Tujia nationality (Tujia Language: bifzivkar) is a nation with a long history. It has a national language. It belongs to the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family, close to the Yi language branch. There is no national language, and Chinese is commonly used.
Tujia nationality is mainly distributed in Wuling mountain area at the junction of Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing and Guizhou. Tujia people in Hunan Province are mainly distributed in Yongshun, Longshan, Baojing, Guzhang and other counties of Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Cili, Sangzhi and other counties of Zhangjiajie City, Shimen and other counties of Changde City; Hubei Province is mainly distributed in Laifeng, Hefeng, Xianfeng, Xuanen, Jianshi, Badong, Enshi, Lichuan and other counties and cities of Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, and Changyang and Wufeng counties of Yichang city; Chongqing is mainly distributed in Qianjiang, Youyang, Shizhu, Xiushan, Pengshui and other districts and counties in the southeast of Chongqing; Guizhou Province is mainly distributed in Yanhe, Yinjiang, Sinan, Jiangkou, Dejiang and other counties in Northeast Guizhou.
In October 1956, the State Ethnic Affairs Commission identified Tujia as a single ethnic group through ethnic identification. According to the statistics of the sixth national census in 2010, the population of Tujia nationality is 8353912
Tujia Nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||Tujia Nationality|
|population size||8.35 million (2010)|
|region||Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, Guizhou|
Chinese PinYin : Tu Jia Zu
Tujia people call themselves "Bizika", "mijika" or "beijinka", which means "native".
Historically, Tujia ancestors were called "barbarians" or "barbarians". Before the Song Dynasty, the Tujia nationality living in Wuling area, together with other ethnic minorities, was called "Wuling barbarian" or "Wuxi barbarian". After the Song Dynasty, Tujia nationality was individually called "tuding", "turen", "tumin" or "Tuman". After the land conversion, with the increase of Han immigrants, "Tu", "Ke" and "Miao" are often cited to distinguish the Tujia, Han and Miao Nationalities in Wuling area.
"Tujia", as a family name, appeared in a later period. The Xianfeng County annals during the period of the Republic of China called the "Zhi Shu family" of the descendants of the chieftain "Tujia" and the local Han immigrants "Hakka".
There are different opinions about the origin of Tujia nationality.
One said it was the descendant of the ancient Ba people. According to the records of Shi Dao Zhi and other books and the poems of Liu Changqing and Liu Yuxi in the Tang Dynasty reflecting the customs of Hunan, the "Ba people" did enter the northeast and west of Hunan and the river basins of yuan and Hunan; Today, the Tujia family in Western Hunan calls themselves "bizka" ("bizka"). In history, some place names in the areas inhabited and active by the Ba people have similar pronunciation to "bizka"; The names and clan names of Ba people are also similar to the pronunciation of "Biz"; Both Ba people and Tujia people have stories and myths about tigers; Ba people worship White Tiger God the same as Tujia people; Part of the surnames of Ba people and Tujia people are the same.
First, it is a part of the "wuman" who moved from Guizhou to Western Hunan in ancient times. According to the record of Tongzhu in Xizhou, the Tujia nationality comes from Guizhou. There has always been a "Bizi" family in Guizhou. For example, Volume 5 of Dading county annals of the Republic of China states that "Biji is the name of Bai Luoluo, because its name is Biji, and it has been wrongly named Bijie for a long time". In the chapter "Ba fan Shun Yuan Zhu man" of the general record of recruitment and arrest in the world ceremony of the Yuan Dynasty, it is also said that there is a "Biji" family between Guiyang and Huishui. "Biji" and "Biji", namely "Bizi", are similar to Tujia's claim. According to historical records, after the Mid Tang Dynasty, "wuman" in the "Yue" area once entered Guizhou. "Soldiers spread out, invading thousands of miles". Some of the local aborigines were conquered by them, which is the origin of the title "Bai Luoluo". Some fought with them for a long time, and finally were forced to move to Western Hunan and Yunnan. The name "Tujia" is for the newly invaded "wuman". The language of Tujia nationality is close to that of Yi nationality in Southwest China, which is also an evidence that Tujia nationality comes from Guizhou.
First, it is the descendant of the Bai Yi craftsmen who moved from Jiangxi to Western Hunan led by Peng Yu from the late Tang Dynasty to the early Five Dynasties (around 910). Some people settled in Yuanling. In the second year of Hongwu of the Ming Dynasty (1369), they moved from the lotus pond of Yuanling to the mountain area of Western Hunan and Hubei, cutting through thorns and thorns, opening mountains and mountains, breeding and living.
The first theory is based on the aboriginal ancestors who have settled in the border between Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing and Guizhou since ancient times and integrated the ancestors of some other tribes. In particular, the ancient aborigines in Western Hunan constitute the main body of Tujia Nationality in Western Hunan. The main evidences are as follows: first, judging from the cultural sites excavated in Western Hunan, there were human habitats in Western Hunan as early as more than 4000 BC; Second, Tujia people call themselves "Bizika", which means "local", Miao people call themselves "Baika", which means "neighbor", and Han people call themselves "Paka", which means "alien". This language phenomenon shows that Tujia and Miao people are ancient residents born and raised in Western Hunan; Third, from the lyrics of ancestor worship and waving dance of the Tujia Wizard "tulaosi", the legendary Tujia ancestors moved around the Youshui basin without crossing the rivers and trekking.
With the development of the times, the theory of multiple sources of Tujia nationality has been recognized by most people, that is, it is mainly derived from the two branches of ancient Ba people - Linjun man and banlin man, and is composed of local aborigines and ethnic groups such as Han, PU, Chu and wuman who enter the region. It can be concluded that Tujia, a stable community of people, began to form a single nation after the late Tang and Five Dynasties. After the founding of new China, the party and government organized five surveys and determined the ethnic composition of Tujia Nationality in October 1956. On January 3, 1957, the United Front Work Department of the CPC Central Committee telegraphed the Hunan provincial Party committee and the United Front work departments of the Hubei, Sichuan and Guizhou provincial Party committees to determine the Tujia nationality as a single nation.
