Dongxiang nationality is a minority nationality in Gansu Province, China. The national language belongs to the Altaic Mongolian language family. There is no national language. Most Dongxiang Nationalities also speak Chinese. Chinese is the common language of Dongxiang nationality and believes in Islamic Sunnis.
Dongxiang People mainly live in the foothills west of Tao River, east of Daxia River and south of the Yellow River in Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province. The rest live in Hezheng County, Linxia county and Jishishan Bao'an Dongxiang Sala Autonomous County respectively. A small number of Dongxiang People are also scattered in Lanzhou City, Dingxi Region and Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province. After the founding of new China, some Dongxiang ethnic groups migrated from Gansu to Xinjiang.
According to the sixth national census in 2010, the total population of Dongxiang nationality is 621500.
Dongxiang Nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||Dongxiang Nationality|
|Main distribution area||Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province|
|population size||515000 people|
|Aggregation area||Gansu Province|
Chinese PinYin : Dong Xiang Zu
The Dongxiang nationality is named after the Dongxiang nationality who lives in Hezhou (today's Linxia).
Before the founding of new China, it was not recognized as a single ethnic minority, which was often called "Dongxiang Hui" or "Mongolian Hui". This is because Dongxiang nationality is very similar to the Hui nationality in Northwest China in terms of living customs and religious beliefs, and it is often attributed to the "Hui" Nationality in historical documents.
Because Dongxiang nationality is basically similar to Mongolian in language, it is also called "Dongxiang natives" or "Dongxiang Mongols".
There is a lack of direct and complete literature records on the historical origin of Dongxiang nationality. There are only sporadic historical materials and fragments of legends. Even there is no separate record in the annals of Hezhou where Dongxiang nationality has lived for generations, which is very inconsistent. It is mainly derived from the theory of Hui Semu people, Mongols and multi-ethnic integration.
The man said. This statement mainly comes from the legends of Dongxiang nationality. It is said that the ancestors of the Dongxiang nationality were the Salta people in Central Asia and West Asia. When they returned with the Mongolian army of Genghis Khan's western expedition, they came to the present Dongxiang area to settle down, integrated the local Han, Mongolian and other nationalities, and gradually formed the Dongxiang nationality. Therefore, the Dongxiang People call themselves "Salta".
From the end of the 12th century to the beginning of the 13th century, Mongolia rose in the north and south of the desert. Genghis Khan waved his army to the West and launched a large-scale western expedition. In the process of conquering all parts of Salta, the Mongolian army organized a large number of Hui troops and a large number of Hui craftsmen to serve them. In March 1227, Genghis Khan occupied Hezhou and Xining, which was the area where Dongxiang people were active at that time. Genghis Khan once incorporated the Salta people captured during the conquest of Central Asian countries into the "tanma Red Army". Among these saltans, there are armors, sailors and gunners, as well as businessmen, nobles and missionaries. In their garrison, the conquerors gathered all kinds of craftsmen in Salta to live in one place, and named the name of the residential area according to the division of labor. So far, many place names reserved in Dongxiang area also confirm that Salta people live and live here, such as "mianguchi" (silversmith) Township, "A-class Chi" (Weaver) village, "tuomuchi" (blacksmith) village, "Yihachi" (bowl nailer) village, "Tao maochi" (Tanner) village in Dongxiang County, which are related to their work. There are also "Ba Su Chi", "Sha Heichi" and "Daru Huachi", which all mean "defender". In addition, the distribution areas of Dongxiang nationality have left place names such as "tuntian", "tundi", "mindI" and "xintundi", which also explains the situation of "tanma chijun" tuntian in Dongxiang area at that time. In addition, from the perspective of physical characteristics, Dongxiang nationality also has similarities with Central Asians. Many Dongxiang men have high nose, deep eye sockets, long beard, oval face and white women. All these show the origin relationship between the Dongxiang nationality and the syrtas who believe in Islam in Central Asia.
There is a folk legend of the Dongxiang nationality that their ancestors came from the western regions. It is said that as early as 600 or 700 years ago, 40 Tan gudub (missionaries) went to Hezhou to preach. Among them, 13 people settled in Dongxiang, where their leader hamu settled. Nalhuang, Salle, shilati and other places in Dongxiang are the places where their descendants settled. It is also said that eight "said" (meaning of leader and master) from the western regions have also been to Dongxiang. One of them, Ali ADA, settled in bulonggu village. After Ali ADA died, he was buried on Saihan Ping in Daban. The people of bulonggu village still say that ariata is their ancestor.
