Lisu nationality belongs to the South Asian type of Mongolian race. Its national language belongs to the Yi branch of Tibetan Burmese language family of Sino Tibetan language family. Its characters are divided into new and old Lisu languages. It generally believes in primitive religion.
Lisu ethnic group originates from the ancient Diqiang ethnic group and has a relationship with Yi ethnic group. It is mainly distributed in the Nujiang River and enmekai River (a tributary of Irrawaddy River), that is, the border area between Yunnan, Tibet and Kachin, Myanmar. The rest are scattered in other areas of Yunnan, India, northeast and Thailand and Myanmar.
According to the statistics of the sixth national census in 2010, the total population of Lisu nationality in China is 1261311.
Lisu Nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||Lisu nationality|
|Residential area||China Myanmar Thailand India|
|written words||Lisu language|
|population size||There are about 2 million in the world and about 1 million in China|
|faith||Primitive religion Buddhism Christianity|
|festival||The bathhouse will taste the new festival in the broad season|
Chinese PinYin : Li Su Zu
Lisu nationality is not only his name but also his own.
This name was first seen in the works of the Tang Dynasty. At that time, fan Chuo called it "chestnut millet" in the book of barbarians, and thought it was an integral part of the "black barbarians" at that time. It is closely related to the origin of Yi and Naxi. In the Ming Dynasty, Lisu was still regarded as a branch of "Luoluo" (Yi nationality). The Jingtai Yunnan picture book of the Ming Dynasty said: "Li millet is also another kind of Luoluo."
The name Lisu has been used for more than 1000 years, except that the words used in relevant historical records are slightly different.
The legend of Genesis handed down from generation to generation by Lisu nationality has much in common with the creation legends of the Yi, Naxi and Hani nationalities in Xiaoliangshan and Xiaoliangshan, which shows that each group as a branch of Yi language has a close kinship since ancient times. In ancient times, they belonged to the same ethnic origin. After a long historical development, they gradually differentiated into different tribal groups, and then formed a single nation.
From the perspective of physical anthropology, Lisu and Naxi, Yi, Hani, Lahu and other nationalities have the characteristics of plateau Nationalities: body length, high nose, thin lips and concave eyes, which are obviously different from Wa, Bulang and Zhuang and Dai of Zhuang and Dong languages in South Asia. This difference just shows that all ethnic groups of Yi language have kinship and common characteristics.
The Lisu nationality in Nujiang area still maintained obvious clan system and totem worship until the early days of the founding of new China. Among these clans, several clan names and their totem worship forms are basically similar to the Yi clan names and totem system in big and small Liangshan, such as tiger, bamboo, fish and so on. Clan is a group composed of blood relatives. Non members of the clan can not use the same clan name and clan totem, because clan members recognize that they come from a common ancestor. Since the tiger, bamboo, fish and other clans of Lisu nationality have similar legends with the Yi nationality, it shows that they had a close clan blood relationship in ancient times. That is, the ancestors of Lisu nationality are included in the "old man", "kan" and "Mi and Mo" in the Han Dynasty, the "East long" in the Jin Dynasty and the "wuman" in the Tang Dynasty.
From the 1st to the 3rd century A.D., the vast areas of yuekan, Qianwei, taideng, qiongdu and Dinghu were inhabited by the ancestors of Yi and Lisu tribes, such as Sau, Kan and PU. These belong to the tribes and groups of the Yi language branch. At this time, there was neither a unified clan name nor a unified organization, but some scattered tribes, large and small.
During the period of the Three Kingdoms in the 3rd century, the names of different tribal groups such as Ze, Kan, Qiong, Kunming and Mosha appeared in Dingzhu county (now Yanbian, Sichuan) under the jurisdiction of Shu. According to the records of Huayang state annals of Shu, "the Yi people in the Han, the Zuo, the Wenshan, the nanzhong, the Han, the Jia, the Yue, the Kan, the Shu and the Qiong are all kinds of Yi people. The county is in the west of the county, crossing Lushui, bingang, Qianbai, Mosha and Yanchi." this shows that various tribes and groups of the Yi language branch were gradually divided at that time.
In the 8th century, in order to compete with Tubo for the southwest, Wei Gao, who was then the festival envoy of Xichuan in Jiannan, actively appeased Nanzhao and won over the leaders of the three tribes of bedeng, fengpa and lianglin, which were located in the buffer zone between Tubo, Nanzhao and Xichuan. Due to the intensification of the political situation, the tribes located at the center of the conflict were involved in the complex vortex of struggle. The name "chestnut millet" appeared in historical records for the first time.
The literature records about Lisu nationality were first found in Tang fanchuo's "Manshu · Minglei": "Li Su's two surnames are man, Lei Man and Meng man are in Mangbu (press: mang should be Qiong) taideng City, scattered from east to west, and both are the races of wuman and Bai man." the so-called "Li Su's two surnames are the ancestors of Lisu nationality, and Lei Man may be a branch of Naxi nationality, that is, Lijiang and Zhongdian call themselves wuman The Naxi people of "Lvxie" and "Mengman" are now Naxi people. The Naxi people distributed in Ninglang County, Yunnan Province and Yanyuan, Yanbian and other places in Sichuan Province are also called "Mosuo" by Yi and Tibetans, which is what Fan Chuo called "Mo man and Suo man" in the book of man This record accurately describes the geographical distribution of Lisu and Naxi ancestors more than 1200 years ago, and distinguishes them from other tribal groups.
In the middle of the 8th century, the big ghost leader (big leader) of the three wuman tribes of betung, fengpa and lianglin, who were separated from the three forces of the Tang Dynasty, Nanzhao and Tubo, was granted the title of "the big ghost leader of betung, Ju song, the regiment training envoy of Qiong department, and the Duke of Changchuan county" by the Tang Dynasty. After Ju song died, Zi Ju Biao left his young age and took Ju Mengchong as the big ghost leader to command the whole tribe. At this time The "Li Su" tribe is under the jurisdiction of the betang tribe, and has not yet formed a large and unified tribal organization.