In the Ming Dynasty, the Tujia people were recruited to the southeast coast to fight against the Japanese invaders together with the Han, Zhuang, Miao, Yao, she, Gelao, Hui and other people. In the campaigns of Wang Jiangjing in Jiaxing, the "Tu soldiers" (Tujia and Miao soldiers) of Yongshun and Baojing repeatedly made meritorious service and were rated as "the first meritorious service in the Southeast", which fully reflects the patriotic spirit of the Tujia people and people of all ethnic groups to jointly resist foreign aggression.
In the 11th year of Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty (1733), the Tujia people in Hefeng revolted one after another because they could not bear the cruel rule of the chieftain, forcing the Chieftain to hang himself. From 1795 to 1797, the Miao people's anti feudal uprising broke out in eastern Guizhou and Western Hunan, which received a warm response from the Tujia people. During the reign of Xianfeng in the Qing Dynasty, under the influence and promotion of the revolutionary movement of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom that shocked the whole country, the Tujia people in Guizhou, together with the people of Miao, Dong, Gelao, Han and other nationalities, held high the banner of righteousness and organized the uprising of the red, white and yellow armies, which dealt a heavy blow to the decadent Qing Dynasty and demonstrated the revolutionary struggle spirit of the Tujia people.
Since 1851, the Tujia people in Western Hunan and Hubei have formed secret associations one after another. "Yilu" in Southeast Sichuan once operated in Western Hubei, and "red money Association" and "black money Association" in Laifeng and other places also rose successively. They echoed the revolutionary movement of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and fought against the ruling class everywhere. Around 1861, the "Brotherhood" flourished in Longshan. The anti feudal struggle of these secret associations continued to expand and became a force in the Tianping Heavenly Kingdom revolutionary movement. In the same year, the Taiping army passed through the Tujia area, received the support and cooperation of the Tujia people, and launched a vigorous anti feudal struggle in Western Hunan and Hubei. In 1884, the people of all ethnic groups in the sandy land of Western Hubei, unable to bear the exploitation and oppression of the Catholic reactionary forces, rioted angrily, killing one bishop and two priests, which shocked the whole of Western Hubei. In 1897, under the influence of the national anti imperialist struggle, the people of all ethnic groups in Lichuan, lihualing and other places rose one after another to drive away the running dogs of imperialism, burn down churches, protest against imperialism's use of religion to enslave the people of all ethnic groups, and effectively crack down on imperialist aggression in Tujia areas.
During the revolution of 1911, outstanding figures of Tujia nationality such as Deng Yulin, Mou Hongxun, Xi Zhengming and Xiang Naiqi responded positively and made important contributions to the success of the revolution of 1911. During the period of the Republic of China, the "divine Soldier Movement" rose again in Tujia areas, put forward the slogan of "killing soldiers, taxes and taxes", and organized farmers to fight against corrupt officials and taxes.
After the founding of the Communist Party of China in 1921, under the leadership of the party, the peasant movement in the Tujia area in Western Hunan and Hubei was in full swing and booming. In 1926, farmers of all ethnic groups in Laifeng and other places were armed with local guns, knives and spears to oppose excessive taxes and crack down on landlords and local tyrants. Later, farmers' associations were established in Sangzhi, Luxi and other counties to suppress bully landlords and severely crack down on feudal forces. During the northern expedition from 1925 to 1927, many Tujia children joined the 20th army of the National Revolutionary Army led by Comrade He long. Under the influence of the great revolution storm, the revolutionary consciousness of the people of all ethnic groups in Wuling area has been greatly improved, the struggle against imperialism and feudalism has been deepened, and the scale of the peasant movement has been expanding.
From 1927 to 1935, the Tujia people participated in the struggle led by the Communist Party of China to establish the Western Hunan Hubei revolutionary base. In January 1928, he long and other comrades went to Western Hunan and Hubei to carry out armed struggle, often guerrillas in Sangzhi, Hefeng, Xianfeng, Enshi, Jianshi and other places. In May 1930, the Second Corps of the Chinese workers' and peasants' Red Army was formed to unite the Hubei Honghu base area with the Hunan Hubei west base area, and the Hunan Hubei west special committee of the Communist Party of China was established. Soviet power was established in Sangzhi, Hefeng, Wufeng, Jianshi and some areas of Longshan, Xuanen, Dayong and Yongshun counties. After July of the same year, the second Red Army Corps went down to Honghu in the East. Guerrillas and red guards from Hefeng, Sangzhi and other places formed a Red Army guard regiment and stayed in the counties in the western border area of Hunan and Hubei. From 1931 to 1933, the Red Army guard regiment persisted in guerrilla warfare in Sangzhi, Dayong, Hefeng, Enshi, Xianfeng, Xuanen, Wufeng and other places. In the summer of 1933, the Red Army guard regiment met with the second Red Army Corps and continued its activities on the border between Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing and Guizhou.
In October 1934, the second Red Army Corps led by he long and Guan Xiangying met with the sixth Red Army Corps led by Ren Bishi at the junction of northeast Guizhou and Southeast Chongqing, and mobilized the masses in Sangzhi, Dayong, Yongshun, Longshan and other counties to go deep into the agrarian revolution, expand the armed forces and cooperate with the long march of the Central Red Army.
In 1935, many outstanding children of Tujia nationality joined the red second front army and went north on the long march to the front line of resistance against Japan. During the Anti Japanese War, the Tujia people carried out a vigorous Anti Japanese and national salvation movement under the leadership of the Western Hunan special committee and the western Hubei special committee of the Communist Party of China. In 1941, more than 60 people rushed into the office of the KMT's chief, killing the chief and four Baoding people. In 1943, a large-scale struggle against corrupt officials broke out among the Tujia, Miao and Han people in Yongshun, Longshan, Dayong and Sangzhi counties. After the rebels captured Yongshun and other counties, the uprising team grew rapidly. There were more than 20000 uprising teams in Yongshun, Dayong and Sangzhi counties alone. In 1944, the Tujia people in Yanghe Township, Hefeng County, in order to oppose the Kuomintang's exorbitant taxes and capture dinlav, more than 100 people with spears, sabers and other weapons killed the personnel of the pseudo Township Office and burned the documents, which shocked the Kuomintang government.
