She nationality is one of the ethnic minorities with a small population in China, with a total population of 708651 (2010). It is distributed in some mountainous areas in more than 80 counties (cities) in Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, Anhui and Hunan provinces, of which more than 90% live in the vast mountainous areas of Fujian and Zhejiang. They call themselves "shanha", but the name is not recorded in history books. In the Tang Dynasty, ethnic minorities, including the ancestors of the She nationality, who lived in the border areas of Fujian, Guangdong and Jiangxi provinces, were generally referred to as "barbarians", "barbarians", "tongbarbarians" or "Tongliao". In the late Southern Song Dynasty, the ethnic names of "she people" and "fist people" began to appear in historical books. "The She nationality has its own language, belonging to the Sino Tibetan language family. The she language is very close to the Hakka dialect of Chinese, but a few she nationalities in Haifeng, Zengcheng, Huiyang and BOLUO in Guangdong use the" Bunu "language (belonging to the Miao language branch) close to the Yao nationality The She people do not have their own language and use Chinese. In daily life, she people everywhere are familiar with the local Chinese dialect. With the integration of the She people into the Han community, most of the She people turn to lobbyists and Chinese of Jiangxi, Fujian and Guangdong departments. According to statistics, more than 99% of the She people in China use the local Chinese Hakka dialect. Among them, the she language in Fu'an area of Fujian Province is considered to be the standard of all she languages Quasi language.
In December 1956, the State Council recognized the She nationality as a single ethnic minority and designated it as the She nationality. Jingning She Autonomous County is the only she Autonomous County in China, with the she population accounting for about 11.5%. According to historical records, the She people have moved into Jingning for more than 1200 years. The she family tree has another name of "corvee" or "corvee family".
Academic circles generally believe that the She nationality is the indigenous population of Fenghuang mountain. The She nationality is the ancestor of Chaoshan area. Fenghuang Mountain in Chaozhou is recognized as the founding base and national birthplace of more than 700000 she compatriots in China. Chaozhou she culture is an important part of Chaozhou culture. She songs are the source of Chaozhou songs.
She Nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||the She ethnic group|
|alias||They call themselves shanha, Yaojia, Shanyao, Yao people, etc|
|population size||About 708700 (2010)|
|traditional festival||"March 3"|
|Main surname||Disc, blue, thunder, clock, etc|
|Genus||Generalized Yao nationality|
|Use language||She, Hakka, Gan, min, Cantonese, etc|
|Diaspora||More than 90% live in Fujian and Zhejiang, and the rest are scattered in Jiangxi, Guizhou, Guangdong, Anhui and Hunan|
|historical figure||Lan Li, LAN Tingzhen, LAN Dingyuan, etc|
Chinese PinYin : She Zu
Since ancient times, there have been "she Yao", "Yao", "Yao family", "Shan Yao", "Yao people" and so on.
The word "she" comes from "she". It has appeared in classics such as poetry and Book of changes. The word "she" has two pronunciations, y ú (Yu), which refers to the newly reclaimed land; Read sh ē (extravagant), which means slash and burn. The word "she" evolved into a national name, which began in the Southern Song Dynasty. According to Liu Kezhuang's Zhangzhou Yu she, "the people are unhappy (service), the she fields are not taxed, and they have been here for a long time." she "as a family name, was named because of the nomadic economic life characteristics of the She people who opened up wasteland and cultivated land everywhere at that time. Therefore, the Longquan county annals said: "the (people) are famous for she, and they are also good at fields". The name of "Che people" also appeared in the 13th century. Wen Tianxiang said in his book "knowing Mr. Hong Gongxing, Cheng Dongyan of Chaozhou Temple": "Chao borders Zhang and Ting, and Yan Kou Che people gather". "Che" sound sh ē， It is a common Chinese word in Guangdong. As for the analysis of "Che", Gu Yanwu's book on the benefits of the world's prefectures and countries states that "Guangdong people take bamboo and wood barriers in the mountains and forests as their Che". Obviously, the word "Che" as the family name focuses on the form of residence, which refers to the people who build tents in the mountains. Although the meaning of "Che" is different from that of "she", it does not refer to two different nationalities or two different economic development stages of the same nationality, but the former refers to the She nationality in Fujian and the latter refers to the She nationality in Guangdong and Jiangxi. This is a different name due to the different emphasis of Han literati on the economic life of the She nationality in Fujian, Guangdong and Jiangxi.
At the end of the Song Dynasty and the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, she people in various places organized a rebel army to join the struggle against the Yuan Dynasty. The names "she army" and "she Ding" appeared in the history of the Yuan Dynasty. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, it was very common for the local chronicles of Fujian and Zhejiang to call the She nationality "she people", "she people" and "she passengers", and it was also common for the local chronicles of Guangdong and Jiangxi to call the She nationality "Che Hu", "Che man" and "Shan Che". Since the Qing Dynasty, many people did not understand the ethnic composition of the She people, and some people called the She people "Miao", "Yao", "Yao Tong" and "Miao people"
In August 1953, the Central Ethnic Affairs Committee sent a She nationality identification investigation team headed by Shi Lianzhu, an ethnological expert, to conduct a three-month She nationality identification investigation in Dongnong village, Jingning County, Zhejiang Province, Bajing village, Luoyuan County, Fujian Province, and Yangge village, Zhangping County, and wrote materials such as the investigation of She nationality in Dongnong village, Jingning County, Zhejiang Province. In December 1956, the State Council recognized the She nationality as a single ethnic minority and identified the She nationality as the She nationality.
There are different opinions on the origin of the She nationality. Some people advocate that the she Yao nationality is homologous to the "Wuling man" (also known as "Wuxi man") in Changsha in the Han and Jin Dynasties, and is homologous to the Yao nationality. It is common to hold this view. Since ancient times, there have been "she Yao", "Yao", "Yao family", "Shan Yao", "Yao people" and so on.
In addition, the origin of She nationality has many statements, such as "the descendants of Yue nationality", "the descendants of Dongyi nationality", "a branch of Henan Yi nationality" and "a branch of Nanman nationality". In short, the source of the She nationality with different opinions reflects the interaction, mixing and blending relationship between the She nationality and the barbarian, Yue, min, Yi, Han and other ethnic groups in the process of its tortuous historical development and national formation.
There are many differences in the origin of She nationality, but generally speaking, there are two kinds of theories: foreign theory and indigenous theory. Outsiders believe that the She nationality originated from the "Wuling barbarians in Changsha" in the Han and Jin Dynasties. The main argument for holding this view is that "wulingman" and She nationality share the same belief in Panhu totem. Indigenous speakers believe that the She nationality originated from the "Min" people of the Zhou Dynasty. "Min" is the aboriginal of Fujian, the earliest owner of Fujian, and its descendants are today's She nationality. There is a certain origin relationship between "Min" and "she". The main argument of this theory is that there is a close connotation relationship between "Min" and "she", that is, "Min" -- "man" -- "Liao" -- "she" come down in one continuous line.
In addition, some people believe that the She nationality originated from a branch of the "Yi" people in Ancient Henan and belongs to a clan tribe close to the Gaoxin family. Some believe that the She nationality originated in Henan, and its ancestor is "Long Qi", and so on.
In short, there are still disputes about the origin of She nationality.
（1） She Yao originated from the theory of "Wuling man" (also known as "Wuxi man") in Changsha in the Han and Jin Dynasties. This theory holds that the she and most Yao nationalities have a well-known totem worship - Panhu legend left over from the primitive society. The content of the legend is similar to the Panhu legend spread by the "Wuling man" distributed in the middle and lower reaches of the Chang Han Dynasty in the Han and Jin Dynasties. Therefore, it is considered that the she and Yao nationalities have a close origin relationship with the "Wuling man". Among the Yao people, "Panhu Yao" (or "PanYao", "Banyao", "dingtou Yao" and "Guoshan Yao") who call themselves "mian" and "Shanzi Yao" who call themselves "men" account for more than half of the total human price of the Yao people. They also believe in the legend of Panhu.
