Yao nationality, one of the oldest nationalities in China, belongs to the Yao language branch of Miao Yao language family of Sino Tibetan language family, the Miao language branch of Miao Yao language family of Sino Tibetan language family, and the Dongshui language branch of Zhuang Dong language family of Sino Tibetan language family.
Yao nationality is one of the ancient oriental "Jiuli". It is the most widely distributed ethnic minority in South China and one of the oldest ethnic groups in China. It is said that Yao nationality is the descendant of the third princess, the daughter of Panhu and Dihu.
There are 2796003 Yao people in China (2010), distributed in more than 130 counties in six provinces (districts) of Guangxi, Hunan, Guangdong, Yunnan, Guizhou and Jiangxi in southern China, of which Guangxi is the largest, 1471946, accounting for 55.8% of the total number of Yao people in China. 704564 people live in Hunan Province, 202667 in Guangdong Province, 190610 in Yunnan Province, 44392 in Guizhou Province and 1198 in Jiangxi Province.
Yao nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||Yao nationality|
|population size||About 2.796 million|
|distribution||Guangxi, Hunan, Guangdong, Yunnan, Guizhou and Jiangxi, etc|
|languages||Yao language belongs to Miao Yao language family of Sino Tibetan language family|
Chinese PinYin : Yao Zu
Yao's names are complex. There are 28 kinds of Yao's, and he calls nearly 100 kinds.
Some call themselves "mian" (meaning "man"), others call themselves "Bunu", "Jinmen", "nauglau", "Raja", "bingduoyou", "Unai", "zaomin", etc. In the past, there were more than 30 different titles such as "Pan Yao", "Guo Shan Yao", "Cha Shan Yao", "Hong tou Yao", "Hua Yao", "Hua Lan Yao", "Lan indigo blue", "Bai Ku Yao" and "Ping Di Yao" because of their origin, legend, mode of production, residence and clothing.
According to the differences in language, customs and beliefs, the Yao nationality can be divided into four branches: the pan Yao branch of Mian language, also known as the Yao language branch; Bunuyao (including Bunuyao, Baiku Yao, Hualan Yao, Huayao and some Hongyao) who speak the Miao branch of the Miao Yao language family, also known as the Miao language branch; Chashan Yao and Naxi Yao branches, also known as Dongshui language branches, which operate the Dongshui language branch of the Zhuang Dong Language Nationality; Chinese dialect branch.
According to the legend of the ancestors of the Yao nationality, it was one of the ancient oriental "Jiuli" and later migrated to Hubei and Hunan.
In the Qin and Han Dynasties, the Yao ancestors took Changsha, Wuling or Wuxi as their living centers. In Chinese historical materials, they were collectively known as "Wuling man" and "Wuxi man" together with other ethnic minorities.
During the northern and Southern Dynasties, some Yao people were called "Mo corvee" and took Hengyang, Lingling and other counties as their living centers. "Liang Shu Zhang Zan biography" said: "in Lingling, Hengyang and other counties, there are mo corvee barbarians, who live near the mountain and are not subject to the government." the "Mo corvee" here refers to the Yao nationality.
During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the Yao nationality was mainly distributed in most of today's Hunan, Northeast Guangxi and mountainous areas in northern Guangdong. The saying "there is no mountain without Yao in Nanling" generally summarizes the characteristics of Yao people's Mountain Residence at that time.
During the late Tang and Five Dynasties, there were still more Yao people living in the middle and lower reaches of Zijiang River in Hunan and Wuxi area between Hunan and Guizhou.
In the Song Dynasty, although the Yao nationality was mainly distributed in Hunan, a certain number had penetrated into the north of Guangdong and Guangdong.
In the Yuan Dynasty, under the pressure of war, the Yao nationality had to move southward in large numbers and continuously went deep into the hinterland of Guangdong and Guangxi. In the Ming Dynasty, Guangdong and Guangdong became the main distribution areas of Yao nationality.