During the war of liberation, the Tujia people organized guerrillas one after another, closely cooperated with the people's Liberation Army to attack Laifeng, Hefeng and other places in Western Hubei, eliminated the reactionary local armed forces and the Kuomintang army, and destroyed the Kuomintang's dark rule in Western Hunan and Hubei.
As early as the Zhou Dynasty, the administrative establishment of Tujia area began, and BA was granted a son state. After Qin destroyed Ba and unified the six countries, Ba County, Nan county and Qianzhong county were set up in the residence of Ba people. From the Tang Dynasty to the Song Dynasty, the central government implemented the ruling policy of appointing local leaders to manage Tujia areas, which is known as the Jimi policy in history. Under the Huairou policy of "establishing its chief and pacifying it with the town" of the Tang Dynasty, the barbarians of "miscellaneous side Jing, Chu, Ba, Guizhou and Wuzhong" were attached to them one after another.
From the Yuan Dynasty, the feudal dynasty began to establish the chieftain system in Tujia areas, and it became more and more perfect in the Ming Dynasty. Chieftain system is an organization of military and political integration. The chieftain and officials appointed by the central dynasty implemented the feudal hereditary system. The chieftain was not only the political ruler, but also had a certain number of armed forces; They were also the largest feudal lords in their respective regions. The relationship between the local people and the chieftain was a personal subordination. From the Yuan Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty, the central government set up dozens of chieftains in Tujia areas, including Yongshun chieftain, Baojing chieftain, Sangzhi chieftain, Rongmei chieftain, Sanmao chieftain, Shinan chieftain, Zhongjian chieftain, Youyang chieftain, Shizhu chieftain and Sizhou and Sinan chieftain.
Since the fifth year of Yongzheng in the Qing Dynasty, the Qing government implemented "changing the land to flow" in Tujia areas, that is, abolishing the rule of tuguan and appointing Liuguan to govern. By the end of Qianlong, it was basically completed. After the reform, the central government implemented the same political system as that of the Central Plains. Yongshun Prefecture was established in Western Hunan, governing Yongshun, Xuanen, Xianfeng, Laifeng, Lichuan and Jianshi counties, Hefeng Prefecture and Changle County. Youyang Zhili prefecture (governing Youyang and Xiushan) and Shizhu Zhili hall were established in Southeast Chongqing; Sinan prefecture (governing Yinjiang, Anhua and riverside members) and Tongren Prefecture are located in Northeast Guizhou. Below the prefectures and counties, the Baojia system is used to replace the grass-roots organization "flag" of the indigenous family.
On September 20, 1957, with the approval of the State Council, the former Xiangxi Miao Autonomous Prefecture (established in 1952) was changed to Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture. In May 1980, Laifeng Tujia Autonomous County and Hefeng Tujia Autonomous County were established successively. Xiushan Tujia and Miao Autonomous County was established on November 7, 1983, and Youyang Tujia and Miao Autonomous County was established on November 11, 1983. On December 1, 1983, the Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture in Western Hubei was established (changed to Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture in April 1993). Pengshui Miao and Tujia Autonomous County was established on November 10, 1984, Qianjiang Tujia and Miao Autonomous County on November 13, Shizhu Tujia Autonomous County on November 18, Changyang Tujia Autonomous County on December 8, and Wufeng Tujia Autonomous County on December 12. On November 20 and 23, 1987, Yinjiang Tujia and Miao Autonomous County and Yanhe Tujia Autonomous County were successively established .
Tujia nationality had contact with Han nationality earlier in history. According to historical records, in the fourth year of Liang Kaiping of the Five Dynasties (910), the Tujia people focused on agricultural production, liked fishing and hunting, and did not care about merchants. During production, men and women work the same way. They cut down trees and burn she (i.e. slash and burn cultivation), sow coarse grains, do not fertilize or irrigate, and transfer them to other places when the soil power is exhausted, so as to reclaim separately. The agricultural output is low.
Under the influence of Han nationality, smelting and handicraft industry have developed considerably. In the fifth year of Tianfu, the emperor of the Late Jin Dynasty (940), Peng shichou, the upper ruler of the Tujia nationality, formed an alliance with Ma Xifan, the king of Chu, in huixiping, Xizhou (now Yongshun), casting bronze pillars as a record. The copper pillar weighs more than 5000 kg, is one Zhang and two feet high, is about three or four feet around, is hollow with six edges, is bright and shiny in copper, and has exquisite lettering. Whether the bronze pillar comes from Tujia nationality is not completely certain, but it is certain that Tujia nationality has accepted the influence of Han advanced production technology.
With the gradual development of agricultural production, the commercial trade between Tujia and Han, Miao and other nationalities has also developed. During the Five Dynasties, the people of Xizhou bought Han goods and the Han people bought local specialties, exchanging what they needed with each other. At this time, the production relations in Tujia area were mainly feudal lord economy. Peng shichou was the feudal lord of 300 households in Shiyi. Under the rule of feudal lords, most of the fertile land was shared by "local officials", "Sheba" and "leaders". The feudal lords ruthlessly exploited and squeezed the farmers (serfs) through the forms of labor land rent and physical land rent. In particular, the feudal rulers "paid tribute" to the feudal dynasty in order to close the relationship with the central dynasties and obtain more "rewards" in order to consolidate their feudal rule and ruthlessly exploit the working people in their jurisdiction. In the Ming Dynasty, such "tribute" and "return" were more frequent and expanded day by day. With the exchange of "tribute" and "return gift", folk trade has also developed greatly. A large number of Han businessmen and farmers have moved in, which has greatly promoted the economic development of Tujia area and gradually approached the level of local Han nationality.