Most of the historical records call Yao and she ethnic groups as Panhu of "wuximan". Later, the she and Yao ethnic groups not only have the same Panhu legend reflecting the primitive totem worship, but also have the same customs. In the historical records, they are often called she and Yao together, or even the she ethnic group is the Yao ethnic group. Until the Qing Dynasty, the she and Yao were mixed, and they often called the She ethnic group "Yao people". There are also records of the she genealogy calling themselves "Yao people" "Yao households", "descendants of corvee people", etc. now the She people distributed in Haifeng, Huiyang, Zengcheng and BOLUO, Guangdong still call themselves "Yue Yao", while the Han people in Haifeng and Huiyang call them "she people", but in Zengcheng, they are called "Shan Yao" by the Han people "Both ethnic groups have alternate surnames. It is said that the She nationality has four surnames: Pan, LAN, Lei, Zhong, but in fact, except for dozens of Pan she nationalities in Zengcheng County, Guangdong Province, there is no pan surname in other areas. There is an explanation for the loss of Pan brothers in the she genealogy of Xiapu County, Fujian Province: it is said that in the second year of Tang Guangqi (A.D. 886) Pan, LAN, Lei, Zhong, Li and other She ethnic groups have more than 360 Ding people. They came to Fujian from Haidao after being judged by the king of min and landed on Mabi road in Lianjiang. They moved to Luoyuan dam head. Pan Wang Bi was drifting by the wind and disappeared, so the pan surname was lost among the She ethnic groups. Pan, the legendary eldest brother of the She ethnic group, remained in Guangdong. However, there are many pan surnames in the Yao ethnic group, including LAN, Lei and other surnames. Zhi Ling of the two ethnic groups still maintain one Planting documents in Chinese is called "mountain climbing list" among Yao people and "mountain opening official document" among she people. The contents of both are similar. They also record the legend of Panhu with the nature of primitive totem worship. In addition, they also record that the feudal emperor gave them coupons, allowing them to rent mountains, refuse to accept grain rent, refuse corvee and other privileges, but they are not cultivated on the plain and are not allowed to intermarry with Han people.
Based on the above reasons, it can be inferred that she and Yao originated from one of the "Southern barbarians" in the Han and Jin Dynasties, including the "Wuling barbarians" in Changsha. Their historical origins are very close. There are a large number of people who hold this view, which is more credible because there are abundant supporting materials.
（2） Dongyi said. On the basis of the theory that the she and Yao nationalities are of the same origin as "Wuling barbarians", Professor Pan Guangdan further traced the origin of the She nationality back to the "Xu Yi" living in the southwest of the "Dongyi" between the Huai River and the Yellow River in the spring and autumn and Warring States periods. He believed that the She nationality and most Yao nationalities are of the same origin as "Wuling barbarians", and "Wuling barbarians" was after the "Dongyi" moved to Western Hubei and Hunan, It is formed by integrating other ethnic elements. He believed that "Xu Yi" had a close relationship with Miao, Yao and she. Later, some of them moved to the Yangtze River Basin and entered the Wuling mountains, which developed into the Yao nationality today. Some of them merged with the Han nationality in the mountains of Jiangxi, Fujian and Zhejiang from the Wuling mountains to the East and became the She nationality; The other part once settled in the area of Dongting Lake, that is, the Miao nationality who later entered western Hunan and Guizhou. Some people compare the cultural heritages of the Gaoxin family with those of the "Dongyi" and the She nationality, such as the cave burial of the dead, the re burial of bones, the funeral of crying with songs, the non worship of men and women at marriage, the women's bun, green scarf, red head rope, silver ornaments of flowers and birds, wearing Phoenix like clothes and "bronze mirror" for dressing, the "pick" for cooking, the "pick" for production, the "crossbow" for hunting, and wooden slippers on their feet Grass cage shoes, singing folk songs, and "haha", which are called "Xu family" by the people, are called "the family of the Xu". They call the native Chinese "Fu Ren". They call the indigenous Han people "Min family" and "the people's family". This shows that the early she people had no dynastic registered residence, not for the people, and the Phoenix bird was praised. When married, front gate and brow eyebrow wrote the four words of "Phoenix to this". Xuyi and she nationalities have very close relationship of origin.
From the aspects of clan migration, myths and legends, archaeological data and cultural characteristics in the pre-Qin period, this theory demonstrates that a "birthday" (i.e. "moyao") in the "Wuling barbarians" was formed by the integration of Sanmiao and Diqiang (gourong) after the "Dongyi" ethnic group moved to Western Hunan and Western Hubei. In the Tang and Song Dynasties, "Mo corvee" developed into new ethnic groups - she and Yao, and some of them joined the Miao. Some people even found the clue of the close relationship between She nationality and "Dongyi" from the genealogical records of She nationality. It is said that during the reign of Panhu king, the king of "Dongyi" presented three beautiful women, Qizhen, Qiyu and Qizhu, who were beautiful and beautiful. Panhu king gave the long man pan Zineng with the long woman Qizhen, the second man blue brilliance with the second woman Qisi, and the three women Qizhu with the three men Lei Juyou. Granddaughter Princess longlang married Zhong Zhishen.
（3） "Yue people" descendants said. It is considered that the She nationality is the descendant of the ancient Yue people. According to the comparison between the ancient Yue people and today's She nationality in historical books, the coincidence of folklore and historical records, or inferred from the evolution of ethnic meaning and sound, and the she and Yue have a common Panhu legend, common production mode, production level and common customs, it is considered that the She nationality is the descendant of the ancient Yue people. In the theory of descendants of "Yue people", there are many different specific statements. For example, She nationality is considered to be the descendants of Gou Jian or Fan Li, king of Yue in the spring and Autumn period; Some people believe that the She nationality is a descendant of the Yue people in the Qin and Han Dynasties; There are also those who believe that the She nationality originated from the "Shanyue" of the Han and Jin Dynasties. In particular, it has a close relationship with Nanhai Wang Zhi, a descendant of the Yue people who was granted a fief in the 10th year of emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty (196 BC) in the border areas of Fujian, Guangdong and Jiangxi provinces, and so on.
（4） "Nanman" said. This theory holds that the She nationality is a branch of "barbarian" or "Nanman", and is an indigenous nationality in Guangdong. According to this theory, the legend of Panhu is not only spread in the "Wuling barbarians", but also in the "search for God" which says that "today is Lianghan, Bashu, Wuling, Changsha and Lujiang County Yi is also", which is equivalent to more than half of southern China today. It is said that the she and Yao have close historical origin with the "Nanman" who worshipped Panhu legend of the Yangtze River in the Han and Jin Dynasties. Because the She nationality is well-known in Fujian, Zhejiang and other places, it is said that Fenghuang Mountain in Guangdong is the birthplace of their nation, so it is proved that the She nationality is a "Nanman" who lived in Guangdong for a long time in the Eastern Han Dynasty and an indigenous nation in Guangdong.
（5） Fujian indigenous "Min" descendants said. This theory holds that min and Yue are two ancient nationalities in southern China. Min is an indigenous people of Fujian and the ancestor of She nationality. Yue is a Hakka nationality of Fujian, and She nationality does not derive from Yue nationality.