During the two Song Dynasties, there were few records about Lisu nationality in the literature. The reason was that after the founding of the Northern Song Dynasty, it was tacitly accepted that the west of Dadu River was under the jurisdiction of Dali state, and little attention was paid to the political affairs of this region; the Northern Song Dynasty declined, Liao, Xia and Jin ruled the Yellow River Basin, and the Southern Song Dynasty was in Lin'an and had no time to look far away from the southwest border. Therefore, there were few records about this region in more than 400 years.
After the 14th century, records about the Lisu nationality appeared in documents and local chronicles. According to volume 4 of the Jingtai Yunnan picture book of the Ming Dynasty: "the famous chestnut millet are also different species of Luoluo, living in mountains and forests, without houses and industries, often bring medicine, arrows, bows and crossbows, hunt animals, and their women dig the roots of plants and trees for the solar eclipse; those who lose officials at the age of years only have their skin and ears." This record shows that people at that time believed that Lisu belonged to "Luoluo other species", that is, a branch of Yi nationality; Lisu had not entered the agricultural society and mainly lived in hunting and gathering, but they had to pay animal skins to the government.
In the middle of the 16th century, most Lisu people still lived in hunting and gathering life. They lived on both sides of the Jinsha River and were ruled by the Mu family, the local magistrate of Lijiang. According to the records of "all kinds of barbarians in Nanzhao" in the second volume of the unofficial history of Nanzhao, Lisu people still lived at this time "They are dressed in hemp and felt, live in caves, have sharp blades and poison arrows, and can't leave their bodies. They climb mountains as fast as apes. They satisfy their hunger with earth and honey and get raw food from wild animals. They are especially good at crossbows. Every time they make their women move forward with a small wooden shield, they shoot it from behind, hit the shield without hurting their women, and subdue Xifan from then on.".
In the yuan and Ming Dynasties, the ancestors of Lisu nationality had completed the first and second large-scale migration, that is, they moved from the Qinghai Tibet Plateau to the north of Yunnan Guizhou Plateau through the western edge of Sichuan Basin, mainly distributed in the Yalong River and Jinsha River Basins of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, and were respectively affected by the military and civilian general office of Lijiang road in the Yuan Dynasty, the Mu family of the local magistrate of Lijiang in the Ming Dynasty, the atus of the Naxi nationality in Yongning, and the slave owners of the Yi nationality on the East Bank of Jinsha River In the 16th century, Lijiang chieftain and Tibetan local ruling groups competed for Zhongdian, Jinzhou (now Judian, Lijiang, Yunnan), Linxi (now Weixi, Yunnan) and adunzi (now Deqin, Yunnan) A long-term war broke out in the area of heninglang. The Lisu People were unable to bear the burden of hard labor of soldiers. Under the leadership of mubiba, the leader of the buckwheat clan, they crossed the Lancang River, crossed the Biluo snow mountain and began to enter the Nujiang area. In the 19th century, after several uprisings led by hengzhagai, tanggui, Ding Honggui and Gu Laosi failed successively, a large number of Lisu clans and villages Land successively moved westward into Nujiang area, some continued westward across Gaoligong Mountain and entered Myanmar; some went southward along Lancang River and Nujiang River through zhenkang and Gengma into Cangyuan, Menglian and other places; some went down the south of Jinsha River and entered Luquan, Dayao and other places. During the migration, the living area of Lisu nationality continued to expand, scattered into many small blocks and mixed with other nationalities The Lisu nationality in the border areas and inner areas are different from other nationalities, and their social and economic development has also produced an unbalanced state.
In the 1920s, the Qing Dynasty implemented "changing the soil to flow" in Lijiang, Yongsheng, Huaping and other places close to the Lisu nationality in the mainland At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, a large number of Han, Bai, Naxi and other ethnic groups entered the Nujiang area, bringing a large number of iron agricultural tools and relatively advanced production technology.
From 1907 to 1908, adunzi (now Deqin) Xia Hu, a member of the crackdown Committee, was ordered to inspect the Nujiang area twice to comfort the people of all ethnic groups and eliminate the harsh faction of chawalong, CommScope and Yezhi chieftain, which was deeply supported by the people of all ethnic groups. At the same time, he also issued wood carvings and appointed dozens of partners to manage all villages, which was the beginning of the establishment of public officials and the establishment of a unified administrative organization in Nujiang area.
In 1912, the Yunnan military governor's office organized colonial troops to enter the Nujiang area to resist the invasion of British colonial forces. It implemented the policy of "opening cages and releasing birds" and forcibly released slaves by force, which basically destroyed the parent slavery of the Lisu nationality in Nujiang. In 1928, the Yunnan local government began to set up a governance Bureau in Nujiang area to strengthen its rule over the local people of all ethnic groups.
For a long time, the majority of Lisu People have been brutally exploited and oppressed by the landlords, chieftains, leaders of their own nation and other nationalities, the Kuomintang and imperialism. In the former mountain village of ordoro, Bijiang County, which had less than 1000 people, 237 poor farmers were tortured and killed by the government, chieftains, leaders and landlords 10 years before the founding of new China. There are many exorbitant taxes and levies In addition, it was exploited by unscrupulous businessmen and usurers. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, Western imperialist forces invaded Nujiang area, bringing new suffering to the Lisu People.