With the development of productive forces and the different economic and cultural influences of feudal landlords in Han areas, the economic development of Tujia nationality presents an unbalanced phenomenon. At the beginning of the 12th century, the Tujia area in Western Hubei was sparsely populated, and a few rich families occupied a large number of fields. In order to meet the needs of their luxurious life, they lured Han farmers to move to reclaim. It was stipulated that as long as ordinary Han people took over the land, as long as they provided labor, they did not need the whole family to do labor; Land reclaimed and houses built can be bought and sold; If the customer dies, his wife and daughter can remarry; Pay for goods by contract, don't blackmail and so on. These regulations have objectively promoted the economic development of Tujia areas. The migration of Han farmers brought not only advanced production tools, but also rich production experience. At this time, the phenomenon of land sale has appeared in Tujia area in Western Hubei. The landlord economy has gradually developed and coexisted with the feudal lord economy, while the feudal lord economy still occupies a dominant position in Tujia area in Western Hunan.
At the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, Tujia farmers had widely used various advanced agricultural tools imported from the Han area, such as iron moldboard plow, iron sickle and iron rake. They also learned to manufacture and use "centipede car", "washing drum", "water mill", "water pestle" and "water mill". Under the influence of the landlord economy in the Han area, land sales were popular in Tujia area. The feudal lords began to use the wealth from exploitation to buy land or occupy civilian land everywhere, and gradually transformed into the landlord economy. A large number of Han businessmen and farmers moved in, and many Han businessmen "accumulated millions of money, bought farmland, married relatives" and became landlords. "The county belongs to a huge family, and most of them come from foreign countries." the chieftain used his possession of a large amount of land and political privileges to brutally oppress and exploit the Tujia, Miao, Han and other farmers. In addition to various forms of land rent exploitation, the farmers also have to bear various errands and pay tribute. There are many kinds of exorbitant taxes, including "fire pit money" and "hoe money". Tujia people live a miserable life.
During the reign of Yongzheng in the Qing Dynasty, the ban of "no entering the cave and no leaving the country" was completely broken. A large number of Han refugees entered Tujia areas, and folk exchanges became more and more frequent; At the same time, the Qing government enforced the Han culture, which greatly changed the Tujia people's mode of production and lifestyle, objectively further promoted the rapid development of the landlord economy, and played a positive role in the political, economic and cultural development of Tujia areas. After 1840, a large number of foreign goods flooded the market due to the invasion of imperialism such as Britain and the United States. At the same time, a large number of cheap tung oil, tea, medicinal materials and other local specialties were plundered. A large number of opium was planted in Tujia areas, which destroyed the self-sufficient natural economy in Tujia areas, made rural areas increasingly bankrupt, and the majority of farmers lost their land one after another. Before liberation, in areas inhabited by Tujia nationality, the landlords of Tujia nationality accounted for 5-7% of the total population, 40-50% of all land, and some reached 70%; Poor farm workers account for about 60% of the total population and only occupy about 10% of the land; Middle peasants account for 25-30% of the total population and 27-35% of the land; The rest of the land is occupied by rich farmers and small land lessors. During the period of Kuomintang rule, the landlords, bureaucrats and bandits in Tujia area fought against their families, robbed their strongholds, killed and set fire to others, sent troops to catch the young, and imposed exorbitant taxes, which plunged the Tujia people into a miserable life. Generally, they were short of food for six months a year. The ballad "fire stove as cotton padded jacket, fern root as grain and grass, bamboo as light, barefoot as shoes" is a portrayal of the poor life of the Tujia people before liberation.
At the beginning of the founding of new China, there were only some simple manual workshops in Tujia areas, which were mainly engaged in bamboo and wood products, daily pottery, food processing and the production of sulfur and coal. After more than 50 years of development, especially since 1978, Tujia area has gradually formed a modern industrial system with cigarette, chemical industry, energy, building materials and other pillar industries. Industrial products are becoming more and more abundant, industrial output value has increased significantly, many industrial products have won the titles of "provincial excellence" and "Ministerial excellence", and some products have entered the international market.
In the past, Tujia people believed in many gods, such as nature worship, totem worship, ancestor worship, earth King worship, etc. The Witch wind and customs were particularly fierce. The successive introduction of Taoism, Buddhism and Christianity also had a certain impact on Tujia people's beliefs.
When Tujia people go hunting, they offer sacrifices to the hunting God. Longshan, Laifeng, Yongshun and other places call the hunting God "empress Meishan", "empress Yunxiao" or "Mei Chang", while Changyang, Wufeng and Hefeng worship Zhang Wulang. The statue of the God of hunting is in the main room. When hunting in the mountain, the hunter must first respect the God of hunting, pray for peace and more prey, and make a wish: "great wealth and great thanks, small wealth and small thanks". There are many earth temples in Tujia area, offering sacrifices to the "mountain god land" in charge of grain on the slope, the "home first land" in charge of poultry and livestock, and the "Meishan land" to assist in hunting and protect safety.
White tiger plays an important role in Tujia people's mind. Tujia people claim to be "the queen of the white tiger". They take the white tiger as their ancestral God and do not forget to worship it all the time. A wood carved white tiger is enshrined on the shrine of each family all year round. When getting married, the man's main hall is generous, and the table should be paved with a tiger blanket to symbolize the sacrifice to the tiger ancestor. In the sacrificial "funeral drum dance", there are many actions that imitate tigers to wash their faces, swing their tails, walk and prey.
Tujia people offer great sacrifices to their ancestors on New Year's festivals and small sacrifices on the first and fifteenth days of the lunar new year. During the Qingming Festival, we should pay tribute to our ancestors. Mid July is about half a month, also known as the festival of the dead. It is necessary to offer sacrifices to ancestors, sweep tombs or offer sacrifices to ancestors at home. There is a folk saying that "the year is small and the month is half a big".
In Tujia area, it is common to respect the king of soil. Before liberation, Tujia people in Western Hunan took Duke Peng, Xiang Gaoguan and Hotan heroes as earth kings and gods. Every new year and festival must be sacrificed. In particular, the worship of "waving hands" to adjust the new year or celebrate the "social day" held in the waving hall from the first to the fifteenth day of the first month is very solemn. Yongshun and Longshan also have "Babu Heavenly God Temple". It is said that Babu Heavenly God is the praise General of Duke Peng and the earth official and earth general who are promoted to gods after death. There are three earth kings in Western Hubei, Qin, Tian and Xiang. In Chongqing and Guizhou, the earth kings surnamed ran, Ma, Tian and yang are believed.