Mongolian said. From the Mongolian theory, there are two different versions:
First, Dongxiang nationality is the descendant of the Mongolian army stationed in Hezhou during Genghis Khan's western expedition, and gradually changed from "soldiers" to "people". It is said that during Genghis Khan's period, many Mongolian troops were stationed in Hezhou, and most of them were transferred away, but a small part continued to stay in Dongxiang area. Later, Islam was introduced from the northwest to Hezhou through Qinghai and Xunhua. Most local Mongols also converted to Islam and developed into Dongxiang nationality. Some place names in Dongxiang, such as the so-called "tartar land" ("tartar" is an insult to the Mongolian nationality), or "camping Beach" (that is, the place where the Mongolian army is stationed), and "Martin" (the place where the Mongolian army puts horses), are said to be the place where the Mongolian army was stationed at that time.
This legend is based on certain historical facts. In 1226, after Genghis Khan attacked Xixia and captured metal Jishi prefecture (now Xunhua area), Hezhou was once an important settlement of the Mongolian army. During the mengge Khan period, Hezhou became an important town of the Mongolian army in order to control Tubo in the West. The emperor Shizu of the Yuan Dynasty settled kangzang, established the capital of Beijing, and sent zongwang, wanhu mansion and Tibetan missionaries to Hezhou. At the end of the 13th century (when Emperor Chengzong tiemu'er of the Yuan Dynasty was stationed in Tangwu (Hezhou included), the Mongolian King Ananda (Kublai Khan sun) believed in Islam, and more than 150000 of his subordinates, "most of them believed in Islam."
On the other hand, Dongxiang nationality is the descendant of Mongols, a part of the wokuotai Khanate in the Yuan Dynasty. This part of Mongols changed to Islam because of the influence of the surrounding Islamic nationalities, which clashed with the Mongols who originally believed in Buddhism. They were considered to be religious traitors and were forced to move eastward. They migrated inland through orangutan gorge to "zhenpan" (now Minqin County, Gansu Province), and then divided into two ways: one was to enter Helan Mountain and settle in Hetao area, that is, the Mongolian people who believe in Islam in Alxa left banner; On the other hand, he moved south across the Yellow River into Hezhou area. Because he was isolated from Mongolia and the Arabic used by Mongolian and Islam were inconsistent, he still spoke Mongolian, but did not use Mongolian.
Multi ethnic integration theory. According to this theory, Dongxiang nationality is mainly the Hui nationality in Dongxiang area, which integrates the local Mongolian, Han and Tibetan, and has developed over a long period of time.
It is said that the formation of the Dongxiang nationality at first included some Islamists from the northwest, and later the Mongols and some Han people settled here also "followed" (the meaning of joining the church). It is said that in the three years of Tongzhi of the Qing Dynasty (1864) and the twenty-first year of Guangxu (1895), the Han people "followed" the most. According to some investigation materials after the founding of new China, Dongxiang nationality does have Hui, Han, Tibetan and other ethnic components. The surnames Ma and Mu are mostly Hui; Many Dongxiang People with surnames Wang, Kang, Zhang, Gao and Huang say that their ancestors came from the Han nationality. Tang Wangchuan's Han nationality and Dongxiang nationality still have distinct classes and generations and clear family lines. Some place names in Dongxiang areas, such as Tang Wangchuan, Wang Jiaji, zhangjiacun, gaojiazhuang, miaoerling, etc., all reflect that they were the residence of Han people in the past. The place name of "suihuigou" also reflects a similar historical relationship. In addition, the Yang Dongxiang nationality of the Yangzhi family (place name) in Dongxiang said that their ancestors were Tibetans. As for the inclusion of Mongolian elements, it is even more well-known.
According to legends and historical materials, it is generally believed that the Dongxiang nationality was formed by the integration of many different ethnic groups living in Dongxiang in the second half of the 14th century. The main components of its ethnic origin are Semu people and Mongols who believe in Islam. Since the 13th century, Hezhou has been the garrison of Mongolian troops, including Semu people and Mongols. At the end of the 13th century, Ananda, the king of Anxi in the Yuan Dynasty, who pacified Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia, converted to Islam, and most of his Mongols followed. Semu people who believe in Islam also gather in the northwest. At the beginning of the 14th century, yuan Chengzong died. Ananda, king of Anxi, conspired with the empress Bo Yaozhen and others to plot a coup. SHIXIE was killed, but his subordinates were still very powerful. His son once united with the Islamic masses to rebel and was suppressed by the Yuan government. Ananda's subordinates fled one after another. At that time, Dongxiang, which was inaccessible and remote, became one of the areas where the Semu people and Mongols who believed in Islam under Ananda retreated. They lived together with the local Han and Tibetan Nationalities for a long time, married each other, and gradually merged into the Dongxiang nationality.
In history, the Dongxiang people suffered heavy national oppression and class exploitation. The Lijia system implemented in the Ming Dynasty and the social organizations set up in the Qing Dynasty all selected the upper ruling class of Dongxiang nationality who were loyal to the dynasty as Li Chang, Jia Shou or Lian Zong and President, and through them they ruthlessly ruled and plundered the Dongxiang People. At that time, there was really "no standard for taxation and no inventory of land". For hundreds of years, the landlords and gentry groups in Dongxiang area have formed a special political and economic position.