At the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, some Yao people migrated from Guangdong and Guangxi to Yunnan and Guizhou. At this time, Yao people spread all over the six provinces (regions) in the south, basically forming today's distribution situation, with the characteristics of "large dispersion and small settlement".
After the middle of the Ming Dynasty, some Yao people entered Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam, Laos and Thailand from Guangxi and Yunnan and became residents of other countries.
As early as the Eastern Han Dynasty, the "Wuling barbarians in Changsha", including Yao ancestors, opposed the rule of the Han Dynasty. "Zizhi Tongjian" said: "Wuling is very good, husband Xiang is one-way and so on", "Changsha is very anti, Tun Yiyang, Lingling is very aggressive in Changsha". Since the Tang and Song Dynasties, resistance has broken out more times.
At the end of the Tang Dynasty, when the Huangchao peasant army passed through northern Guangdong and southern Hunan, the local "barbarians", including the Yao nationality, rallied to respond, or "finished their bases and defended themselves" according to the Yao mountain in troubled times, to protect the territory and the people, or echoed with the peasant army, relied on each other and defeated the officials and army.
In the Song Dynasty, the Yao people in Guiyang, Yizhang, Jingzhou and other places in Hunan could not bear the political oppression, economic exploitation and national oppression of the Song Dynasty. They successively rebelled and moved to Lingnan, which effectively attacked the rule of the Song Dynasty, forced the rulers to make concessions, and made certain adjustments to the national policy.
The Yao people in the Yuan Dynasty fought against the rule of the Yuan Dynasty more than 40 times.
The Yao people's uprising in Dateng gorge, Guangxi in the Ming Dynasty, has been a struggle one after another for more than 100 years since the fourth year of Hongwu of the Ming Dynasty (1371). It is the largest, fiercest and most far-reaching uprising in the ancient history of the Yao nationality.
In the Qing Dynasty, the resistance struggle of the Yao people continued one after another. During the years of Shunzhi and Kangxi, Shaozhou, Lianyang and Liannan in Guangdong, Fuchuan and Gongcheng in Guangxi and Xingning in Hunan successively ignited the flames of struggle. During the reign of Daoguang, the Yao uprising led by Zhao Jinlong, the Yao uprising led by LAN zhengzun, the Yao uprising led by Lei zaihao, the Yao uprising led by Li Tianshen during the reign of Xianfeng and the Yao uprising led by Li Shuibao during the reign of Guangxu all dealt a heavy blow to the Qing Dynasty and accelerated the decline and destruction of the Qing Dynasty. Before the uprising, Hong Xiuquan and Feng Yunshan, the revolutionary leaders of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, had long carried out secret activities in Zijing mountain, Guiping City, Guangxi, where Yao and Zhuang lived together. Under the cover and support of the Yao and Zhuang people, they accumulated and expanded the revolutionary forces. At that time, more than half of the Yao people in gaoxiu, Pentium, Hualu, hengchong, Luotian, Wangtian and other villages in Dayaoshan, Guangxi participated in the "God worship meeting" and went to Jintian with shotguns to participate in the uprising. There are still two places in nalitun, Longping village, luoxiang that retain the title of "God Ping". From the beginning of the Jintian uprising, the Yao people actively participated in the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom uprising and made great contributions. The Yao people actively participated in the Taiping Army and joined the army in the northern expedition. After arriving in Nanjing, there were 3000 Yao sergeants. Yao soldiers are brave and good at fighting. For example, the five thousand guards of Li Xiucheng, the loyal king, had never been defeated before the battle in Shanghai, or fled with their backs to the enemy. They all came from Guangxi, the hometown of the loyal king, many of them Yao. The female soldiers of Yao nationality climbed up the rock valley, walked on the ground, braved more than men, fought in the South and North, and made immortal contributions to the Taiping army.