Due to the increasing influence of the Han nationality, ancestral temples are built in Tujia areas, and the number of people who provide for their families is gradually increasing. Only the more remote shanzhais preserve the relics of the sacrifice of Tuzhu or Tuwang temple. Tujia people value witchcraft and believe in ghosts, and witchcraft activities are very popular. In Tujia language, the wizard is called "TIMA", and in Chinese, it is called "Tu teacher". TIMA is invited to preside over all activities in Tujia village, such as sacrifice, making vows, returning vows, marriage, funeral and childbirth, resolving disputes, difficult divination and ceremony waving. Taoism and Buddhism were introduced into Tujia area earlier. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, five Dou rice teaching was popular in the place of "Nanjun man in Ba County". Taoism and the primitive religious beliefs of Tujia nationality, which mainly respect their ancestors, permeate and mingle with each other.
Christianity entered much later, had little influence and small scale, and was strongly opposed by the Tujia people because it was a tool of aggression.
Tujia people's daily staple food is corn and rice, supplemented by sweet potato and potato. The main characteristics of dishes are hot and sour. They especially like to grind soybeans, regardless of pulp and residue, boil and clarify them, and cook them with vegetable leaves to make them into combined residue. Other characteristic foods include Baba, bacon, oil tea, mixed vegetables, Tuan San, etc.
Tujia people like drinking, among which sweet wine and Za wine made from glutinous rice and sorghum are common. Generally, Xue Qu and cereals are placed in the jar for sealing, ranging from half a year to two or three years. When the guests arrive, take the center of the hall table, take the fine bamboo festival as the pole, insert it at the bottom of the altar, and place the table in the hall. There are chickens, ducks, fish, meat, etc. on both sides. Each side is equipped with a pair of chopsticks instead of sitting. The housewife opens the altar. The host invites the guests to come forward and smack the wine in turn, and then lift up the chopsticks to eat. They don't think it's too bad for each other. They suck and eat, sing and dance.
In terms of clothing, Tujia people are thrifty and simple, and like to be loose.
Traditional clothing materials are mostly self-woven Blue Earth cloth or linen, which are called "Xi cloth" and "Dong cloth" in historical books.
The women's blouse has a short collar and a right lapel. The collar is inlaid with three lace (commonly known as "three strands"), and three small lace railings are pasted on the lapel and cuff; Under the "eight piece Luo skirt", the skirt pleats are many and straight, and then it is changed to big tube pants with three colored lace on the trouser legs; The girl's plain dress is a black cloth single coat. She often wears white clothes in spring and autumn. Her coat is black and looks like a crow magpie, which is called "crow magpie clothes". Hair in a bun, hat or cloth around the head, like to wear silver ornaments such as ears, necks, hands and foot rings.
Men's blouses were "Pipa lapels", and later gradually wore double lapels and collarless full lapels; Wrap waist cloth belt; The trousers are fat, with large and short trouser legs. They are all blue and blue cloth colors, and more Leggings are used; The head is wrapped in a green silk handkerchief or a five or six foot long white cloth in a "human" shape; Wear side ear straw sandals, full ear straw sandals, cloth shoes or spiked shoes.
With the development of the times, Tujia people in many places have almost worn the same clothes as Han people. Only in Grand gatherings, festivals or remote mountain villages can we see the traditional clothes of Tujia people.
There are four types of traditional houses of Tujia Nationality: thatched houses, earth brick houses, wooden frame plank houses and stilted buildings. In addition, there are stone houses and caves.
The structure of folk houses is divided into main houses, wing houses and eaves: most of the main houses are three, the middle one is a main house, and there is a "swallow mouth" in front; The two rooms in front of and perpendicular to the main house are wing rooms; At the back of the main house is the Si eaves, also known as the trailing eaves. A well-off family has built a sihewu. The front of the sihewu is called the gatehouse and the middle is the patio.
Tujia people live together, and folk houses form their own communities.
Tujia people usually live in one front and two compartments, and there are also one front and one compartment, of which the wing room is a stilted building. The foundation of the stilted building is lower than that of the main house. More than a dozen wooden columns are erected on the foundation. The wooden columns are paved with wooden boards (floor slabs), which are generally two to three floors. There are balconies in front of the stilted building and corridors on both sides. Balcony and corridor columns are suspended, and the end of the hanging column is decorated with conical carving, which is called hanging melon. Balustrades of balconies and corridors are mostly composed of wooden strips. Rich families carve dragons and Phoenix on the balustrades and carve them carefully on windows and doors. The eaves of the balcony are cornices and wing angles, and the eaves are nailed with long wooden boards. The Diaojiao building of the Tu family in Western Hubei is called the corner Diaojiao building because it has a balcony in front and corridors on both sides. Diaojiaolou integrates architecture, painting and carving art. It is an outstanding representative of Tujia architectural carving art.
Tujia people pay great attention to etiquette. In the past, after a woman became pregnant, she asked teacher Tu to practice Dharma to "calm the fetus" and drive away evil spirits. During childbirth, the "midwife" should be invited, and the mother-in-law Bashan, the goddess of childbirth, should be worshipped. After the baby was born, the father went to his mother-in-law's house with a "good news chicken" in his arms. The boy used a cock and the girl used a hen. Three days later, my mother-in-law's family and relatives and friends came to congratulate me with gifts, that is, "fighting three dynasties". On the day of the full moon, the mother-in-law's house will send clothes to the baby to "put feet" and formally put on clothes and trousers, which is called "full moon wine" or "Zhu rice wine". In contemporary times, in fact, Tujia people in many places combine "fighting three dynasties" with "full moon wine" (Zhu rice wine), collectively referred to as "fighting three dynasties".
The language of Tujia belongs to the Tibetan Burmese language family of Sino Tibetan language family, close to the Yi branch, and is divided into southern dialect and northern dialect.
Except the Tujia people in Tanxi Township, Luxi County, Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture speak the southern dialect, the other Tujia people speak the northern dialect.
Tujia nationality has no national language and has used Chinese for a long time.
Most Tujia people speak Chinese, and some of them also speak Miao language. Only some Tujia people in Yongshun, Longshan, Laifeng and other counties in Youshui basin can speak Tujia language.
