Jingpo, one of China's ethnic minorities, has its own language and characters. The language belongs to the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. The five branches belong to the Jingpo language branch and the Burmese Language Branch. The characters include Jingpo and Zawa, both of which are Pinyin characters based on Latin letters.
The origin of Jingpo nationality is related to the Diqiang people in the ancient times on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. There are five branches: "Jingpo", "Zawa", "Lechi", "lang'e" and "Bola". They mainly live in the mountainous area of Dehong Dai Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, and a few live in the border area between Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture and Kachin state, Myanmar. Most of the Kachin branches in Myanmar also have deep roots with Jingpo and Lisu in China
According to the sixth national census in 2010, the total population of Jingpo nationality is 147828.
Jingpo Nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||Jingpo nationality|
|language||Jingpo language, Zaiwa language, etc|
|Branch||Jingpo, Zaiwa, lethi, Lange, Bora|
Chinese PinYin : Jing Po Zu
The ancestors of Jingpo nationality appeared in Chinese historical books with the names of "Xun Chuan man" and "Gaoligong people". From the yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties to the founding of new China, the names of "echang", "Zheye" and "savage" appeared successively.
Jingpo includes five branches: Jingpo, Zaiwa, Lechi, Lange and Bola. The name of the branch is also the name of each branch and the language of the branch. Among them, "Jingpo" is not only a branch name, but also a national name. Each branch has its own name and other names for other branches. Han, Dai and other nationalities living together with Jingpo also have different names for each branch of Jingpo.
After the founding of the people's Republic of China, according to the wishes of the nation, it is collectively referred to as Jingpo nationality.
According to historical legends and Chinese historical records, since ancient times, the ancestors of Jingpo nationality have lived and worked in the mountainous area called labeng (meaning "natural Pingdingshan") in muzhuan province in the south of kangzang plateau, and moved south along Hengduan Mountains to Northwest Yunnan and west of Nujiang River since about Tang Dynasty. This area was under the jurisdiction of Yongchang County in the Han Dynasty and Zhenxi Jiedu of Nanzhao regime in the Tang Dynasty. The residents of this area, including the ancestors of Jingpo nationality, are called "Xun Chuan man". At that time, the seeker lived in the mountains and forests, held the bow and arrow, and engaged in hunting.
Following the Nanzhao and Dali regimes, Yunnan Province was established in the Yuan Dynasty, and the area of seeking transmission was under the jurisdiction of Yunnan Province. With the development of production, Jingpo tribes gradually formed two major tribal alliances, Chashan and Lima, and produced aristocratic mountain officials who were differentiated from primitive rural communes. Society began to split into the first three levels: officials (nobility), people and slaves. The boundaries between grades are strict, "pumpkins can't be meat, and people can't be officials". Slaves follow the owner's surname, engage in all kinds of labor, and have no personal freedom.
At the beginning of the 15th century, the Ming Dynasty implemented the chieftain system here, established two chief departments, Lima and Chashan, and appointed Jingpo mountain officials as chief officers. The Chief Secretary of Chashan first belonged to the military and civilian Command Department of Jinchi, then to yongchangwei, and then to Tengchong government; Lima division directly belongs to Yunnan Province. In the Qing Dynasty, Jingpo area was under the jurisdiction of relevant prefectures and counties set up by the Qing Dynasty.
After the 16th century, a large number of Jingpo migrated to Dehong area. Under the influence of advanced production technology and feudal economy of Han and Dai nationalities, Jingpo nationality began to have ploughing agriculture and used more advanced iron agricultural tools. Later, he learned to grow paddy fields, further improved productivity and gradually developed feudal factors. Due to the development of internal feudal factors, slaves continued to resist and flee. At the same time, under the influence of the feudal system of Han and Dai, slavery declined rapidly.
In the process of feudal factors, due to the control and differentiation of Dai chieftains, although mountain officials in some areas usurped the supreme power of village land as village leaders and began to transform to feudal lord system, they did not form a complete Lord system. At the same time, with the slow development of social internal production, the increase of fixed cultivated land area and the influence of Han landlord economy, Jingpo societies in various places retained the factors of various social development stages to varying degrees, forming a multi structural state of social economy, but they basically entered the early stage of feudal society. Because of this evolution, the superstructure, especially culture and ideology, lags behind the development and changes of economic structure. Therefore, Jingpo society retains more remnants of rural communes while transiting to class society.
On the eve of the founding of new China, Jingpo society has developed to the stage of disintegration of rural communes and transition to class society. While retaining more remnants of the original commune system, class differentiation appeared. Before the 1950s, Jingpo society had divided into landlords accounting for about 1% of the total households and rich farmers accounting for 2%, who occupied 20% to 30% of all paddy fields and 20% of cattle. In addition to about 15% of the total households, more than 80% of the farmers are poor farmers who have no farmland and little land and lack cattle and farm tools. On the one hand, the Jingpo people were ruled not only by the Kuomintang government and the chieftain of the Dai feudal lord, but also by the relatively independent mountain officials in their society. The Kuomintang government and Dai chieftains realized their rule through mountain officials. They oppressed the Jingpo people through mountain officials and imposed all kinds of exorbitant taxes. The Jingpo people lived a miserable life.
After the founding of new China, the party and the state implemented regional national autonomy in Jingpo areas, carried out democratic reform of "direct transition to socialism" in Jingpo areas, abolished the mountain official system, realized the desire of Jingpo people to be masters of the country, and earth shaking changes have taken place in society, economy, culture and life, In the past, Jingpo mountain, which was poor and backward, showed a prosperous scene.