In the decades before the founding of new China, although Dongxiang area was subordinate to Gansu Province, Linxia area, including Dongxiang, was actually under the direct rule of the feudal warlords Ma Anliang, Ma Qi and Ma Bufang. Only from 1924 to 1928, it was occupied by Liu Yufen Department of the national army for a short time. In 1928, Dongxiang area was divided into four districts, belonging to Hezheng, Ningding, Yongjing and Linxia counties. In 1930, the Kuomintang government implemented the Baojia system. Both the Kuomintang and the Majia warlords realized their rule through the ethnic and religious upper class of the Dongxiang nationality. Landlords in Dongxiang ethnic areas, who are both Baojia chiefs, officers and religious leaders, all turn to the Kuomintang and the Majia warlords in order to strengthen their plunder. They use the forms of land rent, employment, usury and so on to brutally extract farmers. At the same time, they set up private courts and use various torture such as "uncovering back flowers", "nailing nails", "clamping wedges", "pulling out tendons" and "smashing bones and abductions" to urge rent and debt. The girder of a big landlord's house in basuchi has worn seven or eight deep grooves because he often hangs and beats farmers.
In Dongxiang area, local feudal groups used ethnic contradictions and sectarian disputes to constantly create and expand incidents and hunt or safeguard their own interests. With the development of social economy and the concentration of land, the landlord class of Dongxiang nationality is further combined with the religious upper class and bureaucrats. They are big landlords in economy, eunuchs in religion and powerful bureaucrats in politics. Especially after the Tongzhi of the Qing Dynasty (1960s and 1970s), this Trinity combination was more obvious and rapid.
Since the reign of Guangxu, the local powerful forces in Dongxiang have been formed. For example, Ma Ying in Beizhuang was once the garrison envoy of Ganzhou during the period of the Qing government and the Northern Warlords. He was one of the eight garrison envoys in Gansu at that time. Ma Zhongxiao, an eight element red, was once the leader of the elite Western army of the Qing Dynasty. In order to compete for territory, the two families had a long-term struggle, resulting in the opposition between "four differences" and "eight camps". "Four differences" is the appellation of Ma Zhongxiao family's sphere of influence, including six associations. "Eight camps" is the sphere of influence of the Ma family, including more than 10 clubs.
In this way, from 1930 to 1939, three large feudal separatist forces had formed in Dongxiang area: the sphere of influence of basuchi gate official landlords, the sphere of influence of Beizhuang gate official landlords, and the sphere of influence of suonamba tyrant group. These feudal forces were not completely destroyed until the democratic reform and the mass struggle against religious feudal privileges, oppression and exploitation.
Before the founding of new China, due to the cruel oppression and exploitation of the reactionary ruling class in previous dynasties, coupled with the poor natural conditions in Dongxiang area, the economic development was very slow and backward, and the working people in Dongxiang lived in extreme poverty. In order to make a living, Dongxiang People usually go out to do small business during the slack season, but they are also exploited by usury when borrowing capital. In addition, warlords scuffle, inconvenient transportation and many bandits, so this livelihood is also very difficult. In the year of disaster, it is even more difficult. For example, in the 18th year of the Republic of China, the drought in Gansu Province, Dongxiang sold Baiyang 2 yuan per liter of grain, and a large number of people died and fled from famine. In suonan market town, corpses cross the street, which is terrible. The people of Dongxiang nationality are subjected to heavy exploitation and oppression. Only the "land tax", "additional grain" and other exorbitant taxes paid to the government every year account for 20% of their total income. In addition to the burden of money and food, the people of Dongxiang also have to provide horse money and strong men to the government and warlords. Three or four households produce one horse, one household produces one horse, once a year, and two or three times a year. It's even worse to catch strong men. Sometimes we catch them seven or eight times a year. When the number of people is the largest, 80 strong men will be released from every 100 households, and almost one will be distributed in every family. In addition to the official deployment of a small number of soldiers, there are also additional soldiers. Even primary school students aged 12 or 13 and old men aged 50 or 60 are not spared. The Kuomintang troops were assigned according to their families. If they could not send troops, they would send troops. At first, a military fund was 50 or 60 yuan of silver, but later increased to 700 or 800 yuan, forcing many people to lose their homes and leave their homes. Three old ma and his son in wumaisi village were sent eight times in a row, a total of 175 Baiyang. They were forced to tear down their houses, sell their land and donkeys, and borrow usury from the landlord. The debt had not yet been paid, and the Fourth Military payment fell on his head. Unable to pay the military payment, the captain hung Ma Laowu on the beam with an iron chain tied to the dog, forcing the Ma Laowu family to flee their hometown and beg everywhere. Another example is Ma Guangwu, a farmer in Guocheng village, suonan. In 1948, his family had four people, 10.5 mu of land, six houses and one donkey. He sent troops five times that year, the first four times, a total of 58 yuan. In addition to selling grain, he borrowed Baiyang 40 yuan before he handed in the military funds. By the fifth time, he was no longer able to pay all the money, so he had to become a soldier himself. There were 47 families in the three villages of fanjiazhuang, jinyangjia and Wangjiazhuang. In 1947, in addition to sending 3850 Baiyang military funds, people in their 15th, 6th and 50s were also arrested to become soldiers. In 1948, the Kuomintang arrested more than 3000 people in Dongxiang area at one time, and some imams were shaved and arrested to become soldiers. In the name of running a primary school, Ma Bufang forced more than 300 primary school students to become soldiers, so that people did not dare to send their children to school for a long time. The pawns and lackeys of the reactionary government in the local areas also took advantage of the opportunity to seize troops and blackmail the masses. Some Baojia chiefs and villains make chickens and dogs restless and cry everywhere when they go to a village. The injured people have to send "shoes and feet money" in tears. The numerous exploitation and exploitation made the Dongxiang area present a tragic scene of "few people in the market town and few rural youth".