The political oppression and economic exploitation of the ruling class aroused the continuous resistance of the Lisu People. From the 18th to the 19th century, the Lisu People launched many anti Qing struggles, mainly including the anti Qing uprising led by Nonggeng Pao, Zhu Laosi and Zhihua Pao in Lushui from the 11th year of Qianlong (1746) to the 13th year of Qianlong (1748), and the sixth year of Jiaqing (1801) to the eighth year of Jiaqing (1803) , the armed uprising against the Qing Dynasty led by Weixi hengzhagan, with Lisu farmers as the main body, including the people of Nu, Bai, Han, Naxi and Tibet; the armed uprising led by Yongbei (now Yongsheng) and Tang GUI in the first year of Daoguang (1821); Yongbei (now Yongsheng) from the 19th year of Guangxu (1893) to the 20th year of Guangxu (1894), Yongbei (now Yongsheng) The anti chieftain armed anti Qing uprising led by Ding Honggui and Gu Laosi. Among them, the uprising led by hengzhagan in 1801 has the largest scale and the deepest influence. Due to the Lisu's own socio-economic conditions, this uprising has the characteristics different from other peasant uprisings, that is, they make full use of the primitive religion and clan relations maintained in the social system to launch and organize Organize uprising. For example, the team establishment of uprising is established on the basis of clan and military democratic organization; the contact is based on the clan's "biographical woodcut" The actions and battles were basically carried out by clan, tribal organization or family, and the clan's concept of revenge strengthened the courage and sacrifice spirit of the uprising people. However, the primitive backwardness of the clan economy made their vision more narrow than that of the farmers in the feudal society, which also determined that the uprising could only end in failure. Nevertheless, this uprising began Yiyi successively eliminated CommScope chieftains and thousands of officers and soldiers of the Qing Dynasty, forced the Qing government to investigate and deal with Weixi hall Garrison and other corrupt officials, cancelled some feudal privileges of Weixi chieftains, and reduced three-year taxes and copper classes in 33 prefectures and counties.
In the 20th century, the resistance struggle of the Lisu People rose one after another and never stopped. In 1906, the German Explorer brenhupai led two blacks to Nujiang River and arrived at Fugong rawu village. When they bullied and blackmailed the local Lisu People, they were killed by the angry Lisu People, and the two blacks were later repatriated. In 1907, the French priest Ren Anjou and others rampaged in baiharuo, Gongshan They occupied land, forced migrant workers, built churches, and prevented the local people from believing in other religions, which greatly angered the people of all ethnic groups. Lisu, together with the people of Tibet, Nu, Dulong and other ethnic groups, angrily burned down the churches and expelled these French missionaries. In 1911, Lisu and Jingpo were killed in Pianma, Gulang, gangfang and other places to resist the armed aggression of British imperialism In 1917, armed uprisings led by amungba broke out in Shideng, Fengdeng and other places of Lanping County. In 1918, another uprising led by WACE broke out in shangpa, Fugong. In 1935, the Lisu ethnic group, led by waye, launched a struggle against the extortion of the harsh faction of the KMT in Fugong area, From 1941 to 1943, the Lisu People and the Han, Dai, Jingpo and other ethnic groups bravely resisted the Japanese army invading western Yunnan and forced the invading army not to cross the Nu River. They made their own contributions to safeguarding the security of the border of the motherland.
In 1948, the Communist Party of China sent some party members to Northwest Yunnan to carry out underground activities, develop underground Party organizations and establish a working committee for Northwest Yunnan. It actively won the support of the upper class of Lisu leaders in Bijiang, Fugong and shuangnaidong. In early 1950, the Party established temporary government affairs committees and party working committees in four counties. Then, The people's Liberation Army has successively stationed in Lanping, Bijiang, Fugong, Gongshan and Lushui, and the Nujiang area has been liberated.
Historically, Lisu society developed slowly. Until the democratic reform in the 1950s, Lisu society still retained some residual forms of primitive clan system.
Lisu language calls a group composed of descendants of the same ancestor "early Russia", that is, clan. Each clan has its own name. The Lisu nationality in Nujiang area has 18 clans, including tiger, bear, monkey, snake, sheep, fish, chicken, bee, buckwheat and hemp. Clan organization is an important link in Lisu society. In the process of continuous migration, due to war and frequent migration, its clan organization gradually tends to disintegrate. After settling in Nujiang area, all clans scattered everywhere, and the original clan organization was difficult to maintain. In addition to the symbolic common name and some conceptual connections, the connection in economic life has been very indifferent. Only when the armed struggle with the nature of blood clan revenge is carried out, can its blood relationship maintenance function be shown.
In real life, family and village community organizations play an important role. The Lisu language calls the family "Ti Russia". The family has its own surname, its own small settlement area and cultivated land, its own "ghost tree" and public cemetery. Each family has its own head. Most of the family heads are men with higher generation, older age, eloquence and more affluent in the family. The members of the family kept the land and cultivated together economically; In life, we maintain mutual assistance in building houses, changing jobs and cooperation, killing pigs and eating together, men and women jointly give dowry, eat financial gifts, bear debts and bear the obligation of blood revenge. Through the above economic cooperation and mutual assistance in life, each family naturally and traditionally connects the whole family closely and becomes a closer social grass-roots organization.
In Lisu language, the village is called "Ka", which means the place where a group of people with similar blood relatives live in the community. Each village community maintains relative independence. The composition of the village community has the following three situations: it is composed of a large family in a clan; It is composed of two or more families in the clan; It consists of a mixture of families of several different clans. Each village has its own public forests, hunting grounds, wasteland and cemeteries, and its members have the right to reclaim and use them. Members of the same village community have the obligation of mutual assistance and cooperation, especially when paying tribute to the chieftain or fighting between village communities, this original mutual assistance relationship is more prominent. Each village has a recognized leader, while the larger villages recommend a leader with higher prestige among several family leaders, who is called "SHiPA". Due to the economic freedom and equality enjoyed by the members of the village community and the relative independence of various family organizations, the formation of such village community leaders often can not be inherited or democratically elected, but follow the traditional habits and support the prestigious elderly. His duty is to resolve disputes internally, lead production and preside over sacrifice; Announce armed struggle, conclude a covenant, collect tribute, send husband service, etc. During the chieftain's rule, most village leaders of Lisu nationality were appointed as big and small gang leaders. During the period of Kuomintang rule, he was appointed as district, township and Baochang. After the introduction of Christianity, many leaders served as church presidents and administrators. Therefore, many leaders often act as representatives of the trinity of politics, economy and religion in local social life. In case of war, all villages and communities form a temporary alliance. Once the war is over, this alliance relationship will end.