At the beginning of the 7th century, during the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the She nationality had already lived in Southern Fujian, Chaoshan and other places at the junction of Fujian, Guangdong and Jiangxi provinces. In the Song Dynasty, it successively migrated to central and Northern Fujian, and began to appear in a large number in the mountainous areas of eastern Fujian, southern Zhejiang and other places around the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The She nationality in Northeast Jiangxi originally lived in Fenghuang mountain, Chaozhou Prefecture, Guangdong Province, then moved to Ninghua County, Tingzhou Prefecture, Fujian Province, and moved to Northeast Jiangxi from about the song and Yuan Dynasties to the middle of the Ming Dynasty. The She nationality in Anhui moved from Lanxi, Tonglu, Chun'an and other counties in Zhejiang about 100 years ago. Phoenix Mountain in Chaozhou, Guangdong Province is regarded as the birthplace of the She nationality everywhere. It is said that their ancestor Panhu was buried here. It is believed that women's headdress dressed as Phoenix is to commemorate their ancestor. Among the She people, the legend of Panhu, which belongs to totem worship in primitive society, is widely spread. It is said that their ancestor Panhu was able to marry his third princess because he helped the emperor quell foreign aggression. After marriage, he moved to the mountains and gave birth to three men and one woman. The eldest son's surname was pan, the second son's surname was LAN, the third son's surname was Lei, and the fourth daughter's surname was Zhong. His descendants gradually multiplied into the She people. This legend is not only a household name, but also recorded in the genealogy and painted into a series of portraits, called "ancestral map", which is hung in the festival to hold a grand ancestral ceremony, which is very pious. Each family has a ancestral stick, which is carved as a dragon head, which is also the main symbol of the she totem. She people still take pan, LAN, Lei and Zhong as their main surnames.
The legend of Panhu, the totem of King Pan and the three surnames of LAN, Lei and Zhong are also the same as those of Yao nationality. Therefore, since ancient times, there have been "she Yao", "Yao", "Yao family", "Shan Yao", "Yao people" and so on.
During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the ancestors of the She nationality who lived in the mountainous areas at the junction of Fujian, Guangdong and Jiangxi provinces had engaged in agricultural production and hunting activities. They pioneered and colonized under extremely difficult conditions. In the Tang Dynasty, the central dynasty administered in Zhangzhou and Tingzhou, Fujian, where the ancestors of the She nationality lived together, and implemented a series of economic development measures, such as opening up land and setting up villages, which further developed the economy of the She nationality's mountain villages, and the relationship between the she and Han nationalities became closer and closer. The establishment of the Tang Dynasty in Zhangting and Tingzhou greatly accelerated the feudalization of the She nationality. The feudal rulers not only deepened the exploitation and oppression of the She people, but also implemented a series of ethnic discrimination policies and regarded them as "foreigners".
The total population of She nationality in China is 709592 (2000), which is distributed in some mountainous areas of more than 80 counties (cities) in Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guizhou, Guangdong, Anhui and Hunan provinces, of which more than 90% live in the vast mountainous areas of Fujian and Zhejiang. Fujian Province has more than 375193 people, accounting for 52.87% of the total population of She nationality, ranking first in the population of She nationality in China, mainly distributed in 11 counties and cities in Fuzhou, Sanming, Zhangzhou, Ningde and Longyan; There are 170993 people in Zhejiang Province, accounting for 24.01% of the national she population, mainly distributed in more than 10 counties in Wenzhou, Lishui and Jinhua; Most of the She people in Jiangxi Province are scattered in Yingtan, Longhushan, Qianshan, Guixi, Ji'an, Yongfeng, QUANNAN, Wuning, Zixi, Xingguo and other counties, with a population of about 76500; There are 44926 she people in Guizhou, mainly distributed in Majiang County, Kaili City, Fuquan city and Duyun City; There are more than 28053 people in Guangdong Province, distributed in 14 counties and cities such as Chao'an, Raoping, Heyuan, Haifeng, Dapu, Zengcheng, Huiyang and BOLUO; The She nationality in Anhui Province is mainly concentrated in Ningguo City, with a population of about 13953; The She nationality in Hunan Province is mainly distributed in Guidong, Rucheng, Yanling and other counties, with a population of 2891.
According to the fourth national census on July 1, 1990, there are 630378 she people in China. Among them, there are 346451 people in Fujian Province, and others are distributed in Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Anhui and other provinces. Among the 346451 she people in Fujian Province, 155819 (19393 in Ningde City, 57562 in Fu'an City, 27926 in Fuding county and 37336 in Xiapu County), accounting for almost half of the She people in Fujian Province. The others are 46202 in Fuzhou (12203 in Lianjiang county and 18682 in Luoyuan county), 3601 in Xiamen, 3160 in Putian City and 16878 in Sanming City, 4438 in Yong'an, 23822 in Quanzhou, 34620 in Zhangzhou (18610 in Zhangpu County, 7903 in Longhai county), and 33497 in Longyan area (30498 in Shanghang County).
Among the She nationality in Fujian Province, there are Banzhong She nationality township, Muyun She nationality township and Kangcuo She nationality township in Fu'an City, shuimen She nationality township, Yantian She nationality township and chongru She nationality township in Xiapu County, Xiamen She nationality township and Jiayang She nationality township in Fuding County, and Jinhan She nationality township in Ningde City; Huokou She nationality township, Luoyuan County, xiaocang She nationality township, Lianjiang county; Lufeng She nationality township and Guanzhuang She nationality township in Shanghang County; Chiling She nationality township, Huxi She nationality township, Zhangpu County, Longjiao She nationality township, Longhai City; There are 17 she townships such as Qingshui she Township in Yong'an City. There are also Rixi she village, Jin'an District, Fuzhou City, Liujin she village, Minhou County, Gangtou she village, Zhao'an County, Zhangzhou City (surname Zhong), and longta she village, Dehua County, Quanzhou City.
The surnames of the She nationality are mainly pan, LAN, Lei and Zhong. It is said that the ancestor Panhu gave birth to three men and one woman and was granted the royal title by Emperor Gaoxin. The eldest son pan Zineng was the Marquis of Wu Qi in Nanyang County, the second son LAN Guanghui was the Marquis of the state protection in Runan County, and the third son Lei Juyou was the Marquis of Feng Yi county. A woman named Shuyu and her son-in-law Zhong Zhichen were named the enemy Marquis of Yingchuan county. The Panhu family of Zhongyong king should be an ancient tribal alliance, and the pan surname of the She nationality is very few. According to the legend and genealogy of eastern Fujian, when they migrated by sea from Fenghuang mountain, Chaozhou, Guangdong, a ship surnamed pan was blown to the "fan country" by the wind, so they did not reach lianjiang to land, so there is no pan surname in eastern Fujian.
Jingning She Autonomous County
There are nearly 100 families in jintangwu she village, Baijiang Town, Tonglu County, most of whom are surnamed LAN, Lei and Zhong.
In Baidai village, Yueqing City, Wenzhou, due to migration, the surnames Weng and Chen are mainly used to avoid war.
Cangnan County in Wenzhou has six surnames: LAN, Lei, Zhong, Li, Wu and Luo
In Pushan village, Longyou County, Quzhou City, most of the people have three surnames: LAN, Lei and Zhong.
Liucheng she autonomous Town, Wuyi County, Jinhua City.
Lanjia, yinjiakeng village, Shangtian Town, is the only minority inhabited area in Fenghua and even Ningbo.
Wenzhou: Taishun County (Siqian she Town, Zhuli she township)
Guixi City: Zhangping She nationality township
Xinfeng County: Tianlong she village, Anxi town
Ji'an City: Longgang She nationality township; In Donggu she Township, the older generation's version of the she surname includes five surnames: Pan, LAN, Lei, Zhong and Gu. Whether it is credible remains to be verified.
YUNTI she township is the only she Township in Anhui Province. The she population accounts for 56% of the she population in Anhui Province. YUNTI township is located in the southeast border of Ningguo City and the north foot of Tianmu Mountain. It is the southeast portal of Ningguo City. It borders Anji, Zhejiang Province in the northeast and Lin'an, Zhejiang Province in the south. It is 40 kilometers away from the urban area of Ningguo, covering an area of 51.1 square kilometers. It is composed of she, Han, Hui and Miao Nationalities. National highway 104 passes through Qianqiu pass and directly leads to Hangzhou, with very convenient transportation. In November 1992, with the approval of the people's Government of Anhui Province, the former YUNTI township was abolished and YUNTI she township was established, with four administrative villages under its jurisdiction: Maotan, YUNTI, Bailu and Qianqiu. The she population is mainly concentrated in three villages: YUNTI, Bailu and Qianqiu, of which Qianqiu village is the she village.