After the Opium War, the Yao people actively opposed imperialist aggression. In the early years of Guangxu, the French imperialists coveted Guangdong, Guangdong and Yunnan. They frequently sent missionaries to some Yao mountains, established churches, served as strongholds, colluded with the government, bullied the Yao people, and carried out espionage to spy on the military situation. At the outbreak of the Sino French war, France sent troops to occupy some areas of Malipo County and Maguan County in Yunnan, forcibly levy Ding and distribute funds, implement colonial rule, and secretly remove boundary markers in an attempt to misappropriate China's territory. These acts of aggression aroused the righteous indignation of the Yao people. In the third year of Guangxu (1877), the Yao, Zhuang and Miao people in Malipo and Maguan areas of Yunnan fought bravely against the French invaders with weapons such as knives, spears, crossbows, arrows and muskets, forcing the French invaders to return more than 7000 square kilometers of land along Mengdong to China nine years later. In the first year of Xuantong (1909), the Yao people in Liannan, Guangdong, under the leadership of Li GUANMEI, united with the people to destroy Sanjiang church and church school, which showed the spirit of the Yao people's patriotic struggle.
At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the Yao people actively participated in the 1911 revolutionary movement and participated in the "Shangsi campaign" and "Hekou campaign" personally launched by Sun Yat Sen. Li Canglin, a Yao from Gongcheng, Guangxi, joined the alliance in his early years and became an activist. He participated in the organization and activities of the Guangxi alliance. After the failure of the Liuzhou uprising, he went to Guangzhou to find Sun Yat Sen and was arrested and sacrificed. Together with other ethnic groups, the Yao people made immortal contributions to overthrowing the feudal autocratic rule of the Qing Dynasty.
After the victory of the 1911 Revolution, in order to seek national liberation and master the national destiny, the Yao nationality continued to struggle against imperialism, feudalism and bureaucratic capitalism. In December 1926, the first farmers' Congress in Hunan, under the guidance of Mao Zedong, passed a resolution on the settlement of the Miao and Yao people, pointing out that we should help the liberation of the Miao and Yao people. During the second Civil Revolutionary War, Xishan District, now Bama Yao Autonomous County in Guangxi, where the Yao people lived together, was once the revolutionary base of the seventh Red Army. The Yao people took an active part in the Baise uprising and the construction of Youjiang Revolutionary Base. The seventh Red Army led by Deng Xiaoping and Zhang Yunyi also established independent companies with most of the Yao children. After the main force of the seventh red army went north, Wei Baqun, commander of the 21st division of the seventh Red Army, led the spy company of the division to stay in Youjiang and soon expanded to three regiments. His division headquarters and Youjiang workers' and peasants' democratic government are located in Xishan, today's Bama Yao Autonomous County. In 1933, Yao people in Guanyang, Quanzhou, Xing'an and other counties in northern Guangxi held armed riots against the brutal rule of the government, which dealt a great blow to the Guangxi warlords.
In the war of liberation, the Yao people all over the country joined the local guerrillas to carry out armed struggle. In the Xishan old revolutionary base of Bama Yao Autonomous County, the Yao people, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, organized revolutionary armed forces together with the Zhuang and Han people, held Wangang uprising, cooperated with the uprising teams of Donglan and Fengshan, captured Wangang County in 1947, fought tirelessly, and established the County People's Government in Xishan in 1948 to organize Yao The main brigade of Xishan, dominated by the Zhuang nationality, took the initiative to liberate Wangang (now Bama Yao Autonomous County) and Fengshan county to welcome the arrival of the people's Liberation Army. Since the establishment of Anti Japanese guerrillas in 1945, Northern Guangxi has often been active in Yao areas such as Xing'an, Quanzhou, Guanyang and Lingchuan. In October 1948, the team expanded to more than 1300 people and established the people's Liberation Corps in northern Guangxi, headquartered in Dongshan Yao area of Quanzhou County. In addition to strongly supporting the guerrilla activities, the Yao people also sent their excellent children to participate in the guerrilla forces, and transmitted information, stood guard, guarded, supplied food, covered the wounded and sick, etc. Yao people in other areas, such as 100000 Dashan, Central Guangxi, Eastern Guangxi, northern Guangdong and Wenshan, Yunnan, have organized or participated in guerrilla activities. In the winter of 1949, as the people's Liberation Army went south to liberate Guangdong, Guangxi and Hunan, the guerrillas in various Yao areas cooperated and won a great victory in the war of liberation.