Facing the cruel class oppression and national oppression, the Dongxiang People carried out unyielding resistance and struggle. In the Qing Dynasty, an anti Qing uprising led by the Hui nationality broke out in Gansu, such as the Hui uprising led by milayin and Ding Guodong in the fourth year of Shunzhi (1647), the anti Qing struggle led by Su 43 of the Salar nationality in the 46th year of Qianlong (1781), and the Hui uprising in Gansu in the 1860s (Tongzhi), in which the Dongxiang people participated and became the most tenacious One of the bravest parts.
The Dongxiang People have never succumbed to the oppression of the reactionary forces and have been fighting against oppression since the Republic of China. In 1928, the uprising of Hui and Dongxiang People against the national army broke out in Hezhou. Dongxiang nationality is an important force. In April of the same year, in the battle of Ningding (Guanghe), the Dongxiang People wiped out a brigade of the national army; More than 800 Dongxiang People, led by Ma Baqi, repulsed the National Army troops that had entered Hezhou from Wangchuan in the Tang Dynasty in the Dagoutou area. In 1943, a peasant uprising against the rule of Chiang Ma clique, which was jointly organized by Han, Hui, Dongxiang, Tibetan and other nationalities, broke out in Gannan, and the flames spread throughout more than ten counties in Gannan. The Dongxiang uprising troops killed the county magistrate in the battles of Lintan and Xincheng, and wiped out a regiment of the Kuomintang army in the battle of shuijiapo in Yuzhong County, which dealt a heavy blow to the enemy. After the failure of Gannan uprising, the reactionary rulers carried out "cleaning up the countryside", and a large number of farmers participating in the uprising were brutally slaughtered. However, the struggle of the Dongxiang people did not stop, and the beating and killing of Baojia chief continued to occur everywhere. This is closely related to the influence of the party and the development of the revolutionary situation.
When the red army passed Taozhou (now Lintan, Gansu) on the long march in 1936, it had a profound impact on the Dongxiang People. After that, several outstanding children of Dongxiang Nationality went to Yan'an, the holy land of revolution. At the moment when the Kuomintang government and warlords oppressed and plundered the Dongxiang people most seriously, the Communist Party of China sent Communists many times to go deep into the Dongxiang area, establish Party organizations, spread revolutionary ideas, organize mass struggle, and send some Dongxiang youth to study in the Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia border region to cultivate the revolutionary backbone of the Dongxiang People.
Although the reactionary ruling class in previous dynasties used ethnic contradictions to create ethnic hatred and murder in Dongxiang area, there have also been many moving deeds of people of all ethnic groups jointly resisting the reactionary armed forces and protecting each other. In 1928, in the struggle of the Dongxiang People against the national army, due to the provocation of the national army and the participation and leadership of the upper class of the reactionary nation in the insurgent forces, the gap between the nationalities was caused, resulting in cracks. But the close friendship between working people is still playing a big role. The Dongxiang People in suonanba protected more than 200 Han people during the national massacre; Ma sayI, a Dongxiang woman in Hongzhuang, risked her life and led the Han farmer Yang Chaoyun's family to his home to hide. After the failure of the uprising, when the national army was in "Qingxiang", many Han people also protected the Dongxiang People.
In August 1949, the Dongxiang nationality area was liberated. On September 25, 1950, Dongxiang autonomous region was established. In December 1953, with approval, Dongxiang autonomous region was renamed Dongxiang autonomous region. In 1955, it was renamed Dongxiang Autonomous County. In addition, in 1953 and 1954, ethnic townships were successively established in Liangjia temple, Ali numb, Gangou in Hezheng county and anjiapo, Fujia and hulinjia in Linxia.