The She nationality in Guangdong is mainly distributed in the mountainous areas of eastern and northern Guangdong. It is specifically distributed in Fenghuang mountain area of Chao'an county, Fengshun County and Raoping County, Lianhua Mountain Area of Haifeng County and Huidong County, Luofu Mountain Area of Boluo county and Zengcheng District, Jiulian Mountain Area of Heyuan suburb, Longchuan County, Heping County and Lianping County, Dayu mountain area of Shixing County and Nanxiong City and Tianjing mountain of Ruyuan Yao Autonomous County, A small number of people are scattered in other cities and counties in Guangdong.
According to the fifth national census, there are more than 2500 she people in Fenghuangshan, Guangdong, accounting for about one tenth of the total population of She people in Guangdong Province. It is mainly distributed in five administrative villages and three natural villages in five towns, one district, two counties, Chaozhou City and Fengping she village in Tanjiang Town, Fengshun County, the only ethnic minority settlement in Meizhou city. At the same time, there are dozens of scattered households. Among them, Chao'an county of Chaozhou has Wanyao she village, Shanli she village and Lingjiao natural village in Guihu Town, shiguping she village in Fenghuang town and ligongkeng she village in Wenci town (including huangzhuyang natural village); Lanwu she village, Raoyang Town, Raoping County; Leicuoshan natural village, Yixi Town, Xiangqiao district. The surnames of the she compatriots in the above areas are LAN and Lei.
According to the fifth national census in 2000, the population of She nationality was 709592.
In 2010, the total population of She nationality in China was 708651.
In the process of migration, the She people have created colorful culture and art with distinctive national characteristics while pioneering and cultivating land. She traditional culture is also influenced by Hakka culture, one of the branches of Chinese Han culture.
She nationality is rich in literature and art. Folk songs are the main part of she literature, which are mostly expressed in the form of she language singing. Therefore, she literature is basically folk oral literature. They often sing songs on festive days. Even when they work in the fields in the mountains and visit relatives and friends, they often talk with songs. There are more than 1000 folk songs and 40000 or 50000 lines handed down. Among the long narrative poems, the most famous is Gao Huangge. Gaohuangge, also known as Pangu song, longhuangge and Panhu king song, is a seven character epic with three or four hundred sentences. In the form of myth, it describes the legend that Panhu, the first ancestor of the She nationality, made great achievements and multiplied the descendants of the four surnames of pan, LAN, Lei and Zhong. It reflects the primitive religious belief and totem worship of She nationality. In particular, they also painted the legend as a comic book portrait, called the ancestral picture, that is, on a piece of cloth and silk about ten feet long, more than 40 portraits of the legend were painted in a series on the scroll with colored pens for collection from generation to generation.
She folk songs can be seen everywhere, expressed in the form of she language singing. On festivals and festive days, songs fly. Even when working in the fields in the mountains, visiting relatives and friends and welcoming guests, they often talk with songs. There are more than 1000 folk songs handed down, with a total of 40000 or 50000 lines. The singing forms of She nationality include solo, duet, chorus and so on. The unaccompanied folk song is one of the most popular folk songs of the She nationality. "Double tone" is the singing method of two part duet that the She people are good at, also known as "double strip".
The hard-working and simple women of She nationality are not only experts in production, but also skilled craftsmen in weaving and embroidery. Their handicrafts are rich in variety, colorful and unique in style. For example, the woven color belt, also known as the hand towel belt, namely the flower belt, has a variety of patterns and beautiful and generous color matching. The woven hat has delicate patterns and exquisite workmanship. It is matched with water red silk ribbon, white ribbon and various colored beads. It has more national characteristics. It is a favorite ornament for she women. The embroidered handkerchief or ribbon carefully woven and embroidered by she girls is the best love object for beloved lovers. After liberation, this technology has been further developed and become a popular tourism product and export product.
Ribbon and bamboo weaving are the most praised weaving techniques of the She nationality. The ribbon is the flower belt, also known as the towel belt. From the age of five or six, she girls have learned to weave ribbons with their mother. The degree of delicacy of ribbons is an important standard to measure a girl's dexterity. The She nationality area is rich in carnation, mottled bamboo, golden bamboo, Leigong bamboo and other bamboos, which provides rich raw materials for the production of bamboo crafts. The clothes of she women vary slightly from place to place, and their common feature is that their tops are more embroidered. In particular, the women's tops of Fuding and Xiapu in Fujian Province have various embroidery patterns and patterns of flowers, birds, dragons and phoenixes on the collar, big skirt, clothes bucket and even cuffs. The most important dress of she women is "Phoenix dress".
She people's handicrafts are mainly made of bamboo strips and straw. In today's local product market, the hats, bamboo mats, straw hats and straw mats made by she people enjoy a high reputation. In the Tang Dynasty, Liu Yuxi wrote, "burn the she with a long knife and a short hat." the so-called "long knife" and "short hat" are sickle and hat that are still in use until now. The bamboo hat is called "Jianzi hat", which is made of bamboo. It has a pointed head and a round edge. It is light, dexterous and very practical. Therefore, it is called "short hat".
Among the daily necessities of She people in Chaoshan, there are "bottle boots" and clogs. The bottle shoe is semicircular and made of wood (now made of plastic). It is used to scoop water. When scooping water, it coincides with the lower part of the pot and tripod. Clogs are just like the system handed down in Japan (it was verified by historians that there were clogs in China during the Wei and Jin Dynasties, and even thought that Japanese clogs were imitated from China). Both products are still on the market.
Crane Creek legend
New Year greetings on the fifth day of the Lunar New Year
The She people love sports activities, such as "playing size", "plate firewood hammer", festival mountaineering, riding seahorse and bamboo competition, which are all very interesting and unique sports activities spread among the She people. In particular, the practice of boxing and martial arts is popular. After thousands of years of inheritance, it has formed a unique folk martial arts. Before liberation, the She people practiced martial arts to resist oppression and exploitation. After liberation, it was to strengthen their health, cultivate their temperament and enrich their cultural life. She Wushu is divided into two categories: stick and boxing. There are many kinds of stick, and the names of movements are complex and diverse. Boxing is very popular. As a part of boxing, it has amazing acupoint pointing Kung Fu. Old boxers who are proficient in martial arts generally have acupoint pointing and medical skills. However, she Wushu needs to be further sorted and excavated.
She dance has become an important part of religious ritual activities and has been handed down in various major ritual activities of the nation. Almost all the folk dances of She nationality that people can see and find are integrated with religious Memorial and sacrificial ceremonies, closely combined, interdependent and interdependent.
Passing on teachers and learning from teachers (also known as "doing Yang") is a kind of sacrificial ceremony that teaches future generations to miss their ancestors and is handed down from generation to generation. The She people drew a picture of Panhu's life story, respected it as "ancestral picture", and worshipped it very piously. It can be seen that teachers are a kind of national folk dance gradually formed in totem worship and religious life based on myths and legends and the wish of respecting ancestors. In the past, when she men were 16 years old, they had to "learn from teachers" to become people, also known as "red people". Those who have studied teachers have good luck all their life. They can pass on teachers in life and become officials in heaven after death; Those who have not passed on the teacher are called "guillotine teachers", which is disgraceful. Those who have studied can take the Dharma name, write the Dharma name and the date of passing on the teacher on a red cloth strip, tie it at the lower end of the ancestral staff, become the direct descendant of the ancestor, receive the honorific title, and are allowed to wear "red shirt" to become a mage and enjoy a certain social status.