In history, the Jingpo people fought bravely to safeguard the reunification of the motherland and made important contributions to safeguarding the sacred territorial integrity of the motherland and the development and construction of the southwest frontier. In 1875, in the famous Ma Jiali incident, the Jingpo people killed Ma Jiali, a British spy who stole Chinese intelligence, blocked the invading army led by British officer Bolang and attacked the arrogance of the invaders. When China and Britain surveyed the Longchuan border in 1898, Zao Ledong, a mountain official of Jingpo nationality, fought with the support of the people and smashed the ambition of British imperialists to occupy Chinese territory. In 1910, more than 2000 British Invaders occupied Pianma, Gulang and gangfang areas inhabited by Chinese Jingpo people, aroused strong resistance of the Jingpo people, and then set off an anti British movement in Yunnan Province, organized the "China protection society", and finally forced the British government to recognize Pianma, Gulang and gangfang as Chinese territory. During the Anti Japanese War, the Jingpo people actively participated in the Anti Japanese guerrillas, rose up with long knives, axes and copper guns to resist the Japanese invading army invading western Yunnan, and made contributions to defending the motherland.
Before the founding of new China, Jingpo society implemented a political system headed by "bengdu" (Jingpo language), which was called "gongsa" system. "Collapse" means "mountain" and "governor" means "master" or "official". Because Jingpo people live in mountainous areas, the local Han people vividly call the "collapse governor" an official who governs the mountain as a mountain official. Chinese scholars who study the political system extend this to call the political system of Jingpo people headed by "collapse governor" as a "mountain official system".
Mountain official system is a political system gradually evolved in the process of the disintegration of clan parent system. It has existed for a long time in Jingpo society. Under this system, according to different origins and lineages, social members are divided into three levels: Official species, people and slaves.
The official species, called "Du amu" in Jingpo language (called "zaohu" in Zawa language), has a higher social status than the people and slaves in the three levels. There is a special naming method for official grades. Men add "Zao" before their names, and women add specific articles that cannot be used by non official grades such as "Nan" and "Zha" before their names. Generally, they do not intermarry with the people, but implement hierarchical marriage. When an official girl marries the people, the dowry required is very expensive, and the ordinary people can't afford it. Mountain officials must be born in the official level and are in power in the official level. The inheritance of mountain official positions adopts the inheritance system of young children (called "UMA" in Jingpo language). Only the young children die young can they be inherited by the eldest son, and the rest are other sons in turn. Young brother is still alive. If other brothers want to be officials, they have to leave their hometown to open up a new jurisdiction and become new mountain officials in the new jurisdiction.
The common people, known as "Sewa amu" in Jingpo language (known as "mengbiyou" or "leta" in Zawa language), have personal freedom, are not attached to specific regions or specific mountain officials, can move freely, are politically subordinate to mountain officials, have the obligation to pay in kind contributions and free labor to mountain officials, and have the right to occupy and use the land of the village community; Because they are not official species, no matter how capable the people are, they can not serve as mountain officials.
Slaves, called "muyam amu" in Jingpo language (called "quasi" in Zawa language), were attached to their masters and had no freedom of life. Slaves existed in jiangxinpo and hukang River Valley before Jingpo nationality entered Dehong. They originated from SHANGUAN and some rich families. They took prisoners, foreigners and orphans in the war as adopted children. They are honorably a member of the master's family, even commensurate with the master's children as brothers and sisters. In fact, they are the master's slaves, Bear the heavy work of the master at home and outside the home. But in terms of food and clothing, slaves are almost the same as their masters. To a large extent, they are still members of the family. Some slaves also have their own individual economy. With the annexation of upper Myanmar by British colonists and the abolition policy implemented because of the needs of military administration, this slavery disappeared without further development. After the Jingpo nationality entered Dehong, a few areas and families still retained slaves with the nature of "raising children", but as a system, slavery has not been fully developed among the Jingpo nationality in Dehong. Therefore, the two levels of official species and common people are the main hierarchical basis of the mountain official system of Jingpo nationality in China.
SHANGUAN is the highest political leader of Jingpo nationality in a certain area. In Jingpo society, there is no unified and higher political organization above mountain officials, and there is no direct governing relationship between mountain officials. The jurisdiction is the basis and boundary for the maintenance of mountain official system. Each mountain official has its own jurisdiction. Each mountain official jurisdiction has its own system and independent administration. Within the jurisdiction, mountain officials run their own affairs. The exercise of their privileges and the performance of their obligations are based on the jurisdiction. Beyond the jurisdiction, their privileges and obligations are inefficient. Each mountain official's jurisdiction varies in size. Mountain officials with a large snobbery range can govern several or dozens of villages, as well as "Baotou District" outside their jurisdiction. Some mountain officials with small snobbery range only govern one village or several households. There are boundaries marked by mountains, rivers and other natural objects. Provocation and violation of the jurisdiction is provocation and violation of the mountain official. Within the jurisdiction, mountain officials enjoy various privileges, among which the most important privilege is the right to get the "leg eating right" of one hind leg of the people to kill cattle and sacrifice or capture prey. This hind leg dedicated to mountain officials is called "official leg" (Jingpo language called "Ningguan"). In addition, each household needs to work for mountain officials for 3 ~ 6 days a year, which is called "official workers"; After harvest every year, a certain amount of grain shall be handed over to the mountain official according to the area of cultivated land mu, which is called "official Valley"; The Han nationality in the jurisdiction, each household needs to pay a certain amount of opium to the mountain official every year, which is called "official cigarette"; During the Spring Festival, weddings and funerals, or mediation of disputes, people need to send gifts to mountain officials, which is called "official gifts". In the administration of the jurisdiction, the mountain official has a wide range of functions and powers. He is the administrator of the jurisdiction, the embodiment and executor of customary law. He is a natural military leader in wartime. Functions and powers are embodied in leading production, managing, adjusting and distributing land, helping the masses solve their living difficulties, mediating civil disputes, protecting the masses, etc.