In the song, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, the Yao areas in Western Guangxi and Yunnan were ruled by the chieftain system. In the Qing Dynasty, "Yao Chang" and "Yao Lian" were set up in Yao inhabited areas. During the reign of the government of the Republic of China, the "Huayao bureau", "Anhua bureau" and "governance bureau" were established at the county and district levels. Later, it was divided into districts, townships and villages to establish the Baojia system. In addition, there are still some primitive forms of social organization in some Yao inhabited areas. This form of social organization includes "Ba Yin", "oil pot", "Yao Lao system" and "Shipai system", etc.
Pakistan introduction organization
"Ba Yin" organization is a blood related organization of chashanyao in Jinxiu, Guangxi, which means "blood related family" or "blood related family". Its scale is small, generally three or five households, and more than ten households are very rare.
Each village has multiple "Ba Yin" organizations. Most of the "Ba Yin" organizations share mountains, forests, mountains and rivers for hunting, fishing and farming. Members have close relations and care for and help each other in production and life. In particular, when dealing with funerals and armed fights between members of the organization and others, members of "Ba Yin" families will give full help and will never stand idly by.
In the 1940s, with the implementation of Baojia system in Dayaoshan by the government of the Republic of China, the "Ba Yin" organization began to become loose. After the founding of new China, the Pakistan introduction organization soon disintegrated. However, some excellent traditions of Ba Yin organization, such as helping the needy and helping the needy, the spirit of mutual assistance and cooperation, still exist widely among the Yao nationality.
"Oil pot" organization, called "Weiyao" in Yao language, is a paternal clan organization with the same surname linked by regional blood relationship in Baiku Yao, Nandan county, Guangxi. It is composed of people who eat in the same pot, that is, the paternal family of the same ancestor. We help each other and resist foreign enemies together, so as to avoid being excluded and destroyed or discriminated by foreigners. There are also a few "oil cookers" who only absorb a few people with foreign surnames after all members have agreed.
Each "oil pot" is a single whole, with its own boundaries and fields. The smallest is composed of three households and the largest is fifteen or six households. Those with big surnames can be divided into multiple "oil pots". "Oil pot" and "oil pot" are equal to each other and have no privileges. Each "oil pot" has a male elder as the head, with collective fields and lands.
"Oil pot" has unwritten traditional regulations. Its internal members shall not marry or intermarry with other nationalities. They shall unite as one and consciously obey the command of others.
"Yao old system" is an inherent social organization form with primitive democratic nature of Yao nationality, which originated from the clan chieftain system in primitive society. "Yao Lao" is a general term. There are different names in different places, such as "Miao Lao", "Zhailao", "village Lao", "Mu Lao", "shelao", etc. The specific situation of Yao Lao system with different names is also different. In the areas known as "Miao Lao" and "Zhailao", each village has a Yao Lao. Yao Lao is generally determined by divine judgment rather than democratically elected. He is responsible for choosing agriculture, mediating family and family disputes, hosting village wide religious worship activities, organizing and guiding villagers to jointly resist foreign invasion, participating in labor and working for the public free of charge, No privileges. In such areas, several consanguineous family communes with different surnames usually live in a village. Each family commune has its head. The village land is privately owned by individual families, publicly owned by family communes, or publicly owned by villages. In the areas called "village elders" and "eye elders", Yao elders are generally elected, with two or three. "Village elders" and "eye elders" organize the production and life of the village community, preside over religious sacrifices, command operations, and serve the members of the village community free of charge. Those who are incompetent may be dismissed at any time. The land is generally owned by the village community and distributed to individual families for cultivation. Individual families have only the right to use the land without ownership.