"Doing meritorious deeds" (also known as "doing Yin") is a kind of sacrificial activity held by the family members of the She nationality to "transcend the dead" when they die in adulthood. "Panhu Shi Kao" contains: "Panhu was injured by the tip of the tree because of hunting,... He jumped over the tree,... After the funeral, he had a long waist wooden drum, played a short flute, and men and women sang repeatedly. He was too slim to dance, kick and dance.". In the "ancestral painting", there are also pictures of people guarding coffins in the mourning hall, holding props in many hands, and dancing with wooden cards with the words "super soul and super degree" in one hand; In addition, there are legends about meritorious deeds among the She people. The general meaning of doing meritorious deeds is to respect and pay homage to the elders. In the words of the mage (dancer), it is "the kindness of Lord Xie".
"Da Huang" is a kind of witch dance. According to a wizard, "Da Huang" is danced when people are ill. It is intended to catch ghosts and exorcise evil spirits and cure diseases. The content is generally that the master has built the "Jiuzhou immortal building", invited the Jade Emperor and the founder of Lushan Mountain, and transferred heavenly soldiers and generals through "Xinggang practice", "catching ghosts and robbing souls", "setting oil and fire", etc. The patient will heal himself.
She nationality has its own totem belief, and religious sacrifice is an important part of their spiritual life. Religious sacrifice dance is one of the manifestations of this spiritual life. It has the color of superstition and plays the role of paralysis of spiritual opium. However, we can see that religious sacrifice dance has played an indelible multi-functional role in history, cultural history and national history.
The She nationality has its own language, belonging to the Sino Tibetan language family. The she language is very close to the Hakka dialect of Chinese, but a very small number of She people in Guangdong, such as Haifeng, Zengcheng, Huiyang and BOLUO, use the "Bunu" language (belonging to the Miao language branch) close to the Yao nationality. The She nationality does not have its own language and uses Chinese. In daily life, she people in all parts of the country are familiar with the local Chinese dialect.
She Hakka dialect in Wenzhou, also known as she language, is a Chinese dialect used by the She nationality in the city and belongs to the Hakka dialect system. The living style of She nationality has the characteristics of "small concentration and large dispersion". She Hakka is distributed in Cangnan, Taishun, Wencheng, Pingyang and other she residential areas.
Although the She people in Fenghuangshan, Chao'an county, Guangdong Province speak Chaozhou Dialect or Hakka dialect at present, it is recorded in Chaozhou Fu Zhi that a language once used by the She people here in history is very similar to the language of the Miao branch of the Miao Yao language family used by the She people in Haifeng, Huiyang, Zengcheng and BOLUO. In terms of tone, although she folk songs in many places are similar to Hakka mountain lyrics, there are four kinds of she traditional basic tones (Funing tune, Fuding tune, Xiapu tune and Luolian tune) that are completely different from Hakka folk songs in Ningde, Fujian. These four kinds of basic tones are surprisingly similar to the basic tones of "mian" Yao and "Bunuyao". The traditional basic tune of folk songs sung by Guoshan Yao is "LAFA tune". The singing method of "following voice" in the long tune of LAFA tune has many similarities with the "double strip falling" of the two part chorus of She nationality. The LAFA tune of Yao nationality is consistent with the basic characteristics of the "Luolian tune" of She nationality in Luoyuan, Lianjiang and other counties in tone (including tone sequence, mode and rhythm). The kinship of national language reflects that its national origin is very close, and national close relatives are the basis of language kinship.
In history, the She people moved around, and their material life was particularly simple. They live together in "Jielu Valley, Zhumao as tile, weaving bamboo as fence, cutting grass as HuGu". Generally, they live in thatched houses and wooden tile houses. With the change of the living standards of the She people, more and more people build small buildings. Fire cages and ponds are indispensable to the family life of the She people. Due to the cold climate in the mountainous area, the family sat around the fire pond to keep warm in the severe winter and December. In the mountainous area of She nationality, there are few paddy fields, more dry lands, less rice planting and more miscellaneous grains. They generally take sweet potato rice mixed with rice as their staple food. Pure rice is only used when entertaining distinguished guests. They like shrimp skin, kelp, tofu and so on. Especially like drinking "rice wine" and "wheat wine".
Avoid eating dog meat and snake meat; Children avoid eating eels and eels; Avoid hitting the cat with chopsticks and eating cat meat; Do not entertain guests with tea in one hand; Avoid empty bowls on the wine table; When visiting other people's houses, avoid eating all the snacks, and there should be some surplus; Do not drink vegetable soup on the first day of the new year, otherwise it will rain when planting fields, and you should take an umbrella when going out all year round; Avoid stepping on rice grains on the ground, otherwise you will be killed by lightning, etc. the traditional diet culture of She nationality is a kind of folk traditional cultural resources and wealth. Intangible folk cultural resources are not like underground mineral resources. If you don't dig it, it will exist forever.
The typical foods of she family are: Stewed ginger; Pickles, she flavor dishes, are usually pickled with pepper, ginger and radish, which are called bad pepper and bad ginger; Dragon Boat Festival zongzi, folk called Gujiao; Black rice, the festival food on March 3, is the tender leaves of black rice tree (called black branch in she language), which are finely mashed, soaked in glutinous rice with juice, and cooked into black and shiny black rice. It is said that eating black rice is not afraid of ants.
The traditional costumes of She nationality are colorful and colorful. The clothes of She nationality advocate blue and blue, and most of the clothes are self-woven linen. At present, the clothing of she men is no different from that of Han people, while the clothing of some she women in eastern Fujian and southern Zhejiang still has a distinctive national style. The collar, cuffs and right placket are inlaid with lace, and have the habit of wearing shorts and leggings. In particular, women's hair style is different from that of the Han nationality. The girl likes to wrap her hair with red wool, weave it into a long braid and wrap it on her head. Married women usually wear Phoenix crowns on their heads, that is, they use a small and refined bamboo tube, wrap it with a red cloth PA, and hang a foot long and inch wide red silk under it. For women of different ages, black, blue or red wool is also tied between their hair. The crown is decorated with a round silver medal, on which three small silver medals are hung; Hanging in front of the forehead, the She nationality calls it a dragon bun, which means the Phoenix crown worn by the "three princesses". According to legend, Emperor Gaoxin betrothed his three princesses to Panhu, who made meritorious contributions to beheading king gourong pan. There is also a silver hairpin on the crown, and then wearing a silver collar, silver chain, silver bracelet and earrings, it looks particularly gorgeous and dazzling.
Before liberation, monogamy was widely practiced in the marriage and family of She nationality, and the ancient and simple marriage customs were still preserved. Generally, people with the same surname do not marry, but they marry among the four surnames of pan, LAN, Lei and Zhong. Originally, clan exogamy is the traditional marriage custom of She nationality. However, due to the national oppression and discrimination policies of the rulers of previous dynasties, intermarriage between the she and Han nationalities was strictly prohibited, which was once a national rule within the She nationality. After liberation, with the implementation of the policy of national equality and unity, intermarriage between she and Han nationalities increased day by day. In ancient times, young women and men of She nationality had the tradition of free love. It was the custom of her ancestors to sing songs and get married. However, with the development of feudal landlord economy and the influence of Han marriage concept, the feudal sale and arrangement of she marriage before liberation was very serious. After liberation, they were eliminated. Now, young women and men of She nationality basically fall in love freely and have independent marriage.
In she society, childless families often recruit redundant children. Many families with sons also let their sons join redundant children and let their daughters stay to "recruit sons" (i.e. recruit son-in-law). Generally, the children of redundant people should follow their mother's surname, and some have two sons who follow their parents' surnames respectively. If both husband and wife are only children, they have to "be two ends of the family", that is, in the first few years of marriage, both sides of the family should take care of and live in no fixed place. After several years of such maintenance, it was determined to settle in the family with better economic conditions.
The funeral form of She nationality is earth burial, which retains the custom of bone picking and re burial.