Under the mountain official system, there is a set of political organizations that manage the internal affairs of the jurisdiction. Traditionally, mountain officials govern the area with the assistance of "zhaitou", "Suwen", "Guan" and "Napo". Zhaitou is a village leader elected from the heads of various surnames of non official species (called "Si Lang" in Jingpo language and "Su Wen" in Zaiwa language). Generally, it is held by the meritorious surnames of kaizhai and those with strong working ability among other main surnames. Zhaitou has a high position in the village and is the main assistant of mountain officials in the area of administration. When he takes office, he will be appointed by the mountain official. At that time, the mountain official will give him a long knife symbolizing the management power of the village. The village head is responsible for collecting the official rent of chieftains and mountain officials from the people, supervising the people to work for mountain officials or labor for chieftains, and assisting mountain officials in handling and mediating disputes such as marriage, theft, land and debt in the village. In return, zhaitou was exempt from official workers and labor. The position of zhaitou cannot be inherited. Su Wen is the natural leader of each surname in the village. They have the status of elders and have no privileges. They represent the interests of the village and their families, are responsible for communicating between mountain officials and the people, and assisting mountain officials and village heads in managing the affairs in the village. Some mountain official districts, including dozens of villages, can not be taken care of by mountain officials due to the large area, and there are also "management" positions. Guan is the general manager of mountain officials who manage on behalf of mountain officials in villages where non mountain officials live. Guan has the power to manage all things in the village he is responsible for. He can not only be exempted from official rent and official workers, but also collect official rent and send official workers in the villages under his jurisdiction. "Napo" (called "duili" in Jingpo language and Zawa language) is the person responsible for leading the village's spring ploughing to carry out the earth breaking ceremony. Some Napo assist mountain officials in handling affairs under their jurisdiction and participating in dispute mediation. In some large mountain official districts, there are also "en Dao" (Jingpo language, meaning "the person who calls the stockade") specially responsible for conveying the notices, orders and other official notices of mountain officials.
Jingpo has no written law, and the maintenance of the political power of mountain officials mainly depends on the traditional customary law - "tongdera" (Zawa language). Customary law has great binding force and is often combined with religious superstition. It is generally not easy to impose the death penalty, but the murderer must pay for his life. In general cases, losers are fined several to ten times the amount of compensation in kind. When the case cannot be investigated and determined, divine judgment is adopted. The common ways of divine judgment include gambling, egg divination, fighting snails, boiling rice, fishing for boiled water, stuffy water, etc.
Before the founding of the people's Republic of China, the development of mountain official system in Dehong Jingpo area was unbalanced, and the situation in various places can be roughly divided into three categories. In the first class of areas, the official system remains in its original state in politics, the democracy is still obvious, and the pre feudal factors are still strong in economy; In one kind of area, influenced by the feudal chieftain system, the mountain official system has a tendency to develop to the feudal lord system; In other areas, due to the influence of the feudal landlord system of the Han nationality, mountain officials tend to develop towards the feudal landlord system; Although there has been a tendency to feudalization in the latter two types of areas, due to the constraints of traditional customary law, mountain officials have not developed into chieftains and landlords, and are still in a transitional state.
Over the past 100 years, due to the aggravation of the exploitation and oppression of the mountain official system, social contradictions intensified. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, there was a "gonglong" uprising against the mountain official system in Jingpo society. This struggle was the most intense in Yingjiang Zhidan mountain and Tongbi pass in the northwest of Dehong, which lasted for more than 30 years.
The villages that won the uprising abolished the "gongsa" system of mountain officials and established a democratic system called "gonglong" in Jingpo language. Under the gonglong system, all the privileges of mountain officials were cancelled, the original area of mountain officials no longer existed, and mountain officials were reduced to ordinary members of the village. Each village is led by its own elected leader. The village leader has no privilege and cannot apportion the burden to the masses. When mediating disputes or dealing with the affairs of the whole village, the village leader shall convene the village elders for joint consultation.
Due to the abolition of the mountain official system, the hierarchical relationship between people no longer exists, and the appellation and naming methods of hierarchical marriage and hierarchical differences have also been abolished. The land of the village is privately owned by each household and can be bought and sold freely without anyone's interference.
The gonglong uprising dealt a heavy blow to the mountain official system, but the final demise of the mountain official system was after the establishment of the people's Republic of China.
Jingpo area was liberated in 1950 and a democratic coalition government was established in 1951. In July 1953, the people's Government of Dehong Dai and Jingpo autonomous region was officially established.
In May 1956, according to the provisions of the constitution of the people's Republic of China promulgated in October 1954 on the division of autonomous areas into districts, prefectures and counties, Dehong Dai Jingpo autonomous region was renamed Dai Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture.
Jingpo people are represented in the National People's Congress and the people's congresses at all levels of provinces, prefectures, counties and townships, ensuring that Jingpo people participate in the political life of the country.