Waving Dance is a popular ancient dance of Tujia nationality, including hunting dance, farming dance, life dance, military dance, etc. it has distinct rhythm, beautiful image, simple dance posture, remarkable national characteristics and strong flavor of life, and is deeply loved by the Tujia people. According to the scale, hand waving dance can be divided into large hand waving and small hand waving. During the Spring Festival every year, Tujia village organizes sacrifices, attends gods and worships ancestors, "men and women carry each other, advance and retreat lightly", singing and dancing. Up to now, the waving dance has gradually faded from the sacrificial procedure and developed into a purely entertaining song and dance.
The hand waving song produced with the hand waving dance is commonly known as "Sheba song". It is the Creation Epic of Tujia nationality, which is composed of sacrificial song and dance song. The waving song describes the origin of human beings, traces the national origin and migration history, praises the achievements and heroic deeds of ancestors, and expresses the Tujia people's love for life and pursuit of ideals. The waving song has a huge length, magnificent momentum, moving poetry, freedom, liveliness and drama. It has been widely read among the people for a long time.
Folk song is a folk art loved by Tujia people. It is simple and natural, with a strong local flavor. It mainly reflects people's labor production and love life. The lyrics are mostly in two, four and five sentence patterns, including single singing, duet singing, one person singing, people singing together and so on. In terms of singing style, Tujia folk songs are lyrical, called "shouting folk songs"; "Pingqiang" narrative is "singing folk songs", and the classification is detailed. The music forms of tea picking songs, wearing trumpets and mountain climbing tunes are different, with ups and downs in rhythm.
The folk song "Zhuzhi Ci" originated from the ancient Ba people's song of stepping on the hoof. It was first spread in the Three Gorges and Western Hunan and Hubei. In the middle of the Tang Dynasty, the poet Liu Yuxi absorbed the nutrition of Tujia folk songs and created them. After the transformation and processing of scholars in the Song Dynasty, he formed a clear, clear and unique style. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, many Tujia literati created a large number of works reflecting the local customs of Tujia areas by using the genre of bamboo Ci, which became a model of mutual benefit and common development of Tujia and Han cultures.
Tujia percussion music "playing yo Zi" is famous for its unique charm and rich Qupai. It is mostly used in folk festive activities. Now it shines because it is endowed with new era content. It is widely used in building new houses, sending recruits, welcoming model workers, celebrating harvest and various national festivals. Especially represented by Changyang percussion music, it is composed of Suona or earth flute and percussion instruments such as drums, gongs and cymbals. It is divided into seven types: Hall tune, major tune, guest tune, vegetable tune, flute tune, funeral tune and comprehensive tune.
Dancing "maogus" is an ancient Tujia folk sacrificial drama of "drama like dance" integrating song, dance and speech. The performers are wrapped in straw, thatch and leaves and dress up as a family of grandparents, children and grandchildren. Their actions are rough, crazy and funny, or step forward and backward, bend their knees and shake their bodies, or jump left and right, tremble all over, or shake their heads and shrug their shoulders. From beginning to end, they speak strange vernacular and sing vernacular songs.
Nuo opera is a ritual for welcoming gods and expelling epidemic ghosts in the old times. It is also known as local opera, Nuo hall opera, Nuo wish opera and returning Nuo wishes. If the owner's family wants something, he will make a wish to God. When the wish has been fulfilled, the wizard will return the wish to God on behalf of the owner's family. During the performance, three or five people wore wooden masks, one was the lead singer, and everyone joined in. They sang and danced with the accompaniment of gongs and drums. Although the action was rigid, it was funny and humorous, and the song cavity was monotonous, but the words were rough and correct. Tujia Nuo opera is known as "the living fossil of Chinese drama".
The traditional crafts of Tujia nationality include dyeing and weaving, weaving, embroidery, carving, painting, paper cutting, etc., especially "xilankap".
Tujia women are good at spinning fine cloth. The self-woven and self dyed "Tubu" and "Tujin" are durable. The woven "Tuhua blanket" is called "xilankap" in Tujia language. It is hand woven with dark brocade thread as warp thread and thick silk, cotton and plush thread of various colors as weft thread.
Xilankap has exquisite weavers, gorgeous colors and novel patterns, up to hundreds of which are generally divided into three types: first, natural scenery, animals, household utensils, flowers and grass; The second is geometric figure, the most common is "卍" figure, single eight hook, double eight hook, etc; Third, text patterns, such as happiness, happiness, longevity and so on. The overall effect is simple and elegant, layered, vivid and dazzling. It is one of the three famous brocade in China.
Tujia people attach great importance to traditional festivals. From the beginning of the year to the end of the year, there are festivals every month.
The Lunar New Year Festival (celebrating the Lunar New Year), the Lantern Festival, the February social day, the flower Dynasty Festival, the March cold food festival, the Qingming Festival, the eighth bull King Festival in April, the Dragon Boat Festival in May, the sixth Xiangwang festival in June, the Qiqiao festival in July, the daughter's meeting, the half moon festival, the Mid Autumn Festival on August 15, the Double Ninth Festival on September 9, and the "Hanyi Festival" on October 1 are all major festivals.
Among the many festivals, the most distinctive one is "Celebrating the new year". At present, only some areas retain this custom. Guo chuannian, also known as Guo coir raincoat year, means that the Lunar New Year is celebrated on the 29th of the twelfth lunar month and the 28th of the twelfth lunar month. It is named because it celebrates the new year one day earlier than the Han nationality. At that time, every household will kill new year pigs, make mung bean flour, cook rice wine or smack wine, etc.
In Tujia history, marriage was relatively free. After free love, both men and women could be married with the consent of both parents and the testimony of Tujia teacher (wizard).
There is a custom of "daughter's meeting" in Enshi Shiyao, Dashan and other places, that is, on July 12 of the lunar calendar, young men and women sing and dance, love each other and become lifelong partners.