By 2005, in addition to Dongxiang Autonomous County in Gansu Province, Baoan Dongxiang Sala Autonomous County in Jishishan, Gansu Province, Ali matudong Township in Guanghe County, jinggou Dongxiang Township and anjiapo Dongxiang Township in Linxia County, liangjiasi Dongxiang Township in Hezheng county and Xiaojinwan Dongxiang Township in Yumen, Jiuquan city had also been established in areas with relatively concentrated Dongxiang ethnic groups.
The cadre team of Dongxiang nationality has also been continuously developed and expanded. Taking Dongxiang Autonomous County, the largest residential area of Dongxiang nationality, as an example, there were only 165 minority cadres in the Autonomous County in 1951, which had increased to 1890 by 2005, of which Dongxiang cadres accounted for 55%.
Dongxiang nationality is one of the ten ethnic minorities in China who believe in Islam.
Before the founding of new China, there were 595 mosques in Dongxiang, 70 in Gongbei, 9 in Daotang, 12 religious leaders, and more than 2000 religious professionals. On average, every 30 households had one temple or Gongbei, and every 18.5 households supported one religious professional. There were as many as 34 kinds of religious stalls, and the religious burden of the masses was relatively heavy.
Islam has three factions in Dongxiang: old religion, Protestantism and emerging religion. At the beginning of the formation of Dongxiang nationality, the sect was relatively single. Since the late Ming Dynasty and the early Qing Dynasty, with the introduction of the doctrine of the Sufi sect of Islam, sects and officials have gradually formed. Lao religion refers to the four main officials of Chinese Islam, namely zhe He Ren ye, Hu Fei ye, Kubu Ren ye, Gadi Ren ye and their branches; Protestantism refers to the ihwani sect (meaning Brothers) founded by Ma Wanfu, a man from Dongxiang orchard in the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China; Xinxing religion, also known as wahhabiya sect or SELEV sect, is a sect that originated in Bafang, Linxia and spread to Dongxiang in the early days of liberation. There are some sects and officials that have a great influence in the Islam of Dongxiang nationality or created by Dongxiang nationality, such as kubuiya, Beizhuang, Humen, Dagong Beimen and ihwani.
Although these sects and officials have some differences in religious activities, rituals and interpretation of classics, their essence is not different. However, in history, the ruling class took advantage of these differences to constantly create internal ethnic contradictions and provoke ethnic relations. Before the founding of new China, there were often fierce struggles between new and old sects, within the two sects and between door officials, and even developed into mass fighting. This reflects the conflict of interests among the ethnic and religious upper classes, which has deeply harmed the majority of Dongxiang People.
After the founding of new China, the party and government implemented the policy of freedom of religious belief, adopted the policy of unity, education and transformation for religious people, and correctly treated and handled the differences within religions. Many religious figures were moved and said, "in the past, Ma Bufang shaved our beard and took us to the army, revived Protestantism and destroyed the old religion, resulting in disunity within our nation, fighting and hatred, and killing the dead and hurting money. Now the government presides over justice, pays attention to unity, and even discusses things with our Imam. It's beyond our dreams." however, there are a very few religious elites who are hostile to socialism, It attempts to maintain the original system of religious feudal privileges, oppression and exploitation and undermine the socialist revolution and construction. In 1958, the Dongxiang people fought against the religious feudal privilege and the system of oppression and exploitation, which reduced the burden on the masses and promoted the development and progress of the Dongxiang society. Since the reform and opening up, the party and government's policy on freedom of religious belief has been further implemented, and the freedom of religious belief of Dongxiang People has been guaranteed.
In ancient times, women of Dongxiang Nationality loved to wear embroidered clothes with collars, large lapels and wide sleeves. The sleeves were wide and set with a lace on the cuffs. Wear pants with two embroidered laces on the trouser legs, a small fork at the back of the trouser legs, and tie the leg tubes with streamers. They wear embroidered skirts during festive events. They call this kind of embroidered skirt "too beautiful". Embroidered shoes with high heels. At that time, they didn't wear a cap, only a headband, ornaments were inserted in the bun, and silver ornaments were generally worn on the chest. At that time, women's tops were also popular to sew several sections of false sleeves with colored cloth, and lace was embroidered on each section of the false sleeves. Later, women's clothing gradually changed. Women usually wear caps, which are divided into three colors: green, black and white. Girls and new daughters in law wear green silk and green satin caps, women and middle-aged women who have been married for one or two years wear black caps, and elderly women wear white caps. The clothes are navy blue or black and blue cloth clothes. Young women wear red or green. The coat is wide, knee high, with the big skirt at the back, plus a knee high waistcoat, and the trousers are dragged to the feet.