Jingpo nationality is a nation that lives on agriculture. Its food crops are mainly rice, dry grain, corn, wheat and corn. Its cash crops include sugarcane, rape, star anise, grass fruit, citronella, etc.
The land management of Jingpo nationality is divided into paddy field and dry land. Paddy fields are mostly terraced fields distributed at the edge of the dam at the foot of the mountain or in the small flat land between the mountains. Before settling in Dehong area, Jingpo people could not cultivate paddy fields. After settling in Dehong, they began to learn to cultivate paddy fields under the influence of Dai and De'ang nationalities. The traditional farming process of rice is roughly the same as that of the surrounding Dai nationality. It is cultivated by cattle plow, rake and self flowing irrigation with mountain spring water. It is generally not fertilized once a year. Today, paddy field has become an important livelihood resource for Jingpo people. Most of their staple food rice comes from their own paddy field production. Today, in addition to rice, wheat, watermelon and rape are also planted in paddy fields in winter and spring; The biggest improvement in farming technology is the widespread use of chemical fertilizers and the large-scale planting of hybrid varieties.
Drylands are mostly sloping lands distributed in mountain forests. Before paddy farming appeared in Jingpo mountain area, dry land was the primary livelihood resource of Jingpo people. The traditional dry land farming method is to burn wasteland in rotation. The main crop is upland rice, followed by corn, soybeans, rice beans, corn, cotton, perilla and vegetables. Since the 1980s, sugarcane has become the main crop planted in dry land in Dehong Jingpo area, and sugarcane income has become an important economic source of Dehong Jingpo people.
In agricultural production, taking the individual family as the production unit is the traditional form of labor combination of Jingpo nationality. In the busy agricultural season, the form of "wugolong" (Zawa language, which means changing jobs or working in partnership) is used for cooperative labor. In the production work, there is an obvious gender division between men and women. Men are mainly engaged in heavy and technical work such as plowing, raking, burning wasteland, cutting firewood, hunting and making farm tools, while women are engaged in trivial production and household work such as weeding, harvesting, transporting grain, collecting, cooking, feeding pigs, taking care of the elderly and children.
There are two types of beliefs in Jingpo society. One is the traditional supernatural belief, and the other is the foreign Christian and Catholic belief.
Supernatural belief is the traditional religious belief of Jingpo people, and it is still the religious belief of most Jingpo people today. The essence of Jingpo's supernatural belief is to believe that human beings and all things have dual nature, that is, the existence of nature and spirit. Jingpo people believe that not only people are living entities with souls, but also animals, plants and natural objects such as sun, moon, mountain, river, wind, thunder, land, boulders and valleys have souls. Human soul not only belongs to the body, but also can be separated from the body, and can dominate life. Under normal conditions, when people sleep, the soul will leave the body and wander around. Dreams are the reflection of the wandering experience of the soul. When encountering shock or natural forces, the human soul will also leave the human body and cannot return to the body independently. If the soul calling ceremony is not held to return the left soul to the body, the human will die. When a person's soul is attached to the body, it will not cause harm to others except that it has the power to dominate the life of the body to which it is attached. The soul at this time is called "Se Biao" (Zawa language). Jingpo people believe that the soul does not die, and the soul will not die because of the death of the body. After the death of the body, the soul will go to another world and become a ghost with haunting function. Jingpo language is called "NAT". The souls of natural objects such as the sun, the moon, mountains, rivers, winds, thunder, land, boulders and valleys are ghosts with the function of causing trouble.
There are many kinds of religious sacrifice activities of Jingpo nationality, which vary from region to region, but generally speaking, they can be divided into collective sacrifice and family sacrifice according to the form of sacrifice; According to the nature of sacrifice, it can also be divided into fixed time ceremony, specific occasion ceremony and problem-solving ceremony. The collective ceremony is mainly "nengshang" sacrifice. "Nengshang" is located in the forest outside the village. An altar is built in the forest to worship the spirits of heaven ghost, earth ghost, sun ghost, mountain forest ghost, water ghost and clan and family leaders who have made special contributions to the village and local side. These ghosts bless the good weather, abundant grain and the safety of people and animals in the whole village. The whole village will offer sacrifices before sowing and harvest once a year. The sacrificial rites held by families are divided into fixed time sacrificial rites, which are held in February, April, may, October and November respectively. They mainly offer sacrifices to the ghosts of the family hall, water ghosts and valley spirits to pray for peace and harvest; Sacrificial rites on specific occasions are mainly held under the circumstances of marriage, funeral, entering the new house, cattle killing and sacrifice ceremony of my uncle to my father-in-law's family, birth of a baby and reaching the age of one year; The sacrificial ceremony to solve problems shall be held under the conditions of relieving the patient's pain, calling the soul and resolving disputes.
In sacrificial activities, the patriarchal teacher "dongsa" (called in Jingpo language and Zawa language) is essential. "Dongsa" is the embodiment of the domination of ghosts over people's real life. People pray to ghosts through him to eliminate disasters. Dongsa is not a special religious professional. They are generally not separated from productive labor. Dong SA is divided into different levels. The highest level of Dong SA is "Zhaiwa", a large number of teachers dedicated to tianguimu generation. He can sing history with songs. He is considered to be a person with the most knowledge and profound knowledge of Jingpo history, and is highly respected by people. Below Zhaiwa is Dong SA (Dong SA includes GA Dong SA, Tong Dong SA, Xi Zao Dong SA and Xiao Dong SA), Qiang Zhong, MI DUI and nu Wai.