After returning to the countryside, the Tujia people were forced to carry out arranged marriages under the orders of their parents and the words of matchmakers. Tujia people practiced monogamy. Before liberation, there was the custom of uncle's table marriage and house filling marriage. Uncle table marriage, that is, the daughter of the aunt's family must marry the son of the uncle's family, also known as "returning bone seed"; It is called "sitting in bed" when a brother dies and a brother receives his sister-in-law, and a brother dies and a brother receives his sister-in-law. But these customs no longer exist in modern times.
After liberation, the people's government promulgated a new marriage law, and the Tujia people really enjoyed the happiness of independent marriage. Tujia's marriage ceremony roughly includes the procedures of "proofing", "proposing marriage", "asking for Honggeng", "engagement" (commonly known as "inserting Maoxiang"), "seeing the date" and "welcoming the relatives", which are similar to the "six rites" of the Han nationality in ancient times. The characteristic marriage ceremony is to accompany ten sisters, ten brothers and crying marriage.
The day before marriage, both men and women held a grand adult ceremony. Volume III of the annals of Changyang County in the Qing dynasty recorded that "in ancient times, the crown marriage was two things, and Changyi was one. One or two days before the marriage, the women's family tied their hair and hairpins, saying 'head'. There was a banquet for women, inviting nine young women, and ten women, saying 'accompany ten sisters'; the men's family ordered the word, and their relatives and friends combined the money as a gold plaque, guided by drum music, went to the hall to celebrate, saying' He Hao ', which was not a word. It was a two-day (banquet) First, there are nine children, ten together with the groom. They say "accompany ten brothers" and "sit ten friends."
The activities of "accompanying ten sisters" and "accompanying ten brothers" still exist in the whole Tujia area. Tujia brides are popular for "Crying Marriage". Some start crying more than half a month before marriage, and some have to cry for more than one month, at least three or five days. Wedding crying songs include "crying for parents", "crying for brother and sister-in-law", "crying for uncle", "crying for sister", "crying for matchmaker", "crying for hair combing", "crying for flowers", "crying for father and mother", "crying for ancestors", "crying for sedan chair" and so on.
Tujia people used to cremate. During the funeral, please ask teacher Tu to recite the Scriptures and the Taoist priest to open the way. The dead are sacrificed and hanged by the local teacher. The cow head is monopolized by the local teacher. The poor often borrow the cow as a sacrifice. Later, due to the influence of the Han nationality, they were all changed to earth burial, and the procedures were divided into mortuary, funeral, funeral, burial, funeral and other parts.
In the Tujia area north of the Qingjiang River Basin, there is a unique ancient burial custom "dancing funeral drum", also known as "dancing sarho". In the stronghold, no matter who dies, he must ask the master to come home and play the funeral drum. That night, suona was played, gongs and drums were noisy, and firecrackers were kept. When the funeral drum rang, people from neighboring villages rushed to the funeral.
"Dancing funeral drum" is a dance in front of the coffin, in which the drum master beats the drum, the singer calls the song, and the dancers pick up the song. Generally, even numbered dancers with more than two people dance in front of the coffin. When they reach the climax, they can reach as few as 100 people, and as many as thousands of people come to dance or watch. The dancers alternate until dawn.
The form of "jumping funeral drum" is divided into several sections, such as "waiting for the corpse", "shaking funeral", "crying funeral", "wearing funeral", "practicing funeral" and "retreating funeral". The basic movements include more than a dozen routines, such as "tiger holding its head", "rhinoceros looking at the moon", "phoenix spreading its wings", "swallow containing mud" and "tiger descending the mountain". "Dancing funeral drum" can be divided into Wen dance (Wen funeral) and Wu dance (Wu funeral). The most characteristic of "Wen funeral" is "crying funeral", and "Wu funeral" is a jumping method combined with Folk Wushu.
The lyrics of "dancing funeral drum" are rich in content, including praising the Tujia ancestors for opening up territory and recalling national history; It reflects the totem worship, fishing and hunting activities, agricultural production and love life of the ancestors; And singing about the life of the dead, and so on.
There are many taboos of Tujia nationality, covering almost all aspects of production and life, including agricultural farming, age festivals, weddings and funerals, having children, eating and living, sacrificial behavior and so on. For example:
In terms of farming at the age of 18, "avoid the head in the first month and the tail in the twelfth month". On New Year's Eve, women should avoid grinding pestles, combing their hair and washing clothes. They are afraid that it will rain next year to wash away the soil in the ground; From the 29th day of the twelfth lunar month to the first day of the first lunar month, women should avoid moving needles and threads to avoid plowing and harrowing teeth nailing cattle feet and rice, and there are heart worms in bracts; Avoid making rice in soup to prevent the rain from destroying crops. Do not pick well water on the day of spring; On the first day of autumn, avoid picking vegetables. The beginning of spring ploughing depends on the day. It is forbidden to sow sheep on the next day. After sowing, it will not touch the ground on the dragon day until the summer festival; wait.
In terms of daily words and deeds, girls and pregnant women cannot sit on the threshold of the main room, and adult men and women should not sit on a bench; It is not allowed to step on the fire pit and tripod to avoid blasphemy; You can't step on the stove and bake your feet at the door of the stove, which is considered disrespectful to the kitchen god; Avoid carrying empty buckets, carrying baskets and carrying hoes into the house; Do not hang a dustpan upside down in the hall. During festivals, happy events and going out to do business, it is forbidden to say ominous words, and more auspicious words should be spoken. During the Spring Festival, avoid cats entering the house, commonly known as "pigs come poor, dogs come rich, cats come and wear filial piety clothes"; During sacrifice and funeral, do not smell the sound of cats. Cats are strictly prohibited from approaching.
Chen nengkuan (1923-2016), Tujia nationality, from Jiangya Town, Cili County, Zhangjiajie City, metal physicist and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Liao Hansheng (1911-2006), Tujia nationality (his father is Han nationality), from Sangzhi, Hunan Province. General of the Chinese people's Liberation Army, awarded lieutenant general in 1955. Vice chairman of the sixth and seventh standing committees of the National People's Congress.
Huang Yongyu (1924 - present), a Tujia nationality, is a Chinese painter from Fenghuang County, Hunan Province. He is now a professor of the Central Academy of fine arts and once served as the director of the printmaking department. In 1946, he married Zhang Meixi.
