Dai (Roman alphabet: < I > Dai < / I >), also known as Thai (Thai: < I > Fu Fu < / I >, Roman alphabet: < I > Thai < / I >), Shan (Roman alphabet: < I > Sha < / I > < I > n < / I >), etc. the national language is Dai (Thai), belonging to the Zhuang Dai branch of the Zhuang Dong ethnic group in the Sino Tibetan language system.
Dai people regard peacocks and elephants as mascots, and their folktales are rich and colorful. Dai people like to live by water, love to be clean, bathe frequently, and women love to wash their hair. Therefore, they have the reputation of "the nation of water". In the past, Dai people generally believed in Theravada Buddhism and primitive religion.
Dai people are distributed in China, India, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand and other countries. In 2000, there were 1.159 million Dai people in China. They mainly live in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Dehong Dai Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture and Gengma and Menglian autonomous counties. The rest are scattered in more than 30 counties, including Jingdong, Jinggu, Pu'er, Lancang, Xinping, Yuanjiang and Jinping. The frontier Dai area borders Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam.
The Dai people in China call themselves Dai Tai, Dai Na, Dai ya, Dai TA, Dai Duan and so on. Xishuangbanna, Dehong, Xinping and Yuanjiang in the middle and upper reaches of the Red River, Ruili, Longchuan and Gengma border areas, Lancang mangjing and mangna are the branches of Dai nationality. The Han people call Dai Tai Shui Dai, Dai Na Han Dai and Dai Ya Hua Yao Dai.
As early as the 1st century, there are records about Dai ancestors in Chinese historical books. The documents of Tang and Song dynasties are called "gold teeth", "black teeth", "silver teeth", "embroidered feet", "embroidered face", "mangman" and "white clothes". Yuan and Ming Dynasties are still known as "gold teeth" and "white clothes". "Bai Yi" also writes "Bai Yi", "Bai Yi" and "Bo Yi". Some of them mistakenly refer to "Bo Yi", which leads to confusion with Bai nationality. Since the Qing Dynasty, it has been called "Bai Yi". In addition, the Dai people are called Ailao in Vietnam, Shan in Myanmar and Ahom in India.
After the Second World War, the governments of various countries named the Dai people in their respective territories, Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia as Thai, Laos as Lao, Myanmar as Shan, China as Dai, and India as Ahom, but they all called themselves Tai.
There are two main views and many opinions about the origin of Dai nationality.
Among them, the most influential one is the theory of "going south", which holds that Dai people originated from northern Sichuan, southern Shaanxi, Altay Mountains and other places in northern China or beyond. They kept going south under the expulsion of other nationalities. In the process of migration, Dai people once stayed in Yunnan and established the kingdom of Nanzhao. After Kublai's pingdali, Dai people were forced to move south to Yunnan In the South and Southeast Asia, this view has been abandoned by more and more scholars due to the in-depth study. Others are originated in the Indonesian archipelago, Guangdong and Guangxi Yunnan Guizhou region and so on. With the in-depth study of Dai literature, the theory of migration has been supported by more and more evidences, such as "benmeng Dai, Jixi shuangbang", "Xihe Menglong", "bashatan" and so on. These documents show that the indigenous people in Dai residential areas are mainly lavas, Kemu, Mengren, Kongs and so on, and the Dai people are the later immigrants. From the perspective of linguistics, some scholars put forward the view that the Dai ancestors lived in the same area as the Zhuang ancestors. They think that the Dai people moved out of Guangxi. However, Zheng Xiaoyun thinks that there are many reasons for different nationalities to use the same language. This research method can not explain the origin of the Dai people.
The natives said.
This view holds that Dai people have lived in the arc zone from the west of the Red River to the upper reaches of the Irrawaddy River and along the mani slope of India since ancient times. Its formation is the natural result of economic and cultural development, not the result of migration. For example, Huang Huikun thinks that Dai ancestors are ancient Yue people, while Chen lvfan thinks that Dai people are evolved from Shan people. Among them, "Dian Yue", "Shan State", "Yue Shang" and "Peng state" originated from ancient Yue people have the greatest influence. This view holds that "Dian Yue", "Shan State", "Yue Shang" and "Peng state" in Chinese historical books are the countries established by Dai ancestors. However, some scholars have questioned this view. For example, He Ping thinks that "Dian Yue", "Shan State", "Yue Shang" and "Peng state" have nothing to do with Dai ancestors; Zheng Xiaoyun thinks that Baiyue is not the same It is a nation, and naturally there is no national heritage.
Many scholars believe that some of the ethnic groups in the Song Dynasty mentioned in Chinese ancient books were the ancestors of the Dai people in China, and that the "mangman tribe" recorded in the book of man was the ancestors of the Dai people in Xishuangbanna. Zheng Xiaoyun believes that the ancient Dian state was the first Kingdom established by the Dai people. According to the records in the history of the Tang Dynasty, around 1180 ad, the Dai people in Xishuangbanna today, led by Ba Zhen, unified all the Dai tribes and established the Jinglong Jindian kingdom. The establishment of the mengshe regime marks the formal formation of the Dai people, the main body of the Dai people in Xishuangbanna. In addition, some scholars also believe that Ailao recorded in ancient Chinese books may be one of the early Dai and Thai nationalities, and some of them may have integrated into the Dai nationality in China.