Christian and Catholic beliefs
In the early 20th century, Christianity and Catholicism were introduced into Jingpo area successively.
Before the mid-1950s, Christianity in Jingpo area belonged to three denominations: Baptist Church, inland church and Church of God, which were mainly subordinate to the management of Myanmar church. In the mid-1950s, Christianity in Jingpo area accepted the leadership of Yunnan Christian three self Patriotic Movement Committee and has been affiliated with Shanghai Christian Baptist Church.
Catholicism was introduced into Jingpo area in 1930.
Most Jingpo people live in the hillside or small flat land between the mountains with an altitude of about 1500 meters, and a few live in the edge of the dam area. Generally, the scale of villages is mostly between 40 and 60 households, and there are only a few villages with hundreds of households. The village is generally built near the mountain, facing the dam and river valley. The end near the dam is called "village foot" and the end near the mountain is called "village head". In the past, there were signs at the head and foot of the village. The sign at the foot of the village is the village gate simply built with wooden posts on both sides of the village road. The sign at the head of the village is a natural object near the path from the village to the top of the mountain, which can be stone, big tree or stump. In front of the village gate, there is a forest that is forbidden to be cut down. In the forest, there is "nengshang" (Jingpo language, called "official Temple" in Chinese) for collective sacrifice in the village. In addition to the sacred forest where "nengshang" is located, the forest around the village as a water source forest is also prohibited from felling, and the vegetation is well preserved.
Houses in the village are built and built scattered, and households are tens of meters or even hundreds of meters away. Buildings and houses are hidden in the green forest and bamboos. Most of the houses are built on the terrace leveled out of the hillside. The houses of families with the same surname are relatively concentrated. All small families separated from a hometown build houses next to the hometown house. Unless there is no construction site near the hometown, they choose a new site for construction.
Traditional folk houses are mostly thatched houses of bamboo and wood structure. In the past, only a few mountain officials and heads in a few places had tile houses. The houses are rectangular, divided into upper and lower floors, and the lower floor is 1 to 2 meters high from the ground. It is used to stack firewood and farm tools and raise pigs and chickens. The upper floor is divided into several rooms with bamboo. Each room is equipped with a fire pond. In addition to the fire pond for cooking, the fire pond is surrounded by a place for families to rest. Except for the columns, the house frames are basically made of bamboo, bound with vines, the roof is covered with thatch, and the walls and floors are woven or cut and paved with bamboo. This kind of thatched cottage usually needs to be rebuilt in seven or eight years. When building the house, the whole village changes workers and helps each other. It can be completed in a few days. Today, with the development of economy, traditional bamboo and wood thatched houses are rare. The building materials and styles of most houses have changed. There are all wood frame or adobe wall tile roof, iron roof buildings and brick concrete bungalows.
Jingpo's staple food is mainly rice. Bamboo tube rice and chicken porridge are the characteristic staple food loved by Jingpo people.
The dishes are famous for their spicy flavor. In addition to the melons, beans, taros and green cabbage planted in the garden, the wild vegetables and fruits collected from the mountains are also home dishes on the table.
Cooking methods include pounding, burning, roasting, boiling, steaming, mixing, kneading and other types. Among them, pounding dish is one of the most distinctive Jingpo dishes with delicious and unique taste. Jingpo people often say that "the pounding drum doesn't sound, and the meal doesn't smell good".
Jingpo's clothing style is unique. The main colors of men's clothing are black and white. The branches of elderly men's clothing are the same. They all wear black double breasted short clothes, black wide tube trousers and black Baotou. For middle-aged and young men's clothing, there are slight differences between Jingpo branch and other branches. The upper body is wearing a white stand collar shirt, a black round neck coat, the lower body is wearing black trousers, and the head is wearing a red and blue checkered cotton gauze cylindrical headscarf. Young and middle-aged men from several other branches wear white shirts, black trousers, and white buns decorated with colorful POM tassels. No matter which branch of men travel, they carry a tube handkerchief (i.e. backpack) and a long knife.
Women's clothes are divided into casual clothes and fancy clothes. If you wear casual clothes, the upper body is black or various colors of double breasted or right breasted tight shorts, and the lower body is a long cotton skirt with clear color or woven patterns with Jingpo characteristics. Costumes are for festivals or weddings. The upper part is a black short placket collarless narrow sleeved shirt, the chest, shoulder and back are decorated with silver bubbles, silver medals and silver ears, and the lower part is a wool tube skirt with beautiful patterns woven from red, black, yellow and green wool. The waist is tied with a red belt, the headdress is a red bottom flower bag made of wool, and the lower leg is wrapped with leg wraps with the same texture and color as the tube skirt, Wear several strings of red beads, earrings and bracelets. In recent years, with the development of economy, Jingpo women's clothing has been renovated on the basis of maintaining the original characteristics. In the festival celebration, you can see all kinds of new Jingpo women's costumes. Among them, the most distinctive is the costumes of women of Lange branch and Leqi branch. The women of lang'e branch are dressed in black tight sleeved short clothes without collar and swing decorated with silver bubbles. The arms, cuffs and corners of the sleeves are pasted with red and yellow lace of seven or eight centimeters wide. The lower part is a tube skirt with dark blue strip or block fine pattern on a black background. It is tied with a long blue belt and wears a high Baotou decorated with black wool balls of various colors. Leqi branch women's costumes are black tight sleeved short clothes without collar and swing. There are about 10cm wide lace on the arms, cuffs and corners of the sleeves, mainly red, with yellow strips between them. The chest is decorated with 2-3 rows of small silver bubbles with spikes, and the lower part is a yellow pattern tube skirt with black background. Outside the skirt is a straight apron with red and green colors at the front and back, and a long blue belt, Wear a blue black round bun decorated with colored wool balls.