In the past, because a unified and authoritative authority has not yet been formed among Lisu villages, armed struggle often arose whenever disputes were caused between villages due to marriage, land, debt and theft. In case of armed struggle, all young and middle-aged men in the village must participate, while women are responsible for logistics, nursing and other work. They have the right to mediate the battle. Even if the battle is still fierce, the battle often stops as long as the women on one side rush to the position, wave their skirts and shout for a truce. It is customary to prohibit shooting women, otherwise the armed struggle will be prolonged.
Before the founding of new China, the private ownership of land in Nujiang Lisu area had been established, but the possession was not concentrated; Rural classes have been divided, but there are still remnants of primitive public ownership and parental slavery. The forms of land ownership can be basically divided into three types: individual private ownership, family joint ownership, family or village public ownership. Among them, private ownership of individual farmers is the main, and family partnership is the main form of the transition from primitive land public ownership to private ownership. The family or village public ownership exists as a remnant of the original public ownership, and the proportion is very small. Decades before the founding of new China, with the continuous infiltration of feudal landlord economic factors and the instability of small-scale peasant economy, land was gradually concentrated. Some families, village leaders and wealthy households gradually occupy more and better land, while some poor farmers lose their land, and the relationship between tenancy and employment has gradually developed.
In Nujiang Lisu society, there is also a "partnership farming system", which is a primitive form of cooperation in land ownership and farming methods from public to private. Usually, several family members of the same family jointly occupy and cultivate part of the cultivated land publicly owned by the family, or reclaim the wasteland publicly owned by the family to produce labor and seeds, and the products are equally distributed according to the family. There is also a co farming relationship, in which participants carry out co farming cooperation on private land. The land, labor and seeds are usually produced by CO farming households, and the products are distributed equally by households. However, wealthier farmers and village leaders often produce more seeds and less labor, exploiting the labor of poor households, and then forming leaders, rich households produce land and seeds, and poor farmers produce labor. In fact, this relationship has been transitioning to tenancy.
In addition, there is a simple primitive collaboration, commonly known as "tile brush". During the busy farming season, the host invites family and village members to assist in labor. After labor, the host only entertains a meal of water, wine and corn porridge without paying any remuneration. This was originally an ancient relationship of friendship and mutual assistance, which was not exploitative. However, with the improvement of productivity and the continuous increase of surplus products provided by individuals, this simple cooperation has gradually evolved into a kind of exploitation. Rich farmers and leaders often use this form to hire 150 to 300 workers in disguise every year, and pay only 12 to 15% of the remuneration payable.
From the 16th century to the early 20th century, parental slavery existed in Nujiang area. Slaves are often regarded as family members and "adopted children". In daily life, there is little difference with the master. You can live with the master, eat and work together. Some slaves can also redeem themselves as free farmers. The master can buy and sell slaves freely, but he has no right to life or death. There was no hierarchy within slaves. All these reflect the characteristics of early slavery. At the beginning of the 20th century, in order to weaken the power of chieftains and strengthen their direct rule, the local government of Yunnan implemented "opening cages and releasing birds" in Nujiang area and forcibly released slaves by force. Therefore, the parental slavery had basically disintegrated before the founding of new China.
Before the founding of new China, Lisu society had no written legal provisions. However, in the long-term development process, unwritten customary law has been formed. With the establishment of the socialist system, the old customary law norms that do not conform to modern legal norms are gradually replaced. Now, the villagers can invite the village committee, relatives and friends to participate in the mediation and Adjudication in accordance with the civil mediation procedures. On the premise of abiding by national laws and regulations, the village rules and regulations formulated by each village play an important role in.
Historically, the Lisu nationality living in different regions, affected by the natural geographical environment and other nationalities, has a very uneven social and economic development, which can be roughly divided into three types:
The Lisu People living in Lijiang, Yongsheng, Huaping and other inland areas have entered the feudal landlord economy after "changing the land to flow" in the 1920s, and agricultural production occupies a major position; In politics, there were feudal leaders who served the feudal rule, such as gang leader, Lu Chang, Pai tou, Bao Dong and so on.
The Lisu People living around the big and small Liangshan mountains have some small and medium-sized slave owners because of the influence of Yi slavery and feudalism.
The Lisu nationality living in the re Nujiang area was still in the stage of parental slavery until the early 20th century, and was managed by the head appointed by the chieftains of Naxi, Tibetan and Bai nationalities; In terms of economy, nomadic farming and hunting are the main methods. "They like to live on the top of rocks, cultivate mountains, go away if the land is barren, and migrate infrequently. When they are harvested, they often brew wine. They are drunk day and night, and eat sweets for a few nights. So they use crossbows and medicine to hunt, climb dangerous peaks and rock walls, and walk like a cunning rabbit. Women follow them as well... They believe in ghosts without respecting Buddha, borrow money, carve wood as a contract, and break the contract, then extend witch wishes". By the 1940s, the Lisu nationality in this area still maintained this state of production and life.
In August 1954, Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Region was established, including Lushui, Bijiang, Fugong, Gongshan and other counties. In January 1957, it was changed into an autonomous prefecture and Lanping county was included in the organic system. In September 1986, with the approval of the State Council, the organizational system of Bijiang county was abolished and divided into two parts, which were assigned to Lushui county and Fugong County. At the same time, in order to fully protect the political life rights of the Lisu People, the people's government has also set up Lisu townships in some places such as Lijiang, Dali and Diqing.
By the end of 2010, there were 733108 Lisu People in Yunnan Province. Among them, 287971 in Nujiang, 126734 in Lijiang, 113769 in Diqing, 60606 in Chuxiong, 38382 in Dali, 34117 in Baoshan, 32966 in Dehong, 20252 in Kunming, 11070 in Lincang, 5187 in Pu'er, 655 in Qujing, 395 in Honghe, 322 in Xishuangbanna, 300 in Yuxi, 286 in Wenshan and 196 in Zhaotong.
