language is Baoan language. It belongs to the Mongolian language family of Altai language family. Due to its long-term communication with the surrounding Han and . Bao An Zu
Hezhe nationality is a minority nationality with a long history in Northeast China. Its national language is Hezhe language, which belongs to the Manchu branch of the Manchu Tungusic language family of Altai language family (there is also a view that it s. He Zhe Zu