According to the tradition and historical data, the early burial customs of She people were hanging coffin burial and cremation. The song of Panhu king, which is widely spread among the She people, contains that Panhu, the ancestor of the She people, was "idle for half a year and held his bow to shoot arrows every day", "the goat beat in front of the stone wall and was hit by the sheep in front of the stone wall" is "falling in front of the stone wall, the body hung at the end of the tree, and the crow came to call the guiding route", "a dragon wind came and broke the end of the tree, could not be put firmly, trotted to worship, and it was wrong to cry at the public" Legend of. Due to the "high rock and rugged wall", it was impossible to obtain the corpses of their ancestors, so they had to "let the tree tops install their ancestral graves". Later she people hung their coffins and buried them in memory of their ancestors. During the Three Kingdoms period, Wu Shenying recorded "people hanging coffins" in Linhai soil and water records. "Man" is the "Nanman" in history. It is the ancestor of She nationality and other southern nationalities. It can be seen that the custom of hanging coffins and burying the She people has a long history.
Cremation is mostly found in some documents of the Ming Dynasty. It is recorded in the book of benefiting counties and countries from diseases in the world that she people in Guangdong "died of illness; they burned their rooms and moved to Yan". (She nationality area of Ningguo City) the practice of "picking up gold" after a person's death (that is, picking up the human remains in the coffin, putting them into a porcelain vase and altar, sealing the mouth of the bottle, and then burying them). Cremation is related to the frequent migration of the She nationality and the strong psychology of remembering their ancestors. Because they want to go with their ancestors every time they move, cremation is a better method, because after human cremation, the ashes are very small and easy to carry. After settling down, influenced by the burial customs of the Han nationality, the cremation custom was gradually abandoned and turned to earth burial. However, the process and details are different from Han burial, which reflects the characteristics of this nation. The process of funeral is generally divided into the following four steps: reporting the death of a person, putting the dead in the funeral, surpassing the dead, and leaving the coffin for burial. There are many details in these processes: if there is a funeral from December 29 to the first day of the first month of the lunar calendar, you should not disturb anyone and stop the funeral at home for a few days, so as not to dilute the festive atmosphere of the festival. When reporting a funeral, the mourner should wrap white cloth around his arm, and pedestrians and vehicles should make way for him along the way. In mourning, tears shall not drop on the dead; When leaving the coffin, the filial son must help the coffin. If there is a ditch or ridge on the road, the filial son should "carry the coffin" (i.e. supporting the coffin: the filial son first bends down to stand in the ditch or under the ridge and let the coffin pass by). As far as the whole funeral process is concerned, one of the most prominent features is "singing instead of crying". Mourning for the dead with elegy.
The current burial of She nationality has been cremated in history. Bian Baodi's record of chieftains in Minqiao in the Qing Dynasty records that the She people's burial system in Xiapu, Eastern Fujian is similar to it. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the She people migrated frequently, and cremated their corpses to get their bones for easy carrying during relocation. The She people who first moved to Chuzhou Prefecture, Zhejiang Province from Fujian set up a "dead people's platform" in the village, stacked firewood and burned corpses, divided the ashes into seven pottery pots, known as "three souls and seven souls", and buried them in seven places secretly, believing that people burned corpses to grow beautiful in the afterlife. Today, there are still "dead Taiwan" sites in she village in Lishui area (formerly the state capital). With the extension of settlement time and mixed with the Han people, the local Han popular burial was adopted. Today, there are three general forms of she family earth burial: ① adopt "secondary burial", also known as "bone picking burial". ② Complete the coffin burial of the tomb at one time. ③ Stop the coffin, pick up the bones and bury them. The legend of hanging coffin burial of She nationality is spread in she villages in eastern Fujian, southern Zhejiang and eastern Guangdong.
（1） Funeral custom
According to the legends and relevant records of She nationality in Fuzhou, She nationality adopts cremation during the period of frequent migration. That is, after a person dies, he is burned in a fire, and then his ashes are taken and put in a pottery urn (commonly known as "ash Urn"). When moving to the new site, take the urn away and bury it temporarily in the mountains near the new site; When relocating again, he took it out and continued to take it away until he settled down and was officially buried in a place. In the mid Ming Dynasty, influenced by the Han nationality, burial customs were mostly changed to earth burial, but there were still a few people following its customs. In the early period of the Republic of China, when she residents in Xixi, Luoyuan moved to Anjing village, they took their mother's urn to Anjing and brought her mother's ashes back to their hometown when they returned over the years. After the founding of the people's Republic of China, this custom has disappeared.
The She nationality in Fuzhou has the custom of hanging burial. Hanging burial is also called rock burial. There are two common burial methods: one is to place the pottery urn containing ashes in the high stone cave and the stone cave on the Tianya cliff, covered by rubble. Three ancient pottery urns and some ashes are still preserved in the huiwengyan cave in Anjing village, Luoyuan county; Second, dig an earth hole at the half cliff on the mountain, put the coffin in it, block the hole with stones and mud, take bones (some also burn) and put them in pottery urns after three years or more, and then bury them elsewhere. This custom is still followed in she villages in Huokou, Feizhu and other places in Luoyuan county. According to the legend of some she people in Luoyuan County, this burial custom began with the hanging coffin burial in ancient times. There are two statements: one is that Panhu, the ancestor of She nationality, said that "the stars come to the world, life does not fall to the ground, and death does not fall to the earth", and the hanging burial implied its meaning; Another saying is that Panhu, the ancestor of the She nationality, was killed by a deer and buried in front of the Fenghuang cliff, and his descendants imitated the burial method of his ancestors.
（2） Funeral ceremony
The She nationality in Fuzhou calls the death of the old man "old" or "over the mountain". The funeral rites of the She nationality before the Ming Dynasty had no test. Since the middle of the Ming Dynasty, they were similar to those of the Han people, but there were simple and complex differences between the poor and the rich.
She people in Fuzhou say that people over 50 years old die at home. Men say "die at the end of life" and women say "sleep at the end of life". When the dead died, firecrackers were fired to inform the people to come to help. In the morgue of normal death, a memorial tablet shall be set up for condolence. At the same time, remove the mosquito net and cotton wadding, and drill three holes with a piece of white paper, that is, two holes are eyes and one hole is nose to cover the face of the deceased (called "Anmian"), then cover the whole body with a quilt, light an oil lamp in front of the deceased's bed and put a bowl of rice. The oil lamp is called "shining on the eyes". Until mortuary; Rice is called "walking rice". Weigh the dead to eat, go on the road, and light incense on the meal, which can not be interrupted until they are buried. She people respect their maternal relatives, so they should first send people to their immediate relatives' homes to report the funeral. The person in charge of reporting the funeral must bring an umbrella and thick paper. You can't just come to the door on the way. You should directly reach the destination. At that time, lean the umbrella against the door and can't bring an umbrella into the door. After getting started, put the thick paper on the stool. The informed person will know that someone has died when he sees the umbrella placement method and the thick paper. When changing clothes for the deceased, the funeral home should take a bath first. The water for cooking bath soup is taken directly from the river by the daughter-in-law. When taking water, if the deceased is a man, scoop water downstream, and the Italian man is in the sky; The deceased was a woman, so she had to scoop water against the current and live in Italy. Take back the water and cook the soup. When bathing, wipe the dead's forehead, chest, hands and feet with a towel. The dead usually wear new clothes, but the poor also use old clothes. Before the funeral, relatives take turns to guard the spirit to prevent dogs and cats from approaching.