In addition, there are many Lisu people scattered in Sichuan Province, about 40000 people.
Lisu People generally believe in primitive religion. It takes nature worship and soul concept as the basic content and animal sacrifice in case of disease and disaster as the main form. It exists in Lisu area. Since modern times, Christianity and Catholicism have been introduced into Nujiang area. Some Lisu People have turned to Christianity, and a few believe in Catholicism.
Lisu People are popular in the worship of nature. In their ideas, mountains, rivers, sun, moon, stars, animals and plants are dominated by "gods" or "ghosts". Therefore, almost all natural phenomena have become the objects they believe in and worship. They divided gods and ghosts into several categories. The main ghosts include Yuanba ghost ("ushani"), home ghost ("haiquani"), Mountain Ghost ("mishni"), water ghost ("edusni"), dream ghost ("Migani"), blood ghost ("chani"), road ghost ("gaguni"), devil ("nipamuni") and tiger clan ghost ("wudouni"). All these are the vain reactions in their minds of the external forces that rule people in daily life. It is also a manifestation of the weakness of Lisu ancestors in their struggle with nature and society in the historical period.
In the long-term primitive religious activities, the Lisu nationality has gradually formed a group of wizards who are not separated from labor. Witches are divided into "Niba" and "Nigu". The difference between the two is that the former can "see" ghosts and use spells to "expel" or "kill ghosts", so they have a high social status. Some leaders are also "Niba". In addition to conducting sacrifices, they also divined for people. There are more than 10 kinds of divination, such as bamboo stick divination, sheep bone divination, shell divination, chicken divination and pig liver divination. When some wizards are engaged in sacrificial activities, they should sing all kinds of targeted sacrificial songs according to the size of ghosts and gods, habitats and hobbies. When the wizard is engaged in sacrificial activities, he is wearing a long linen shirt and a big hat. The hat is bound with two big goat horns and a long knife on his back. The long knife is covered with a piece of felt or linen, and a long bamboo pole is waved in his hand.
The concept of ghosts and gods of Lisu nationality is simple, but unique. On the one hand, he believed that all things in the world have spirits, and believed that all things in the universe are dominated and controlled by the gods (MIS) and elves (Ni), so he feared MIS and all "Ni" and offered sacrifices to them; On the other hand, in the process of sacrifice, it also showed an attitude of contempt for ghosts and gods, such as severely attacking "Ni" in words. In case of drought, first offer sacrifices to the dragon and pray for rain, and in case of drought again, hold a ceremony of scolding the dragon; When someone is ill, he first prays for "Ni", then scolds "Ni" and drives "Ni" to cure the disease.
There are more than 20 kinds of clan totems of Lisu nationality in Yunnan, including tiger, bear, monkey, sheep, snake, bird, fish, bee, buckwheat, hemp, tea, bamboo, teak, frost and fire. Lisu People also worship fire and frost as totems. Although some clans are named after animals and plants, they do not worship them. If the fish clan is named because its members are good at fishing; Buckwheat clan and hemp clan are famous for being good at planting buckwheat and hemp. After entering the class society, totem worship gradually weakened, or only retained some symbolic residual forms.
In the early 20th century, Christianity and Catholicism were introduced into the Lisu area of Nujiang by British and French missionaries. Because it has unified classics and relatively complete etiquette forms, some commandments and creeds advocated by it are consistent with the traditional moral norms of Lisu nationality, so it has gradually spread among Lisu nationality in Nujiang. After the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was held, the people's government advocated the freedom of religious belief under the premise of "three self patriotism", so Christianity has been greatly spread. Christianity has now become a popular religion among most Lisu People in Nujiang area.
Before the founding of new China, most Lisu men and women in Nujiang area wore self-made linen clothes, and only a few wealthy households and upper class people wore cotton clothes. The tool for weaving hemp is very simple. The weaving frame is only made of four wooden rods with two horizontal and two straight. Some are inserted into the ground with four wooden columns, and the upper end is tied with two wooden rods, which is called "textile machine". A skillful woman can weave 5-inch wide linen 6 feet a day.
There are two kinds of clothing styles for Lisu women: one is wearing a short shirt and a skirt, the skirt length is as long as the ankle, and the skirt is folded a lot; The other is wearing a blouse and pants, with a small apron at the front and back. A woman's blouse is as long as her waist, with a full round flat collar and no buttons. The skirt is usually open. In cold weather, it is covered by hand, or pressed with beads, shellfish, mussels and other accessories. Some are bound with black cloth, and the clothes are white. Black and white match, which is very beautiful. Due to the difference in the color of linen worn in different places, it is divided into black, white and flower Lisu. White and black Lisu women living in Nujiang area generally wear right Lapel tops and linen skirts; Married women wear large copper rings in their ears, which can drop their shoulders, and their heads are decorated with coral and material beads. Young girls like to tie braids with red thread decorated with little white shells; Some women also like to wear a string of agate, seashell or silver coins on their chest. Lisu language calls this kind of chest ornament "labalidi". The "black Lisu" women in the area of Lushui do not wear long skirts, their jackets are lapped on the right, a small apron is tied around their waist, trousers, green cloth covers their heads, and small coral ornaments are worn in their ears. "Hualisu" in Yongsheng and Dehong have bright and beautiful clothes. Women like to embroider a lot of lace on their tops and skirts. Their heads are wrapped with floral cloth, headscarves, earrings, large copper or silver rings. Their skirts are as long as the ground. They sway and swing when walking, looking graceful. When women in Dechang, Sichuan Province were young, they left three pointed hair on their heads. Since then, it has increased year by year, and it is full at the age of 15. The bucket hat made of wool woven belt on the top of the head is called "Wudi" in Lisu language, and the two braids are well tied under "Wudi"; The left and right ears are pierced with a hole. During marriage, both ears are equipped with a silver earring. The coat is made of self-woven dyed cloth with 7 to 20 collar flowers; The lower body is wearing a skirt, under which a white cloth is stuck, 5 inches wide, 6 circles of patterns are pricked with fancy thread, and a red and black belt woven from wool is tied at the waist.