Jingpo nationality in Lushui County, Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture, because they live together with Lisu nationality, their clothes absorb the characteristics of some Lisu nationality clothes, and their clothes are quite different from Dehong area. Women's clothing has no silver decoration, but is mainly decorated with collage patterns of colored cloth. The head is wrapped with green cloth, leaving more ears as decoration, and the skirt is brocade tube skirt. Men's dress. The top is a white cotton linen Cloisonne collarless cardigan. The front is divided into two pieces, which can be lifted and cross wrapped around the waist. The back hem is as long as the lower leg. The coat is a green sleeveless jacket, the lower body is wearing trousers, the head is wrapped with a green Baotou, and the color spike is tied on the right side.
Jingpo people are warm and hospitable. The host will entertain guests whether they know them or not.
Jingpo people like to drink Shaojiu and homemade Shuijiu. Jingpo people pay great attention to etiquette when drinking. The host hands over the wine barrel, and the guests should hold the bottom of the wine barrel with both hands, not the upper part of the wine barrel with only one hand. When drinking, you can't drink with the wine barrel, you can only drink with the wine barrel cover. When you go out, the barrel Parry often carries a small bamboo wine barrel. When acquaintances meet and toast each other, they don't drink it immediately, but pour it back into each other's wine barrel before drinking it. When everyone drinks a glass of wine, everyone wipes the place he has drunk with his hand after taking a sip, and then transfers it to others. If an old man is present, the old man should drink it first.
Jingpo old people like chewing tobacco. They chew grass tobacco, an appropriate amount of cooked stone plaster and dried reed seeds in their mouth. It has the effects of refreshing, refreshing, preventing caries and fixing teeth. When they meet, they will hand over cigarette boxes to each other to show friendship, respect and politeness.
Jingpo has its own language and characters.
Jingpo language belongs to the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. Because the five branches use five different languages respectively, there are differences in the attribution of language branches. Jingpo language used by Jingpo branch belongs to Jingpo branch of Tibetan Burmese language family of Sino Tibetan language family. Zaiwa language used by Zaiwa branch, Leqi language used by Leqi branch, lang'e language used by lang'e branch and Bola branch language belong to Myanmar branch of Tibetan Burmese language family of Sino Tibetan language family. In daily life, in addition to insisting on using the language of each branch, a considerable number of people can also use the language of other branches.
Jingpo characters include Jingpo and Zaiwa, both of which are Pinyin characters based on Latin letters. After the founding of the people's Republic of China, language workers reformed the spelling of some vowels on the basis of the original Jingpo text. Zaiwa language was created in 1957 to meet the needs of Zaiwa branch.
Jingpo folk literature includes epics, myths, legends, folk stories, ballads, proverbs, love songs, long narrative poems and so on.
The Scriptures chanted by the religious priest "dongsa" are also a kind of religious literature. They are the comprehensive embodiment of Jingpo's history and culture. They not only reflect Jingpo's history and reality, but also Jingpo people's cosmology, life attitude, thought, emotion and desire.
Mu Nao Zhai WA, the history of Genesis poetry, is an excellent representative of Jingpo folk oral literature. The whole poem is more than 10000 lines long. It involves the formation of heaven and earth, the world of ghosts and gods, the emergence of mankind, the origin of Jingpo nation, human life, love and pain, and summarizes Jingpo's cognition of the universe and national history, attitude, thought and The knowledge of emotion and desire vividly shows the world in Jingpo people's mind and their sincere, simple and upward emotion.
In the past, the traditional Jingpo family was a core family including husband, wife and children and an extended family including parents, husband and wife and children.
Within the family, the father is the parent, the children are all from the father's surname, the lineage is calculated from the father's lineage, and the property is inherited by men.
Traditionally, young children inherit. Young children live with their parents and inherit the house of their hometown. After other sons get married, they separate their hometown and set up another door. Women have no right to inherit property. In marriage, women have no right to name their children. In redundant marriage, their children also follow their father's surname.
Men have a higher status in families and communities. The external affairs of families, families and villages are determined by men. Both husband and wife have the right to make decisions in family internal affairs, but the scope and right of decision-making are different.
In most cases, children's education and marriage are jointly decided by husband and wife; The variety and area of crops, the purchase of chemical fertilizer, the purchase of household appliances and tractors, and the purchase or sale of pigs and cattle are mainly determined by men. Women are mainly responsible for selling chickens, fruits, vegetables and grain in the market.
Family income is mostly controlled by women.
Jingpo people have created rich and colorful folk music in their long-term production and life. There are a wide variety of folk songs of various branches, mainly including "Yuelu" (Chung rice tune), "Zhi" (folk song), "Zhaiwa" (historical song), "Naoshi youngxian" (lullaby), "muzhan" (folk song), "enzhun" (love song), etc.
Jingpo folk songs have a wide range of contents, including the narration of national history, ancient legends and stories, the praise of real life, the celebration of festival harvest, and the persistent pursuit of love. The music forms are rich and colorful. In addition to single part folk songs, there are multi part folk songs.