In the past, men often wore wide robes and a wide belt with objects such as knives, purses, snuff bottles and glasses boxes. Wear a black and white flat top soft hat. Middle aged and old people like to wear robes and "Zhongbai". "Zhongbai" is similar to Uighur's long double breasted clothes. It is usually sewn with black cloth and gray cloth. When wearing it, it should be neat and clean with correct buttons.
Dongxiang People mainly take wheat, beans, highland barley and other pasta and potato as their staple food, and cattle, sheep, chicken, duck and fish as their non-staple food. However, meat can only be eaten after being slaughtered by imams or elders with good conduct and bleeding. Avoid eating the meat of pigs, dogs, horses, donkeys, mules and fierce animals. You can't pour water with your back hand. When eating cakes and steamed bread, you should break them or eat them after breaking them. You can't eat whole ones.
Dongxiang people especially like to drink tea. Generally, there must be tea at every meal. They most like Yunnan Chunjian tea and Shaanxi green tea. Guests come to "three fragrant tea". Tea, rock sugar, longan or cooked red dates, raisins and other things are placed in the cover bowl, which is called "three bubble table". Avoid smoking and drinking.
Before the reform and opening up, the Dongxiang nationality was generally a family with one courtyard. The house sat from north to south. The siheyuan was an ideal home, with the north house as the upper house. Houses include earth houses, tile roofed houses, buildings, caves, etc. With the development of the times, great changes have taken place in the housing of Dongxiang nationality. Most families have built tile houses with brick and wood structure, and some families have built two-story buildings with brick and concrete structure. When Dongxiang People are building new houses or demolishing old houses, they usually ask the Imam to chant scriptures to ward off evil spirits. After the new house is completed, every family in the village comes to congratulate and entertain, and the host will slaughter chickens and sheep to entertain the guests.
Dongxiang People call their home "Ge'er" (meaning house) and generally practice monogamy. Before the founding of new China, some rich families also had monogamy and two wives. Grandparents live in "Fuge" (i.e. upper room), parents live in "Qiao Ye" (i.e. wing room), and children live in a single room. After more than ten years of marriage, his son separated from his parents in another Zhuang nest (hospital). When separated, parents should divide property and land for their son. Young children can always stay with their parents, have more inheritance rights than other sons, and support their parents. The funeral expenses in the event of the death of their parents shall be borne jointly by their sons. The old nest (courtyard) or house where parents or grandparents live shall be owned by the young child. In terms of property distribution, the eldest grandson has almost the same status as his sons and can also share a share of property. Among the family members of several generations, Weng's daughter-in-law and brother-in-law have the habit of avoiding. They often don't meet or talk to each other to show respect.
There are many narrative poems and stories spread among the people of Dongxiang nationality.
The long folk narrative poems Sung and recited in Dongxiang language are all rap style, with relatively free form, many rhymes changing in the middle, and the melody structure is not very stereotyped. With the length and change of the lyrics, the two music scores alternate and repeat continuously, with strong recitation. Up to now, miragahei, zhanhanam, Shisi nibi and zhe AGU are still circulating Grape moth, etc.
According to the content, Dongxiang folk legends and stories can be divided into character legends, place name legends, scenery legends, etc. according to the survey, there are more than 1600 basically finalized legends and stories.
Almost everyone in Dongxiang can sing and make up "flowers".
In Dongxiang language, "Hua'er" is called "Duan", and "Duan La Dou" is "man Hua'er". For nearly one or two hundred years, "Duan" has played a very important role in the cultural life of the Dongxiang People. "Hua'er" sings: "Hua'er is the word of the heart. If you don't sing, you can't go home. If you use a knife to cut off your head, it's still the singing method if you don't die."
In the past, "Hua'er" used to sing bitter songs and love songs. It sang complaints about the miserable life in the old society and expressed the resistance of young men and women to the feudal marriage system and the desire to pursue loyal love.
After the founding of new China, the "flowers" praising the Communist Party and singing a new life have replaced the sad songs of the past. "The hero of Dongxiang People, the Han Dynasty, split the mountain and led the water to the high mountain. The heroes of previous dynasties are not worth it. The real heroes look at the present."
Dongxiang People have board cabinet paintings and wall cloth pocket paintings.
The board and cabinet paintings are mainly black and white, with meticulous outline. The content is mainly to depict the natural scenery, simple and elegant. Wall pocket paintings are mostly painted with crayons, and most of the contents are flowers and trees.
After the founding of new China, the art workers of Dongxiang Nationality created art works reflecting the life of Dongxiang People. Among them, wedding shows the customs and customs of Dongxiang wedding.
Dongxiang People have festivals every month. They rotate month by month every year, 12 months a year, 36 years later. This is closely related to religious belief. There are four major festivals of Dongxiang Nationality: Eid al Fitr, gulbon, Jihad and Ashura, all of which come from Islam.