Li Junsheng (1963 - present), born in Zhangjiajie in, is the founder of sand and stone painting, a member of China Artists Association, an expert enjoying the special allowance of the State Council and a senior craft artist.
Yan yinliang (1854-1933), male, Tujia nationality, from Yinjiang, Guizhou, with the word BICEN, the No. Bi Cheng, the No. Yuguang, yuan, Yangpo mountain people and Yangpo residents. A famous calligrapher and educator. The plaque of the summer palace, the imperial garden of the Qing Dynasty, was inscribed.
Bai Zaixiang (1587-1631), female, Tujia nationality, from Houxi Town, Youyang, Chongqing. In the 47th year of Wanli of the Ming Dynasty (1619), the Ming army fought a decisive battle with the later Jin army outside the pass, and Liaodong was in an emergency. The Ming Court mobilized Youyang local soldiers to help Liao resist gold, and Bai Zaixiang helped Liao Ping extravagant. The Apocalypse emperor granted her the title of military governor of Han local officers and soldiers and the title of first grade lady.
Ran Shaobo (1901-1935) was named Yun, Shaowen, Qichang, Longxiang, Tujia nationality, deputy division commander of Qiandong independent division of the Chinese workers and Peasants Red Army, and from Yinjiang Tujia and Miao Autonomous County, Guizhou Province.
Luo Chengxiang (1865-1926), male, Tujia nationality, native of Longchi village, Youyang, Chongqing. He was the No. 1 scholar in the YiWeiKe examination in the 21st year of Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty (AD 1895). He is the "only No. 1 scholar in Chongqing" and "only No. 1 scholar in Tujia nationality" in Chinese history.
Wang Boshan (1875-1957), male, Tujia nationality, from Longtan Town, Youyang, Chongqing. Kuomintang veteran, Secretary of Sun Yat Sen's presidential palace and counselor of the former Sichuan Provincial People's government.
Zhang Chaoyi (birth and death unknown), male, Tujia nationality, from Youyang, Chongqing, former Secretary of the Military Commission of North China region.
Wang Jianhong (1901-1924) female, Tujia nationality, from Youyang, Chongqing, Longtan Town, wife of Qu Qiubai, an older generation proletarian revolutionary.
Liu Ren (1909-1973), male, Tujia nationality, from Longtan Town, Youyang, Chongqing. Former Secretary of the Secretariat of the North China Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and the Second Secretary of the CPC Beijing Municipal Committee.
Zhao Juntao (1903-1985), female, Tujia nationality, from Longtan Town, Youyang, Chongqing, is a Chinese proletarian educator and once served as the head of the women's Department of the CPC Central Committee.
Zhao Shiyan (1901-1927), male, half Tujia nationality (his father is Han nationality), from Longtan Town, Youyang, Chongqing. The Communist Party of China was an outstanding proletarian revolutionist in the early stage, an outstanding disseminator of Marxist theory and a famous leader of the workers' movement.
Li Peng (1928-july 22, 2019), male, half Tujia nationality (his father is Han), former premier of the State Council.
Yang Minggui (1938 - present), male, Tujia nationality, from Youyang, Chongqing, is an outstanding overseas painter and executive director of the Chinese finger painting Research Association.
Xu tingze (1928 - present) is from Zhuoshui Town, Qianjiang District, Chongqing. He joined the army of the Kuomintang government in 1945. Former radio platoon leader. On June 1, 1963, he flew an F-86 fighter from Hsinchu, Taiwan to Fujian Longtian uprising.
Wan Tao (1904-1932), a Tujia nationality, was born in Qianjiang County, Sichuan Province (now Qianjiang Tujia Miao Autonomous County). Formerly known as Wan Shikai, No. Tiemin. Founder of the Red Army and the Soviet Area in Western Hunan and Hubei.
Xiangda (1900-1966) is a Tujia nationality from Xupu, Hunan Province. Chinese historian. The word Jueming, pseudonym Fanghui, is sometimes signed by Buddha Yasha. Died on November 24, 1966.
Xiang Jingyu (1895-1928), a Tujia nationality, came from Xupu, Hunan Province. Formerly known as Junxian. Leader of the women's movement of the Communist Party of China and proletarian revolutionist.
Yang Zhengwu (1941 - present), Tujia nationality, from Longshan, Hunan Province. He once served as secretary of Hunan provincial Party committee, chairman of the Standing Committee of Hunan Provincial People's Congress, and vice chairman of the financial and Economic Committee of the National People's Congress.
Dai Bingguo (1941 - present), Tujia nationality, from Yinjiang, Guizhou. He once served as state councilor, member of the party leading group of the State Council, director of the office of the central leading group for foreign affairs and director of the office of the central leading group for national security.
Yang Xia (1977 - present), Tujia nationality, born in Baojing County, Hunan Province, is a weightlifter and champion of the 2004 Olympic Games.
Xu Qing (1969 - present), a famous actor of Tujia nationality.
Addo (1980 - present), Tujia nationality, Western Hunan. Formerly known as Fu Ying, a famous singer.
Huang Moya (1986 - present), a Tujia nationality (whose grandmother is Tujia nationality), is a native of Western Hunan and a famous writer.
Wang Jiashan, formerly known as Wang Yang (1987 - present), is a Tujia nationality from Yuchi Town, Shizhu Tujia Autonomous County, Chongqing. Famous director.
Liu Leyan, (1992 - present), a Tujia nationality, is a famous female artist in Taiwan. Her ancestral home is Xuanen County, Enshi Prefecture, Hubei Province.
Zuo Li (1988 - present), Tujia nationality, from western Hunan. 2013 happy male voice ranked eighth in China.
Ning Huanyu (1993 - present), Tujia nationality, from Tongren, Guizhou. 2013 happy male voice ranked fourth in China.
Li Xun (1899-1929), a Tujia nationality, was born in duzhenwan, Changyang County.
Ye Yucui (1911-1992), female, Tujia nationality. Master of Chinese arts and crafts. Li Sha Minzi (1993-present), female, Tujia nationality, famous host.
Peng Xincheng (1989 - present), a Tujia nationality, from western Hunan, Hunan, is a famous soldier.
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