Jingpo's dances are mostly group dances in the form of ring dance, itinerant dance and tortuous travel. The content reflects production, life, war, sacrifice and other activities. They are mainly divided into three types: celebration, sacrifice and entertainment, including "vertical song", "bugun song", "Longdong song", "whole song", "Jin Zaizai" and "Xiang MHE".
Among them, the vertical song includes a variety of dance forms, arranged in array, with orderly dance steps and distinctive rhythm, which shows the high level of group dance. The musical instruments used mainly include wooden drum, elephant foot drum, manggong, bamboo wind instruments "bike", "tuliang", "Le Rong", etc.
National traditional festivals mainly include Munao vertical song festival, nengxian Festival, new rice Festival, etc., of which the most grand and grand festival is Munao vertical song.
Mu Nao Zong song is a traditional ritual activity of Jingpo nationality to sacrifice the God of heaven "Mu Dai". "Mu Dai" is the largest God in the supernatural belief of Jingpo nationality. It represents wealth and happiness and can be blessed. Only mountain officials have the power to sacrifice. The head of sacrificing the "wooden generation" is a symbol of the prestige and power of mountain officials. The more times and the larger the scale, the higher the prestige of mountain officials among the people. In the past, mu'nao was mainly held for sacrificing, celebrating the harvest, celebrating the victory of war or pulling. When the Mu NAO is held, the villages under the jurisdiction of the mountain official must raise sacrifices such as pigs and cattle for sacrifice. The sacrifice and cost are very huge. Therefore, the Mu Nao of sacrificing the "wooden generation" is not common. It is generally held once in a mountain official area for several years or decades. Mu NAO is presented in the form of large-scale mass song and dance activities, which contains the meaning of praying for mu Dai and other gods to bless the residents in the area for grain harvest and human and animal safety. Therefore, when the mountain officials held their eyes and brains, the people actively participated.
In April 1983, Munao vertical song was identified as a traditional festival of Jingpo people by Dehong Dai Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture. It is generally organized by the people's Government of the prefecture, county or township and held in the first month of each year. During the festival, thousands of Jingpo men and women, dressed in costumes, happily gathered from the mountains and the vast forests to the square where the eye head vertical song festival was held. People from all branches of Jingpo nationality regard Mu Nao vertical song as the most sacred and solemn festival, and it is great happiness and fun to participate in Mu Nao vertical song event. During the festival, in addition to the traditional Mu Nao vertical song dance, the organizers will also hold various literary and artistic performances, organize commodity exhibitions, publicize popular science knowledge and hold various types of investment promotion meetings.
The marriage of Jingpo nationality adopts the form of one-way marriage between the father-in-law species (called "Muyu" in Jingpo language and "Meng" in Zawa language) and the uncle species (called "Dama" in Jingpo language and "Mo" in Zawa language). Once the two families conclude marriage, they not only produce two personal identities of "Uncle" (son-in-law) and "father-in-law" (father-in-law), but also produce two group identities of "Uncle" and "father-in-law", forming a fixed relationship between father-in-law and uncle. All relatives within three generations of the wife become the "father-in-law" of the husband, and all relatives within three generations of the husband also become the "Uncle" of the wife. In a family that has established the relationship between father-in-law's seed and uncle's seed, the marriage relationship between the two sides can only be one-way marriage. A man of father-in-law's seed family cannot marry a woman of uncle's seed family, and a woman of uncle's seed family cannot marry father-in-law's seed family as a daughter-in-law. In addition, marriage must also abide by the principles of aunt's non marriage, same surname non marriage and hierarchical marriage. In the past, it was highly respected that asymmetric maternal uncles and cousins preferred marriage. A man's ideal spouse was his uncle's daughter, and a woman's ideal husband was her aunt's son. After the 1950s, with the implementation of the government's law banning close relative marriage, the situation of Uncle cousin marriage has changed greatly.
Young men and women of Jingpo nationality are free to fall in love and socialize. In the past, there was a "public house" in the village for young men and women to socialize. When young men and women went to the public house for dating, it was called "getting rid of the general manager". Before the founding of new China, the vast majority of marriages were arranged by their parents and carried out buying and selling marriages. The custom of transferring houses and continuing to marry their wives and sisters after their wives died prevailed. Marriage was concluded in four ways: asking for a daughter-in-law (Zawa language called "Micah"), ordering a daughter-in-law (Zawa language called "Midong"), stealing a daughter-in-law (Zawa language called "MICAO") and robbing a daughter-in-law (Zawa language called "Milu"). Seeking a daughter-in-law is the most common form of marriage. When a man's parents or men like a girl and want to marry her, they invite someone or try to steal a handkerchief or hair from the girl without the girl's knowledge, or a thread on her clothes and backpack, or betel nut, grass smoke, etc, Take the stolen things and ask the priest to make divination. If the divination result is appropriate, the man's family will choose a matchmaker in his own village and a matchmaker "Changtong" in the woman's village. On the day when the divination is determined, Le Jue, helpers and other male and female partners will bring wine to the woman's village, and the woman's matchmaker "Changtong" will be the insider, After intercepting the woman outside the woman's village, two girls from the woman's village and his companions escorted her back to the man's village. At the same time, "Changtong" brought wine to the woman's house to inform and discuss the bride price. The wedding was held on the same day or the next day. On the third day, the groom accompanied the bride to take the bride price to her father-in-law's house. If the girl's parents object to the marriage, they must take her back before the wedding dongsa sacrifice to ghosts. If after that, it can only be solved by "telling things" in the future.