During the yuan and Ming Dynasties, the economic and cultural exchanges between the Han and Dai people became closer, especially when a large number of Han people moved to the border areas. The advanced production technology and cultural science in the mainland were widely spread in the Dai areas, which rapidly promoted the social and economic development of the Dai people. According to the records of the early Yuan Dynasty, the Dai people in Dehong still used slaves to work. During the yuan and Ming Dynasties, Dai areas entered the feudal lords society, and social production developed further. The use of ironware is quite common. New varieties of crops have been added, and cotton has been widely planted. Handicraft industry also has new development, the emergence of precious "dry cliff brocade", "silk curtain" and other beautiful handicrafts. Commercial activity, the emergence of the car and other large commercial towns.
Dai nationality area is located in the frontier, which bears the brunt of the imperialist invasion. Imperialism not only carried out economic aggression, plundered resources and dumped commodities, but also carried out political, military and cultural aggression, sent spies and secret agents, went deep into the border areas in the name of exploration, investigation, travel and missionary work, collected intelligence, mapped maps, wooed the upper class of the ethnic groups, destroyed ethnic relations, and even carried out naked armed invasion. In order to defend the territory of the motherland, Dai people, Han people, Jingpo people and Wa people launched many armed struggles against British and French imperialist aggression at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century.
During the Anti Japanese War, the Dai people joined the whole nation in the armed struggle against Japanese fascism and made great contributions to the defense of the sacred frontier territory of the motherland. When the Yunnan Burma railway was built in 1938, Han Futing, the chieftain of Gengma, and Han Wanxian, the chieftain of Mengding, led the leaders of Dai, WA and other ethnic groups under their jurisdiction, personally directed the migrant workers and participated in the construction of the Maolu railway. After the Japanese army occupied western Yunnan, the Anti Japanese guerrillas of various nationalities fought with the enemy tenaciously, including the Dai Han Youth salvation League headed by Yang Bingnan, the self-defense army of Western Yunnan led by Dai chieftain Dao jingban, and the gengcang detachment formed by Gengma chieftain Han Yuqing. During the Anti Japanese War, the Yunnan Myanmar highway was the most important channel for China to receive foreign aid materials, known as "the main artery of China's Anti Japanese War". The Dai people participated in the rush repair of the Yunnan Myanmar highway many times, ensuring the smooth road. In 1944, the Anti Japanese war in western Yunnan turned into a major counter offensive. Finally, on January 20, 1945, the Japanese aggressors were driven out of menwanding and finally won the victory of the Anti Japanese war in western Yunnan. The Anti Japanese war in western Yunnan is known as "the model of completely annihilating and defending the enemy and the pioneer of recovering the territory", which has laid an important foundation for the victory of the national anti Japanese war. The Dai nationality region implements regional ethnic autonomy, so far it has set up two autonomous prefectures and seven autonomous counties.
There is no direct evidence to prove when the Dai people moved to Thailand, but many scholars believe that it was around the 10th century that the Dai people entered Thailand and founded their country there.
According to the documents in northern Thailand, a Dai village appeared on the riverside near nanben in 1150. In 1263, King Manglai, who was related to King Meng in Xishuangbanna, established the city of King Manglai in Qinglai, and then occupied nanben. In 1296, King manlai established the new city of Chiang Mai. In 1350, Chiang Mai had already controlled Lanna area.
It is generally believed that after the 6th century, Dai people began to move from Yunnan to northern Myanmar. From the 7th century to the 10th century, the Dai people in Myanmar were under the rule of Nanzhao state, but whether Nanzhao state was the regime established by the Dai ancestors is controversial. Chinese scholars generally believe that Nanzhao state was not the regime established by the Dai ancestors, and some foreign scholars also hold this view. In the 10th-11th century, the Dai people established a country called "mengmaolong" in northern Myanmar, which is the Luchuan regime recorded in Chinese historical records. In 1229, Sanlong entered the Assam area of modern India.
During the Yuan Dynasty, the majority of the Shan people in Myanmar, like the Dai people in Yunnan, were still under the control of the central dynasty of China. At the end of the Yuan Dynasty, the Dai and Shan people in the Sino Burmese border area in western Yunnan gradually got rid of the control of the Yuan Dynasty and formed a separatist force with Luchuan as the center.
After the unification of the Ming Dynasty, silenfa occupied Luchuan. Except Cheli and other areas, almost all Dai and Shan ethnic areas on both sides of the Sino Burmese border were annexed by Luchuan. Si Lun FA is called "the king of Luchuan"
Chinese PinYin : Dai Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:22:20
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