Eid al Fitr is the most solemn and important festival of Dongxiang nationality. On the day of Eid al Fitr, men went to the mosque to get together, went to the cemetery to pray in the morning, and relatives and friends in the neighborhood came to each other to greet each other. Women fry fried fruits, Sanzi and other fried foods at home, some to relatives and friends, and some to stay at home.
Gulbang Festival, called "Aya" by Dongxiang People, is generally held 70 days after Eid al Fitr. On this day, people with better economic ability slaughter animals for celebration. The Imam and villagers are invited to chant scriptures and eat together at home. Exclusive enjoyment is not allowed.
Jihad is a day to commemorate the birth and death of the Prophet Muhammad. It is held on March 12 or 13 of the Islamic calendar (the birth and death dates are the wrong day). The general way of commemoration is to hold various forms of gatherings, recite the Koran, and slaughter sheep and chickens during the holy season. Everyone can eat together, either in the mosque, Gongbei or at home.
Ahura Festival is a traditional festival that the Dongxiang People attach great importance to. "Ahshoula" means "10" in Arabic. It is said that on January 10 of the Islamic calendar, Allah created Adan and Aiwa, the ancestors of mankind. Adan and Aiwa met again on this day after dispersing for several years. In Dongxiang, a shoula Festival is a festival for women and children. Every year, it is organized by each family in turn to ask the Imam to chant scriptures and pray. Ahura festival also has the meaning of food festival.
The marriage of Dongxiang Nationality adopts the principle of male to female marriage.
When the man reaches the age of marriage, he asks the matchmaker to go to the woman's house to talk about marriage. After the woman agrees, the man will send "order tea", that is, the man's house will send tea, rock sugar, clothes, etc. to the woman's house through the matchmaker. Sending an "engagement tea" is tantamount to being "engaged".
Later, the man's family will send a "bride price" to the woman. The amount of "betrothal gifts" depends on the man's economic situation. Generally, the matchmaker, the man's parents and son give gifts to the woman's house. The woman's house invites the old people of the family to prepare meals for reception, which is called receiving gifts.
The wedding date is mostly the "main hemp" day after the autumn harvest or in the winter leisure.
On the wedding day, a simple Islamic ceremony should be held. That is, when the man goes to the woman's house to get married, the Imam presides over the ceremony and reads "nicaha" in public. After that, people spread a plate of red dates and walnuts to the adults and children watching, indicating that they had children early.
The next day, the bride met the guests and called them "visitors". In the afternoon, the bride entered the kitchen for the first time, rolled out long noodles, called "knife test noodles", and invited the guests to taste the craftsmanship of the new daughter-in-law.
All the dead, regardless of age or sex, are treated the same in Dongxiang. Generally, they do not stay overnight and are buried.
The funeral ceremony is relatively frugal. The dead are buried without coffins and clothes. They are not buried with things, whether rich or poor. They only need to be wrapped in 3.6 Zhang white cloth, and the shroud is called "Kaifan". The tomb pit is rectangular. Another side hole is dug under the tomb pit. The dead are slowly placed in the side hole with their face facing west. However, the side hole is blocked with earth blocks and then filled with earth. At this time, the Imam began to recite the relevant chapters of the Koran. The mourners knelt down to listen. After reading, everyone received "DUWA" to pray for the dead. So far, the ceremony ended.
Min Fuying, Imam, led the Dongxiang People to participate in the Muslim uprising in Xunhua, Didao and other places in the 21st year of Guangxu (1895). In 1892, Gansu suffered a severe drought, food prices soared, and the people could not live. In addition, the national oppression policy of the Qing Dynasty colluded with the Han landlord class to carry out discrimination, exploitation and oppression, which led to the anti Qing uprising in 1895 (the 21st year of Guangxu). In 1894, Mayou Gulu stick and Han Laosi of Salar nationality in Xunhua gathered people to fight because of sectarian disputes. Under the attack of the rebel army, the Qing troops in Shuangcheng were completely destroyed. Min Fuying led the rebel army to attack Hezhou City, and Muslims in other places responded one after another.
Ma Wanfu (1849-1934) was the founder of the ihwani sect of Islam in China. The name is NUH. Dongxiang nationality. Dongxiang (now Gansu Dongxiang Autonomous County) is a native of Orchard Village, so it is also called horse orchard. His ancestors and fathers were imams, belonging to Beizhuang officials. At the age of 22, he accepted apprenticeship and gave lectures. In the 14th year of Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty (1888), he made a pilgrimage to Mecca and studied. Influenced by the Wahhabi movement, he abandoned the official and changed to "AIHAI sunnai" (Sutra compliance sect). After completing his studies in the 18th year of Guangxu's reign, he returned to his hometown through Hubei Province and stayed for the Laohekou mosque for more than one year. He returned to his hometown the following year. He soon applied to start school at Hejia temple in manigou, Linxia, giving lectures on the Koran, hadith, recognition of the Lord, teaching methods and other disciplines, which lasted 10 years to publicize his ideas of "respecting the classics and changing customs" and "building education by the classics".