Before the founding of new China, there was still a systematic "Yao old system" in the eight row Yao in Liannan County, Guangdong Province. There are "tianchanggong", "leader Gong", "Sir Gong", "incense burning Gong", "zhangmiao Gong", "water releasing Gong" and "household head Gong". Tianchanggong is the highest leader of this Yao platoon. He is appointed by the elderly with different surnames and rooms through democratic elections. He can only serve once a year. He is mainly responsible for mediating disputes, dealing with theft and commanding foreign operations. The leader is changed every two years. He is the deputy of tianchanggong. He is responsible for selecting the date of agricultural activities together with Mr. Gong, and loudly informs everyone in the platoon. Burning incense and holding temple are responsible for religious activities. The water release company is responsible for the allocation of irrigation and edible waterways. The head of household is responsible for collecting taxes. Each row (Village) has its own public cemetery, public temple and common religious activities. Each platoon usually acts independently. In case of invasion by foreign enemies, a joint meeting of "Yao Lao" of each platoon can be held to discuss joint action. All these Yao elders are generally not separated from production, but each household needs to collect one or two kilograms of rice to pay them every year. This Yao Lao system is a relatively perfect rural commune organization.
There are still "stone tablet system" political organization forms in Dayao Mountain in Jinxiu, Guangxi and Yao mountain in Libo, Guizhou.
The so-called stone tablet system is a customary law, also known as the stone tablet law (Law), in which some principles agreed by everyone to maintain production and social order are formulated into a number of specific rules, and then the provisions are engraved on the stone tablet and set up in the place of public assembly to require all the villagers to abide by. Later, there were also those who wrote the provisions of stone tablets on wood or paper, which were called wood stone tablets and paper stone tablets respectively.
A small stone tablet in Dayao Mountain, Jinxiu, consists of one or several villages; Several small stone tablets are combined to form the "big stone tablet", the largest of which is the "total stone tablet" composed of "36 Yao 72 villages" formed in 1911. The person who implements the "Shipai law" is called "Shipai head", which can also be divided into large and small.
Shipai leaders are neither religious leaders nor production leaders, but play a role in protecting production, mediating disputes, preventing theft, stopping bad people from harassing and defending bandits.
The important activity of Shipai organization is "meeting Shipai", that is, holding Shipai meeting. If there is a violation of the Shipai law, the Shipai leader has the right to impose a fine, fine wine and meat, whip, or even execute the violator. Therefore, in the past, there was a saying that "Shipai is bigger than heaven" in Jinxiu Dayaoshan. In case of armed struggle or bandit invasion, he has the power to command the "shipatin" to fight. Later, Shipai often concurrently served as township head, village head and class a head of the government of the Republic of China.
Although Shipai leader has great power, he must be fair and comply with the "Shipai law". If they do things unfairly, lose the trust of the masses, or even seriously break the law and cause public anger, they will also be dismissed, even arrested or executed. Around 1933, most Shipai organizations were abolished, and only a small number of Shipai organizations remained until the eve of the founding of new China.
Yao people's belief belongs to multi God worship. In the past, the Yao people believed that all things had spirits and worshipped nature devoutly. They offered sacrifices to the village god, the family God, the water god, the wind god, the rain god, the thunder god, the tree god and the mountain god. They had to offer incense every new year's Festival. In every process of production, such as hunting, cutting mountains, collecting, cultivating land, sowing, transplanting seedlings, harvesting, building barns, eating new rice, we should ask Shigong to divinate, select auspicious days and hold sacrifices. PanYao and shanziyao mainly cultivated on the mountains. They believed that the mountains were controlled by the mountain god and they had to worship the mountain god before they could harvest. Therefore, when hunting wild animals that abused crops, such as wild boar, goat and yellow tiger, the martial duke or Taoist priest Nan God first asked the Mountain God to bless them to hunt wild animals to protect crops. After obtaining prey, they must first sacrifice the mountain god with the animal head before distribution.