When a man's family takes a fancy to a woman, but she is too young to get married, he "sets her down" and asks for it when the woman becomes an adult. Women who have been "booked" are generally not asked for by other men. Stealing a daughter-in-law is a man who takes a fancy to a woman and decides to ask for the girl after Dong Sa's divination, but the girl's parents and the girl oppose it. In order to avoid the man's demand, the girl hides. In this case, the man asks Changtong, Le Jue and other partners to try to steal the girl from the hiding place to marry, and then discuss the bride price and other matters. Robbing a daughter-in-law means that when several men have a crush on a woman or a woman has love with several men at the same time, the man suspects each other and takes the first step to get married without notifying the other party in advance, regardless of whether the other party is willing or not. After the mid-1950s, under the promotion of the government's marriage freedom policy, the ways of marrying a daughter-in-law, stealing a daughter-in-law and robbing a daughter-in-law have gradually disappeared. At present, the way of marrying a wife of Jingpo nationality is to ask for a daughter-in-law.
In the past, Jingpo people practiced "not leaving their husband's house" or "looking at the door" for a period of time after marriage. After the wedding, the bride returns to her mother's house. The groom constantly carries wine to visit his father-in-law's house. He helps his father-in-law's house during the day and cohabits with the bride at night. He doesn't bring it back to the groom's house until the bride is pregnant. After marriage, in addition to visiting and giving gifts to his father-in-law's family at important ceremonies, his uncle must also go to his father-in-law's family to kill cattle and sacrifice three times. After that, his wife can finally break away from his father-in-law's lineage group and belong to his uncle's lineage group.
The funeral custom of Jingpo nationality is unique. Cremation is used for murder, sky burial is used for young war, and earth burial is used for normal death.
Natural death at home is regarded as good death, while accidental death, knife and gun death, hanging, suicide in a river and dystocia are regarded as homicide.
The body of the murderer cannot enter the stronghold. When the good deceased died, his family immediately fired a gun into the sky to report the funeral. Relatives and friends came to the funeral with gifts to help. The corpse shall be kept at home for several days, washed and changed before being put into the coffin, and padded with cotton blanket (for men) or tube skirt (for women) when being put into the coffin.
In the past, coffins were hollowed out from thick trees. There is no special ceremony for the death of young people. When the elderly with descendants die, the village neighbors and mourners dance the sacrificial dance "bugonge" (called "collapse cave" in Zawa language and Jingpo language) at the dead's house all night at night. The dance must continue for several nights until the end of the next day after burial.
The burial site should be an ideal cemetery with high terrain, back to the peak, facing the slope and facing the peak. The burial site is selected by throwing eggs, and the place where the eggs are broken is the auspicious site preferred by the dead. The funeral ceremony is divided into two parts: burial and soul sending. In the past, soul sending ceremony and funeral ceremony were generally held separately and can be completed within one year after the funeral.
Now, the soul sending ceremony of most families is carried out at the same time as the funeral.
The Han nationality is the main ethnic group in China. The Han nationality, formerly known as Han people, was named after China's Han Dynasty, which used to be called "Huaxia" or "Zhuxia". Whether in politics, military affairs, philoso. Han Zu
Yi is the sixth largest ethnic minority in China. Its national language is Yi. It belongs to the Yi branch of the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. There are 6 dialects in the north, East, South, Southeast, West and cent. Yi Zu
Buyi Nationality, a relatively large minority in Southwest China, has the Buyi language as its national language. It belongs to the Zhuang Dai branch of the Zhuang Dong language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. It is closely related to the Zhua. Bu Yi Zu
Li nationality, the earliest resident of Hainan Island, belongs to the Li language branch of Zhuang Dong language family of Sino Tibetan language family. Most Li people can also speak Chinese. In the past, Li people did not have their own national languag. Li Zu
Shui nationality has its own language and traditional characters. Shui language belongs to the Dongshui (Dongtai) language branch of Zhuang and Dong language in the Sino Tibetan language system. The ancient font of Shui nationality retains the characteris. Shui Zu
Daur nationality is one of 56 nationalities in China, mainly distributed in Molidawa Daur Autonomous Banner of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, meiris Daur autonomous region of Qiqihar City, Heilongjiang Province and Ewenki Autonomous Banner; A few live . Da Wo Er Zu
Achang Nationality is one of the seven ethnic minorities unique to Yunnan and with a small population. The national language is Achang language. It belongs to the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. The language branch is . A Chang Zu
Tajik belongs to the Europa Indian Mediterranean type. The national language is Tajik, including two dialects of selekkur and wahan. It belongs to the Pamir branch of the Iranian language family of the Indo European language family.. Ta Ji Ke Zu
The De'ang Nationality, also known as "Bulong nationality", is a mountain minority in the border area between China and Myanmar. Its national language belongs to the wa De'ang language branch of the mon Khmer language family of the South Asian l. De Ang Zu
Baoan nationality is one of the ethnic groups with a small population in China. Its national language is Baoan language. It belongs to the Mongolian language family of Altai language family. Due to its long-term communication with the surrounding Han and . Bao An Zu
Jing (Chinese standard) Roman letter: Gin, Vietnamese: ng ư ời Kinh/ ʛ Jing, or Jing people, is also known as the Yue nationality (Vietnamese: ng) ư ời Việt/ ʛ Yue), the national language is Beijing language. Due to the complex language factors, it is dif. Jing Zu
Dulong nationality is one of the ethnic minorities with a small population in China and the least populous nationality in Yunnan Province. It uses Dulong language and has no national characters.. Du Long Zu