Wang Yuliang (1933 -), a native of Dongxiang, Gansu Province. Writer. A member of the Communist Party of China. Wang Yuliang was influenced by national folk oral literature and loved literature. At the beginning of liberation, he collected a large number of folklore and ballads and began to learn creation. Wang Yuliang was admitted to the Chinese Department of Northwest Normal University in 1952. After graduating in 1956, he first worked in the school and soon transferred to the Publicity Department of Gansu provincial Party committee. In 1964, he was transferred to Gansu literature and art magazine of the Provincial Federation of literary and art circles. He was transferred to Gansu people's Publishing House in 1971. He is a member of the Chinese Writers Association, the Chinese Folk Writers and Artists Association, a member of the national literature Committee of the Chinese Writers Association and a director of the Chinese Minority Literature Association. He is currently the vice chairman of Gansu Federation of literary and art circles. Since the beginning of literary creation in the 1950s, Wang Yuliang has published nearly 1000 poems, about 2 million words. He published five poetry monographs, including the opening of the Communist Party on the avenue of happiness, brother Ma and sister GA Dou, miraga black, selected poems of Wang Yuliang and love of the earth. Wang Yuliang has made outstanding achievements in the field of literary creation. Many of his works have been selected into the national literary works, and he has published the novel love? Death. The long poem "miragahei" and the lyric poem "song for October" won the first prize of the first and second Chinese ethnic minority excellent literary creation in 1982 and 1986 respectively.
Zhong Xiang (1966 -) Dongxiang nationality, native of Kangle County, Gansu Province, member of China Writers Association, talent of "four groups" in the publicity and culture system of Gansu Province, associate research librarian and famous writer of Dongxiang nationality.
Zhong Xiang was born in dangchuanbao site left over from the Song Dynasty in Liuchuan Township, Kangle County, Gansu Province. After graduating from junior high school, he was admitted to Linxia normal school. He was exposed to Literature and was deeply attracted by hazy poetry. After graduating in 1987, he taught in his hometown's mountain school and tried literary creation.
In 1991, he was transferred to the administrative department of Guanghe county to continue the self-examination of higher education, publish and teach literary creation, and successively publish works in poetry journal, national literature, Feitian, Chinese nation, Shanhua and other journals. In 2004, he published poetry anthology "journey of heart", in 2010, he published prose anthology "road in the countryside", in 2012, he published poetry anthology "light spot in the dark", compiled literature anthology "loess land illuminated by the sun", in 2015, he published prose anthology "hometown feelings", compiled "charming Linxia", etc. His works have won literary awards such as Chinese writer, national literature and selected novels, and have been selected into various literary anthologies for many times.
He joined the Writers Association of Gansu Province in 2002. He joined the Chinese writers' Association in 2010. He was the first writer to join the Chinese writers' Association in Linxia, filling a historical gap. In 2012, he participated in the Fifth National Minority Literature Creation Conference, and the prose collection road in the countryside won the 10th National Minority Literature Creation Horse Award. He is the first person in Linxia to win this honor.
On September 27, 2014, the national literature magazine, the Chinese society of minority writers and the Chinese prose society hosted a seminar on Zhong Xiang's prose works in Beijing. Shi Yining, Huang Fengxian, Zhou Ming, quartz, Liu Daxian and other critics conducted an in-depth discussion on Zhong Xiang's prose creation.
He Yirong, member of Chinese Writers Association and Ningxia Artists Association. Student of the third middle-aged and young senior writers class of Lu Xun College of literature. In 2001, he participated in the national young writers' creation seminar. He has won the literature and Art Award of Ningxia Autonomous Region for many times, the Rookie Award for research and creation of Chinese contemporary minority literature, and the ten-year flying literature award. His works were first published in the 1990s. So far, more than 2 million words of his works have been published in major literary journals across the country. His novels have been reprinted many times by selected novels, selected novels, Beijing Literary novella monthly and selected Chinese literature, and have been selected as the best novel of the year and various literary books. Some of his works have been translated and introduced abroad. In 2004, he won the third national spring literature award. In 2008, the collection of medium and short stories, the bronze soup bottle hanging in the moonlight, won the "Horse Award" for national minority literary creation, the "literature and Art Award of zhenbeibao Western cinema" in the same year, and the title of "double happiness of virtue and art" literary and artistic worker in Ningxia. The novel Greenland was selected into the minority volume (English version) of the 21st century Chinese Contemporary Literature Library. The series was listed as one of the main exhibition books of the guest country in Frankfurt by the State Press and publication administration.
In 2010, he visited the United States at the invitation of the international writing program, and delivered a speech on "literary compassion" at the University of Chicago, the University of Iowa, the U.S. State Department and other places. At the same time, he solemnly introduced his nation and brought it to the world's attention in the form of literature for the first time.
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