Before the founding of new China, Lisu men's costumes were linen long shirts or short shirts, with trousers knee long, some wrapped in green cloth, and some braided hair. The head man or a man from a wealthy family wears a string of red coral in his left ear to show his social status. All adult men like to wear a machete on their left waist and an arrow bag on their right waist. Most of the arrow bags are made of bear skin and monkey skin. The Lisu man in Dechang left a small bundle of hair on his head, which was unlucky for others. The clothes are made of linen. After the founding of new China, especially since the reform and opening up, the dress materials of Lisu nationality have undergone fundamental changes, and linen has almost disappeared.
Lisu's houses have different architectural forms in different areas. The houses of Lisu nationality in Nujiang area and Yanbian area of Sichuan are mainly bamboo strip houses and wooden ridge houses; Houses in Lijiang, Dehong and Xichang, Sichuan are mainly civil structures. Bamboo strip house is also known as "thousand foot landing house". During construction, dozens of wooden piles are erected on the slope, covered with boards, surrounded by bamboo strip fences and covered with thatch or boards. The house is generally divided into two rooms. The first room is the passenger room. A large fire pond is set in the middle of the house, on which iron triangle or three stones are set as the support for cooking. All guests sit around the fire pond. The second bedroom is for men and women, and outsiders are generally not allowed to enter. If the children get married, some build new houses, others expand the area of the house, with parents living in the inner room and children living in the outer room. Under the bamboo strip house, it is generally used as a livestock stable.
Most of the Lisu people scattered in Lanping and Weixi like to live in Muling houses. The shape of this house is very much like a large wooden box, which is made of wooden beams about 5 meters long and 20 cm thick. Its method: break the two ends of a log with equal length into a concave convex shape, and then overlap it into a rectangle as a wall. The four walls touch the ground to support the housing beam and fix it with a cross beam. The whole house can be built without an inch of nails or leaving a gap. It can be said to be wonderful. The larger house is divided into two rooms and the smaller one is only one. Often open the door on the side and set a fire pond in the middle, so that the family can lie around the fire pond. The roof is covered with boards and pressed with stones to prevent slipping.
Influenced by Han, Bai, Naxi and other nationalities, most of the Lisu People in the mainland use more durable earth wall houses. It is made of wood and surrounded by earth washed walls. Generally, it has a small window and the roof is covered with grass or wood. The four walls of the wall house are made of red soil mixed with straw, which can be used for decades because of its strong firmness due to impulse extrusion; The wooden boards and tiles on the roof of some houses have long been damaged, but the earth wall is still as hard as iron.
The Lisu language belongs to the Yi branch of the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. Lisu nationality has a relatively unified language. There is no language branch inside. The dialect is divided into Nujiang dialect and Luquan dialect. Nujiang dialect is divided into two local languages. The grammar of various dialects and local languages is not different, and the vocabulary is basically the same. Therefore, whether Lisu People live in the Yalong River basin or in the Jinsha River, Nujiang River and Lancang River Basin, they use the same language and can talk to each other.
In history, Lisu did not create words, but could only pass them on by word of mouth and engrave wooden records. At the beginning of the 20th century, Wang Renbo, a young man of Lisu nationality in Weixi County, created a hieroglyphic with 1030 characters, which is the first character in the history of Lisu nationality; In the early 1920s, the second language, the old Lisu language, was created by the British Fourier and the Karen youth Badong based on the English alphabet; In 1913, Wang Huiren, a British missionary, created a "lattice" Pinyin based on the pronunciation of Taogu village, Wuding County, according to the language of calling himself Lisu and Lisu in Wuding and Luquan counties, Yunnan Province; The fourth language is the new Lisu language created by the Central Institute for Nationalities and the Language Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in the 1950s and approved by the State Council. At present, all ethnic groups in Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture use Lisu language and old Lisu language.
Individual family is the basic unit of Lisu society.
The family generally includes two generations of parents and unmarried children. The son will build another house from the date of marriage or one year later.
According to the custom of Lisu nationality, the young son and the only son do not separate from their parents and enjoy their parents' final property inheritance right. Therefore, the eldest son and the second son must separate from their parents in order to create preconditions for the property inheritance of the young son.
Elderly couples have no children and can accept adopted children. Generally, they give priority to recruiting close relatives, and some are allowed to recruit other clans. Adoptive children may enjoy the right to inherit property; If there are no children after old death, the property belongs to the closest branch of the family; The daughter has no right to inherit property. If she recruits redundant children, the redundant son-in-law can inherit property with the consent of the clan. If a daughter marries outside, she can only get a string of hanging beads and some decorations from her mother.
Lisu also created many folk literature works, mainly oral literature, which were passed down by singing and telling.
Works related to myths and historical legends, such as entrepreneurship, our ancestors, the legend of Hengduan Mountains and the story of the founding of the earth, reproduce the face of the ancient Lisu society from different aspects, and describe the various interpretations and views of the Lisu People on the universe and human society in their childhood, At the same time, it also praises the heroic spirit and indomitable dedication of Lisu ancestors in their struggle with nature.
Long narrative poems are rich in subject matter and content, usually with complete plot and distinctive character. For example, there are more than 1500 lines in "rough Zimu scrape" ("reunion tune"), which makes a profound disclosure and powerful accusation against feudal buying and selling marriage with realistic means and vivid language. Popular folk riddles, proverbs, allegorical sayings and children's songs are also an integral part of Lisu folk literature. Because it usually has the function of imparting production and life experience and educating people to deal with people, it is loved by the Lisu People and inherited from generation to generation .