When the legitimate relatives arrive, the filial men, filial daughters and daughter-in-law should wear linen and kneel in front of the door to meet them. Open the main screen door after the direct relatives arrive, move the body to the back hall, place it on the back chair, and support the pole scale. Master Wang began to chant the mantra. His relatives knelt and kowtowed three times or three bows respectively, said goodbye to the body, and finally put it in the coffin. At the funeral of the deceased that night, Master Wang or Taoist priest was asked to chant mantras and chant scriptures, known as "pharmacist", from that night to the next morning. When the ceremony comes to the burning of Yin silver, filial men and women need wooden poles to beat in front of the corridor and other places, saying that they will scare away other dead ghosts and won't take away the money. After that, every seven days (calculated from the date of the death of the deceased), Master Wang or Taoist priest was asked to chant a mantra, known as "doing seven", which was held seven times, and the last time was commonly known as "breaking seven". One hundred days, one year and three years after death, Master Wang or Taoist priest should be invited to do "merit" to surpass the dead. Every time you do "merit", the shorter one day and night, the older five days and nights. In the old funeral system, filial men could not have a haircut or dinner within 100 days; If you don't wrap cakes or steamed cakes at home within a year, it is called "bitter Festival" and "bitter year". If you don't get married within 100 days, you can't get married until three years. Filial piety can be divided into "seven seven" (i.e. 49 days), 100 days and three years.
On the auspicious day of the funeral, a family hall is set up for sacrifice. Filial men and daughters kneel on both sides, and their children and grandchildren kneel down one by one. The procedure for the coffin to go out is to turn its head to the door and turn its tail forward after exiting the door, which means that feng shui will not be taken away by the dead. After the coffin went out, the son-in-law did a "horse stop sacrifice", also known as "road sacrifice", and the son-in-law knelt down. The funeral procession is led by the colored flag Gong. Each son has one side of the colored flag Gong, the flag of the eldest son is blue, followed by the "stove lamp". Each son has one load, which is equipped with a bucket lamp and a bowl filled with charcoal. When returning, it must be lit, indicating the prosperity of the population and long-term auspiciousness. At the time of funeral, women generally only return to the entrance of the village, while filial men and grandchildren protect the coffin up the mountain. After burial, they are called "Huilong", and the Huilong team should return from the same way. Before the Huilong team enters the house, the family should prepare a load of water and rice according to the number of their son. Onions, rice stalks and pomelo are placed in the water, implying the meaning of "robbing", "catching up" and "getting rich". Before entering the house, the colored flag Gong should first pick the water and rice into the water tank or rice urn respectively. After "Huilong", the funeral home set up several tables to thank the mourners, relatives and friends. On the third day of burial, relatives go to the grave, place offerings and burn Yin silver, which is called "Fu mountain", which means to see whether they are properly handled during burial.
According to the custom of the She nationality in Luoyuan, the deceased under the age of 50 can't open the hall (i.e. the main screen door) and can't be placed in the back hall for burial. The funeral is omitted. For those who die outdoors, the body cannot enter the door. They shall be buried on the spot or outside the village. The funeral shall be simplified.
There are two characteristics of the funeral custom of the She Nationality: first, when a woman dies, the shroud to be buried in the coffin must be the wedding dress when she is married. The second is to use songs instead of crying. Most of its contents are to cherish the memory of ancestors, mourn and praise the dead, pray for the rest of the dead, and some are antithetical songs that repent of their shortcomings towards the dead. The lyrics are pathetic and tearful. Two excerpts to show the history:
Cry Niang song: no parents, no opinions, there is gold and silver in the family; Money can buy a thousand things, but it's hard to buy two parents.
Sacrificial song: knock up firewood and make trouble one after another, and filial men and women think carefully; If you are in the hell, you should bless the people to prosper for thousands of years. The father is empty, the cub is empty, and it is difficult to get through on the huangquan road; If you don't have filial piety in life, you won't work if you die. Have a long, and long, don't talk about spring and Autumn on earth; Ancient sages can't say enough. How can the world not lose its life?
The traditional festivals of She nationality mainly include the Dragon Festival in April, the seventh day of July, the autumn day, the Mid Autumn Festival, the Double Ninth Festival, the Spring Festival, etc. In addition, February 15, July 15 and August 15 of the lunar calendar are the ancestor worship days of the She nationality.
The she family attaches great importance to traditional festivals and ancestor worship. The 15th of February, July and August is the day of ancestor worship every year, and believes in ghosts and gods. When offering sacrifices to ancestors, we should use two cups of wine, one cup of tea, three meat, three vegetables and six bowls of dishes, plus rice in different seasons. During the festival, except that wine and meat are essential, there are certain traditional habits in what to eat during each festival. But no matter what festival you have, you have to make Ciba. In addition to killing chickens and ducks, adults should also make Ciba on their birthdays.
"March 3" is a traditional festival of She nationality. It is held on the third day of March of the lunar calendar every year. Its main activities are "outing" in the wild and eating black rice in memory of its ancestors. It is also known as "black rice Festival". Black rice is to dye glutinous rice black with the juice of a plant. It is said that in the Tang Dynasty, Lei Wanxing and LAN fenggao, leaders of the She nationality, led the She people to resist the ruling class at that time and were besieged by the Imperial Army on the mountain. The soldiers passed the new year by eating wild fruits called "WuFan". On March 3 of the next year, they rushed out of the siege and won. In memory of them, people take March 3 as a festival and eat "black rice" to commemorate them. During the festival, she people with the same ancestral words gathered in the song field for dozens of miles nearby. From morning to evening, they sang a song and sang a song in praise of Panhu and remembered their ancestors. The whole she mountain is immersed in a sea of songs. In the evening, families eat "black rice". Late at night, ancestor worship activities were held.
In addition, she people also celebrate the Spring Festival. During the Spring Festival, in addition to slaughtering chickens and pigs, we also have to make Ciba. I wish you good luck and sweet days every year in the new year. On the morning of the first day of the new year, the whole family worshipped "Pangu ancestors". The old man talked about the difficulties of their ancestors in starting a business. Later, the whole family reunited, sang folk songs and sent congratulatory gifts. Young men and women go to villages to convey their feelings and friendship with each other.
Mainly ancestor worship and totem worship. The She nationality attaches great importance to ancestor worship.
Hunting belief. Because hunting occupies a prominent position in the life of the She people, believing in the hunting God has been one of the main beliefs of the She people since ancient times. Snake worship. Snake is one of the totems of Baiyue nationality. Xu Shen explained the word "Min" in Shuowen Jiezi in the Eastern Han Dynasty, saying: "min, snake species." it means that the Minyue nationality belonging to the Baiyue system takes snakes as its totem. Minyue area belonged to Baiyue in ancient times, and most of them were within the scope of Minyue. Most of the indigenous people here took snakes as their totems and had reverent and cordial feelings for snakes.
The legend of "Panhu", which contains Nanman consciousness similar to that of Miao and Yao, is widely spread among the She Nationality: during the Gaoxin (i.e. Dihu) period of the Neolithic age, Queen Liu dreamed that she would come down to the lower boundary of Lou golden dog to give birth. When she woke up with pain in her ears, she ordered famous doctors to produce a strange and beautiful three inch long golden insect, which was stored in a jade plate and covered with a bottle leaf. It was one inch long a day and two feet long. It looked like a Phoenix, It is named Lingou, known as Panhu. It has beautiful body patterns and 24 spots on its head. At that time, when gunrong Xingbing came, the emperor issued an imperial edict to seek talents and proposed that those who could behead the king of fan would marry him as his wife with the three princesses. After the Dragon dog was released, he went to the enemy country, got drunk by King fan, bit off his head and returned home to Emperor Gaoxin. Gao Xindi wanted to repent because he was a dog. Panhu said in human language, "put me in the Golden Bell and become a man seven days and seven nights." Panhu entered the bell for six days. The princess was afraid that he would starve to death and opened the golden bell. He was in human form, but his head remained unchanged. So Panhu married the princess. After marriage, the princess lived in the mountains with Panhu and made a living by hunting and mountain farming. He has three sons and a daughter. The eldest son's surname is pan and his name is Neng. The second son's surname is LAN and his name is Guanghui. The third son's surname is Lei and his name is Juyou. His daughter married Zhong Zhishen (also known as "the word"). The She people handed down and praised the achievements of their ancestor Panhu from generation to generation. Panhu is a totem worship object of She nationality. The ancestors of the She nationality portrayed Panhu as a magical, witty and brave national hero by means of personification, and respected it as the ancestor of the She nationality.