Totem worship was formed in the process of Yao social development. Pan Yao, Shanzi Yao and AO Yao worship Panhu totem and prohibit eating dog meat; The story of "mother monkey mother" of Yao nationality in dayaozhai, Nandan, Guangxi has been popular for thousands of years, from which we can see that Yao nationality has totem worship. PanYao, Shanzi Yao and AO Yao not only believed that Panhu was their ancestor and bred the twelve surnamed Yao, but also believed that it was the blessing of Panhu that the twelve surnamed Yao survived strong winds and waves on their way across the sea. Therefore, they all have to "repay the wish" for a certain period of time from generation to generation - jumping the pan king, praising the achievements of their ancestors, encouraging people to move forward bravely despite difficulties and obstacles, and praying for their ancestors to bless the prosperity of people.
In ancient times, Yao people believed that there were three ghosts after death: one in the burial ground, one at home and one in the 18th cave in Yangzhou. Because of the fear of ghosts and the worship of ghosts and gods, the Yao people pay great attention to the treatment of death, resulting in various funeral methods. The ancestor worship of Yao nationality is formed with the emergence and development of ghost worship. After the death of the first ancestor and some clan tribal leaders, they became the ancestor gods worshipped by people. Tiaopan king and tomb sweeping during the Qingming Festival are typical manifestations of Yao ancestor worship.
Pan Yao, Lan Dian Yao and some Chashan Yao must hold a "Dujie" ceremony when they grow up, which has the same meaning as the Chengding ceremony. During the ceremony, it is said that they have to turn over the cloud platform (fall back from the platform more than a foot high), climb the knife mountain (climb the ladder inserted with a sharp knife with bare feet), cross the sea of fire (walk barefoot through the charcoal red fire pond) and other programs, and have experienced arduous tests. Only after observing the precepts can we get married and have the right to participate in social activities or further accept the magic taught by Taoist and Shigong, and believe that we can rise to heaven and become an official after death. Most of the Yao people of other branches only need the following two kinds of people to spend precepts: the first is the Shigong and the second is the Taoist Gong. The former drives away evil spirits and ghosts, and the latter surpasses the dead. No matter where the Dujie is, it is necessary to entertain a large number of guests and feast several meals. Some pork alone costs thousands of kilograms. At present, the ritual of observing the precepts is generally simpler than before, and the human, material, financial and time spent have been greatly reduced. Some bad customs have been eliminated, while good customs have been retained and given new content to promote people's production and enrich people's life. Some contents of the Dujie ceremony, such as daoshan and guohuohai, have become reserved programs for ethnic customs tourism performances in some Yao areas.
Since Song and Yuan Dynasties, Taoism and Buddhism have been introduced into Yao areas. Taoism was widely spread in Yao areas in the Qing Dynasty. After the Opium War, a large number of Western missionaries came to China one after another, entered Yao District, established churches in some mountainous areas and carried out missionary activities. Therefore, some Yao people in Shiwandashan, Yongfu and Jinxiu in Guangxi also believe in Catholicism.
Yao men and women like long hair. In ancient books, there are records of Yao men and women who have hair and curl their heads, called "vertebral bun". According to the historical records in Chinese, there was a record of "good five color clothes" of the ancestors of the Yao nationality as early as the book of the later Han Dynasty. Later historical records also contain the Yao people's "vertebral hair, barefoot and colorful cloth".
However, a considerable number of Yao women in the mountains used to shave their hair pedicles, wear horn hats made of yellow wax and cover them with cloth handkerchiefs. Women's head decoration is very exquisite and colorful. Some wear bamboo arrows, some erect top plates, some wear pointed hats, and some are covered with "pa gun" made of exquisite and bright embroidery.