The natural calendar of Lisu nationality is rich in national and regional characteristics.
They use the changes of natural phenomena such as the opening of mountain flowers, the singing of mountain birds and heavy snow as the phenology of production festivals. Lisu People divide a year into dry and wet seasons. The dry season generally ends in November of the Gregorian calendar and comes in February of the next year, and the wet season starts from March to October of the Gregorian calendar, which is a period of rising temperature, more rain and high humidity; The year is divided into 10 festivals: flower blooming month (March), bird singing month (April), burning mountain month (may), hunger month (June), gathering month (July and August), harvest month (September and October), wine cooking month (November), hunting month (December), Chinese New Year Month (January) and house building month (February).
Folk song is an artistic activity loved by Lisu People. In Lisu's own words, that is "no salt, no song". Folk songs have almost become the "second language" of the Lisu People. Lisu People have to sing in all kinds of production activities, weddings and funerals, and even file a lawsuit or mediate disputes, which are often solved by singing tunes.
Lisu folk songs can be roughly divided into six categories according to their genres and forms: (1) ancient songs (called "wood scraping cloth" in Lisu language), which are widely spread, and the more famous tunes include "production tune", "ancient war song", "bridge tune" and "runaway tune"; (2) Love songs are the tunes that young men and women sing together in groups. There are also the tunes that young lovers sing at trysts, called "Youye". The tunes include "muzzle tune" and "Pipa tune" accompanied by Pipa or muzzle when young men and women work and rest in the field; (3) Saige is an impromptu song sung by young men and women at the Spring Festival or party. The tune likes to use the cheerful and unrestrained "worship" or "scraping wood heat"; (4) Sacrificial song is a tune sung when offering sacrifices to ancestors or ghosts and gods; (5) The funeral song is a melody sung to mourn the dead. The words are sad and moving, and the melody is sad and pathetic. According to different funerals, there are customary "cry songs", "send soul songs" and "Elegy"; (6) Carols are folk songs created by the Lisu People after the founding of new China. Most of them express the Lisu People's love for the new society in the form of comparison between the old and the new.
Lisu folk songs have their own style in singing. They often use vibrato in singing short notes. When singing long notes, they sing straight and simple, with thick and low timbre, which makes people feel that they have a deep internal power.
The popular musical instruments of Lisu nationality mainly include pipa, oral string and so on.
Pipa is an ancient musical instrument popular among Lisu People, and it is also one of the people's favorite musical instruments. Its shape is roughly the same as that of Han pipa, and its body is small (some are square). There is no fixed phoneme division on the handle. Only a small point of rosin is used as the mark of one phoneme, and four metal strings are used. Play with your thumb and index finger.
Koala is also a traditional musical instrument of Lisu nationality, which is loved by every young man and woman. The string body is made into a groove with a bamboo piece about 3 inches long and half an inch wide. A spring is engraved in the middle. The player gently blows at the mouth to make the sound of the elastic piece resonate in the mouth, and then the tone becomes soft and melodious with the adjustment of breath. Although the volume of the string is small, it is very beautiful. Especially when it is played in the dead of night, it will be more beautiful and beautiful when accompanied by soft singing or chanting.
The dance of Lisu nationality reflects the daily working life of Lisu People, the process of fighting against nature and the open-minded spirit. Such as monkey boxing dance, pigeon drinking dance, bird King dance, etc., which imitate animal movements and habits; Wedding dance, laundry dance, heel dance, etc. These dances are accompanied by Pipa and muzzle strings; Some dances are dumb dances without accompaniment, such as heel dance and production dance. Most of these dances are expressed through the movements of lower limbs, and the movements of arms are less. Two people touch each other's heels to master the rhythm by the impact of heels. Due to the vivid dance posture, the varied dance patterns, and the joy and full emotion of the dancers, the whole scene looks very warm.
The forms of Lisu dance are mostly group dance, such as production dance and heel dance. Men and women form a circle, the dance steps are carried out in a circle, and the accompaniment is in the middle (the accompanist also dances with the dance). Sometimes two people jump opposite, but the action is the same, just one in and one out. The dance steps of wedding dance and millet cutting dance are slightly different. Men and women stand in a row separately. The movement is not based on the circle. Sometimes the two rows of men and women March side by side, cross, and sometimes step in and step out to echo each other. Most Lisu dances are inseparable from these two forms. The dance movements of Lisu nationality are vigorous, vigorous, lively and changeable. All kinds of dance accompaniments are mostly combined with the dance content and adopt the rhythm of 2 beats or a mixture of 2 beats and 3 beats with strong rhythm. Therefore, they appear enthusiastic and unrestrained, full of pungent and rough passion, showing the distinctive national characteristics of Lisu dance.
Lisu People call the annual festival "Kuoshi". Before the founding of new China, the Lisu nationality in Nujiang mainly determined the time of the new year by observing the phenology. Therefore, there was no unified and definite date, but it was generally during the period from the fifth day of December to the tenth day of the first month of the following year, that is, the cherry blossom season. During the new year's festival, it is customary to pound indica rice cake and waxy corn cake, and make mellow water wine. In order to pray for a smooth wind and rain and a good grain harvest in the coming year, each family should put a little of the indica rice cake from the first mortar on peach, pear and other fruit trees; Some places put a small bowl for the dog to eat before eating. It is said that it is in return for the grain brought by the dog to the world. On the first day of the new year's festival, young men and women everywhere should dress up and gather in the public place of their village to hold activities such as shooting crossbows, dancing and singing to each other. This is a good time for young men and women to confide in love, get engaged and make friends. Young men often win the love of girls with their superb archery skills, while some young men and women express their love with beautiful dances and melodious songs. Once they love each other, they should give each other gifts. Many young men and women set their lives through such activities.