Panhu was a historical figure in the spring and Autumn period. In the war between Chu and Lurong in 744 BC, Panhu killed the enemy, made meritorious service, was granted the title and married the princess, which is a true record of history. The reason why Panhu legend can evolve into myth is the totem symbol. The legend of "Panhu" is a belief with sacred national origin. It is the totem worship of ancestors such as she, Yao and Miao, with a common "clan mark". They regarded "Panhu" as the ancestor and the Supreme God, and determined that she, Yao and Miao had close historical ties. The religious belief of She nationality is mainly ancestor worship, and zutu is one of the main symbols of She nationality's belief.
Zutu is also known as "Panhu map". The She nationality painted the legend of the ancestor Panhu on cloth and made about 40 comic images, which were handed down from generation to generation, known as "ancestral map". There is also a "high imperial song" among the She people, which describes the extraordinary experience of King Panhu and praises his great achievements in killing the enemy and breeding his children. The She people also hold solemn sacrifices every year. The people gather in ancestral halls and hang ancestral pictures, which is a remnant of totem worship in the early primitive society. The legend of "Panhu" is only one of the symbols of she culture. Its characteristic culture is deeply related to the customs and lifestyle of She nationality.
In terms of religion, there is a paragraph in Gao Huangge recorded before and after King Pan died "Long Qi volunteered to be an official but didn't love him. He came to the mountain to learn the Dharma. When he learned the true dharma, he passed it on to his ancestors. At the beginning, there were many monsters in the world, and Lu Mountain turned to learn the Dharma. He saved all the Wang people and killed the demons by doing the gang method. Lu Mountain learned the Dharma and said the truth, and killed the demons by doing the gang method. Cao came to teach, and the immortal old gentleman saved the mortals. The smoke in the incense burning stove was thick, and the old gentleman invited the fairy Palace on the stage. Please accept the teacher The master came to teach and the inspiration method was passed on to his descendants. The inspiration method was passed on to his descendants. The text disc invited six Cao officials; women came to be the queen mother of the West and men to be the east palace. Pan lanlei liked to learn from Shi Lang and learned the ghost catching method to be strong. With a thousand kilograms of Tianluo net in his hand, he was ferocious and evil. There were many birds and beasts on the Phoenix Mountain. If he was good at eating meat, he would go away. Holding a bow and arrow, he shot up the mountain. What about the pigs and deer in the tiger mountain. It was leisure on the Phoenix Mountain Every day, he went up the mountain with a crossbow. The reason was that he caught sheep cubs in the rock, and long Qi died in front of the rock. Long Qi died in front of the rock and didn't see him for three days. He died hanging on a tree, and the crow was looking for him. There was moss on the rock wall of Qiyan, and all the birds in the mountain flew in. He blew horns and gongs to guide the way, and the inspiration of heaven and earth came. Long Qi was buried in the coffin, and his merit was busy day and night. Dharma Master Lu came to settle down, and invited three more people Qing shiye is an official. Henan's ancestors are on both sides of the mountain. You should be the first to transcend merits and virtues; the gods descend to transcend, and the Dragon Qi ascends to the West. "This shows the connection with Lushan sect of Taoism.
The She people are hard-working and simple. They are forced to migrate everywhere due to the cruel oppression of the reactionary ruling class, imperialist aggression and persecution, as well as natural disasters, war disasters, poverty, disease and other reasons. They cut through thorns and thorns and built terraces on hillsides, making important contributions to the development of mountainous areas in Southeast China. It has a very close relationship with the Han people and has repeatedly united with the Han people to revolt against the cruel oppression and exploitation of the feudal rulers. As early as the early Tang Dynasty, the She people in Chaozhou, Guangdong, under the leadership of Lei Wanxing, Miao Zicheng and LAN Feng, launched a struggle against the rule of the Tang Dynasty. At the end of the Song Dynasty and the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, under the leadership of Chen diaoyan and Mrs. Xu, the She people in Fujian formed a "she army" to cooperate with Wen Tianxiang, Zhang Shijie and other anti yuan armed forces to launch the anti yuan struggle. During the Zhengde period of the Ming Dynasty, the She people in Jiangxi revolted under the leadership of Xie Zhishan (mountain) and LAN Tianfeng, echoing the Han insurgents in Guangdong Litou and Jiangxi Dageng, and rebelled against the rule of the Ming Dynasty. In the struggle against Japanese pirates in the Ming Dynasty, the She people contributed their own strength to defend the motherland. Since modern times, the She people have participated in the revolution of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, and have constantly erupted in the anti foreign religious movement and the struggle against imperialist aggression. After 1921, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, he actively participated in the revolutionary struggle. During the first domestic revolutionary war, the She people scattered in eastern Guangdong and the Han people jointly organized the revolutionary armed self-defense army and launched struggles such as resisting donations, reducing rents and returning prisoners. The organization of the Communist Party of China was established in southern Zhejiang very early. In February 1927, the Communist Party of China launched more than 30000 farmers, workers and businessmen in Rui'an County, held a massive demonstration, destroyed the reactionary chamber of Commerce and beat up the reactionary president. In the spring of 1927, she and Han farmers in 72 villages of Fu'an County, Fujian Province, launched a struggle against the collection of opium donations. During the second revolutionary civil war, the She nationality areas in eastern Fujian and southern Zhejiang generally established Soviet power and implemented agrarian revolution. In 1933, more than 4000 people in 47 she and Han villages, including qingjiao, Xiapu County, Fujian Province, carried out armed riots under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, announced the abolition of debts and rents, in addition to taxes. During the war of resistance against Japan and the war of liberation, the She people persisted in revolutionary struggle, organized guerrillas and established revolutionary base areas. More than 70% of the she areas in eastern Fujian were the old Soviet area. The She people have made their own contributions to the revolutionary cause of the people of the motherland.
Before liberation, the she area had basically developed to the stage of feudal landlord economy, but due to the oppression and exploitation of successive rulers, the development of she social economy and culture was slow and unbalanced.
The She nationality focuses on agricultural production, supplemented by hunting economy. As early as the 7th century, the ancestors of the She nationality opened up the mountainous area at the junction of Fujian, Guangdong and Jiangxi with their own hard work. At that time, the agricultural production of the ancestors of the She nationality was mainly "cultivated fire land", that is, "slash and burn", and most of the cultivated land belonged to dry land without water source. Due to extensive farming, low productivity, low crop yield, and long-term living in deep mountains and forests and haunted by wild animals, the hunting economy has been relatively developed. "Farming" and "hunting" are the early production characteristics of She nationality.
During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the ancestors of the She nationality migrated to eastern Fujian and southern Zhejiang. When they arrived there, most of the Pingba area was inhabited by the Han nationality, and places with better natural conditions had been reclaimed by the Han nationality. Therefore, they can only split mountains, pioneer land and build new homes. Either rent the land of Han landlords or work as long-term workers for landlords and rich peasants. Years of hard work. Wherever they go, barren mountains become tea gardens and gullies become fertile fields. The She people have made important contributions to the development of the mountainous areas in the southeast of the motherland.
After liberation, China's ethnic policy enabled the She people to realize their right to be masters of the country. The people's congresses at all levels in relevant regions gave appropriate consideration to the She people in terms of the number of deputies, and made great efforts to train and promote the she cadres. At the same time, 57 ethnic townships have been established in the areas where the She nationality is concentrated. After social reform, the oppressed she people have their own land, tea gardens and mountains. After the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the production contract responsibility system was implemented in rural areas, the economy of she mountain villages and towns was invigorated, diversified management was carried out, mountains became treasures, township enterprises flourished, and the living standards of the She people were greatly improved. In the wave of further opening up, she mountain township has become a place with strong attraction for foreign investment. In Ningde and Putian of Fujian Province and Jingning of Zhejiang Province, "three capital" enterprises have "blossomed and fruited" here.
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