During the Spring Festival, the Lisu People in Nujiang Canyon still have the fashion of "spring bath". Where there are hot springs along both banks of the river, it is a place for people to gather and bathe. People who go to "spring bath" should take annual food and luggage, put up bamboo sheds not far from the hot spring, or find caves to rest. Generally, they have to stay in the hot spring for three or five days, and some take baths five or six times a day. They think that only in this way can they eliminate diseases, enhance immunity and have sufficient energy to invest in labor production in the new year. In the hot spring area near Liuku, a mass "Tang Quan poetry competition" was formed more than 100 years ago. At that time, singers from more than ten miles and dozens of miles nearby will gather here to compete in poetry and song. People compete with each other in poems and songs, and taste the delicious wine and food they bring. "Broad season" has been set as a national festival celebrated by Lisu People in Nujiang Prefecture on December 20 of the Gregorian calendar every year. During the festival, there are singing competitions, crossbow shooting competitions, rope skating competitions, performances on the knife mountain and under the sea of fire, and the annual "bathing pool meeting".
The Lisu People in Dehong and Tengchong celebrate the "knife pole Festival" on February 17 of the lunar calendar every year. The activity is divided into two days. On the first day, "go to the sea of fire" and burn a lot of charcoal with chestnut firewood. At the beginning of the performance, five people jump out and in around the charcoal barefoot, and then "roll on the fire", that is, roll on the charcoal; "Wash your face with fire", that is, wash your face with charcoal; Finally, hold the iron chain burned in the charcoal and pass it around. It is called "pulling the fire chain". After the performance, the people dance together. On the next day, 32 sharp knives were tied horizontally to two thick chestnut poles 4 feet high to form a ladder shape, with red flags and firecrackers at the top. They began to perform in the sound of firecrackers, gongs and drums.
Harvest festival is also an important festival of Lisu nationality. Every year from September to October of the lunar calendar, when Xingu and corn begin to harvest, every family cooks wine and tastes new. Men, women, old and young gathered in the village square. The bonfire was burning. The old man played the Pipa and Yueqin, singing and dancing, telling the ancient history; Young men and women danced in a circle, drank wine while dancing, sang and danced to the end.
As a part of Christian believers, Lisu People celebrate Easter in April, Thanksgiving in October and Christmas in December. Due to the influence of other nationalities around, the festivals of Lisu nationality in the inner area are similar to those of Han, Yi, Bai, Naxi and other nationalities nearby. On the first lunar month, people first feed salt to the cattle to show their respect for the hard year. Torch Festival in June and Mid Autumn Festival in August.
The basic form of marriage and family of Lisu nationality is monogamy.
It has unique characteristics in form and process. Young men and women enjoy greater social freedom before marriage. In villages with a large population, it is customary to use newly-built empty houses or build shacks to facilitate the social activities of young men and women. Young men and women are free to play strings and sing tunes in such a room at night, and everyone lies around the fire pond late at night. Sometimes, such social activities can also be carried out in the shacks guarding the crops. Girls should wear skirts when they are 13 or 14 years old. After wearing skirts, they can participate in such social activities.
In the past, men and women were usually engaged by their parents when they were young, and some even married through their belly. The bride price is heavy. Uncle table priority marriage is also very popular. Lisu People have a saying: "the biggest tree is fir, and the biggest person is uncle." therefore, the habit of "having a woman ask Uncle first" is formed. Today, Lisu young men and women have freedom of marriage and love, and marriage and family are based on free love.
Lisu People are buried after death, and those who die abnormally are cremated. After the death of the old man, the whole village stopped working for two to three days. The villagers and family members brought wine, meat and food to the deceased's home to offer condolences, and helped wash their faces, comb their hair and change new clothes. The body of the deceased was parked at home for one or two days, which can last for seven days. During parking, three bowls of rice, meat and cold water shall be offered three times a day. Before burial, people in the village have to go to the deceased's house to dance a burial dance ("Shi Wudeng") for the deceased.
The burial date is generally on the day of rats, rabbits, snakes, monkeys, chickens and pigs. At the funeral, the body was carried by four people. The body was placed on the trunk of a chestnut tree, nine men and seven women. The two youths opened the road with a knife in front, and their families returned halfway through the funeral. Both villages and families have public cemeteries. In the public cemeteries, a flat ground is selected, a grave pit is dug, and wooden boards are placed around. The corpses are placed in it. The head is high, lying on the side facing the sun, filled with earth, and no cemeteries are built. In some areas, influenced by other nationalities, some people begin to build cemeteries.
The tombs are arranged in the order of male on the left and female on the right. They are arranged from right to left according to their generations, and the later dead are also arranged backward according to their generations. The shape of the tomb is a long way with one end high and wide and one end low and narrow. The size of the tomb depends on the age of the deceased. If the deceased is a man, the machete, crossbow, arrow bag, cigarette bag, etc. used before his death shall be hung at the head of the tomb as burial objects; If it is a woman, hang the linen weaving tools, linen hanging bags, needles and thread and cooking utensils used during her lifetime at the head of the tomb.
Many customs and taboos were formed in Lisu areas before the founding of new China.
For example, Lisu women cannot burn firewood with branches after pregnancy, otherwise their children will have rabbit lips; Back firewood cannot be combined with pig grass, otherwise water will come out when giving birth to a child; You can't eat cucumber seeds, otherwise the child will have colorful spots; You can't cross the rope tied to the horse with your feet, otherwise the child won't come out, and so on. Because Lisu People do not calculate the date of birth of their babies, many children are born in the fields and near the ground. If the baby is delivered at home, it is generally delivered by the mother of the pregnant woman. If the mother is old or dead, it is delivered by her mother-in-law. If her mother-in-law is absent, it is delivered by the man or the woman's sister. If my sister doesn't have one, I'll find a suitable old man among my relatives to deliver the baby. The baby's placenta is considered the dirtiest and should be buried 1 mile away immediately.
With the progress of society and the improvement of medical and health conditions, these taboos have gradually lost their influence.
Release Time:2021-10-29 19:36:14
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