The women of chashanyao in Dayaoshan, Jinxiu, Guangxi, wear three arc-shaped silver hairpins with two ends turned up, weighing about one catty.
Ao Yao women like to wear trapezoidal bamboo shell hats made of new snow-white tender bamboo shells. Five silver hairpins are inserted around the hats, and a silver chain is wound on both sides. Hongtou Yao is one of the most gorgeous Yao ethnic groups in Yunnan. Both boys and girls wear round flat top flower hats made of cloth. Hongtouyao women in ma'andi Township, Jinping County shave all their hair and use red cloth to make big Baotou weighing up to two or three kilograms, so they are also known as "dahongbubaotou Yao".
In the past, some Yao women in northern Guangxi, northern Guangdong and Yunnan also wore a hat with high support, covered with black cloth and drooping red tassels, which has a unique style.
Some Yao men in Liannan, Guangdong Province have hair in bun, wrapped in red cloth and inserted with several wild pheasant hairs, which is very heroic and spectacular.
In modern times, Yao's clothing styles are still very rich and colorful. Men's blouses have two kinds: the opposite placket and the left placket. Generally, they are tied with a belt. Pants vary in length, some as long as the foot, some as short as the knee, mostly blue and black.
Men in Dayao village, Nandan county, Guangxi wear white lantern pants with trouser legs reaching to the knee, so they are called "white pants Yao". The side of the white lantern pants has a red edge five centimeters wide, embroidered with four crossed black and white lines to form six patterns, and then embroidered with five red lines to form a sharp contrast between red and white, which is particularly eye-catching. Men wear pants with large crotch, which is easy to climb mountains and mountains. The short and tight leg pants are easy to hunt.
The Yao men with wooden handle in Tianlin County, Guangxi Province wear a short left lapel, a white cloth belt around the waist, trousers with white edges at the corners, a pleated skirt on the periphery and a bandage on the legs.
When the eight row Yao men in Liannan, Guangdong were dressed up, they wore a black red border flower skirt.
Yao women's clothes are different from place to place. Some wear collarless short clothes, tie their waist with belts, and wear skirts of different lengths under them; Some have knee length Lapel tops, long belts around the waist, and trousers or skirts under them. Some are embroidered with various beautiful color patterns on the collar, sleeves and trouser legs.
Women's blouses of various branches of PanYao are split, with length and length, and tied around the waist with a belt.
Bunuyao women are basically in the form of tops and skirts, but because they live together with the Han and Zhuang nationalities, they have changed to wear trousers in some places and still wear long shirts in some places.
Nandan Baiku Yao women have summer clothes and winter clothes. The winter clothes are short clothes with a right lapel. The summer clothes are unique. The chest is a black-and-white earth cloth, and the back is a wax dyed cloth with a white background, embroidered with square patterns with geometric patterns such as back pattern, orthographic pattern and Swastika pattern. The two pieces of cloth on the chest and back are not sewn, but only tied tightly with cloth straps.
The clothing color of each branch of Yao nationality is still green, but the Hongyao women in Longsheng, Guangxi are still red. The red Yao women's blouse is a rose red cross collar buttonless blouse, which is tied with bright red ribbons, with left and right slits at the feet, sleeve length and wrist. In addition to silver medals on their tops, many Yao women also wear silver bracelets, earrings and collars.
Most of the contemporary Yao people like modern clothes that are easy to wear and wash.
In ancient times, men, women and children of Yao nationality were barefoot.
According to the records of Qingyuan Prefecture by Daoguang of the Qing Dynasty, the Yao personnel in Qingyuan Prefecture said: "the Yao people do not wear shoes, their foot skin is wrinkled and thick, and they walk among the ridges and thorns without any damage." since modern times, with the improvement of living standards, people began to wear straw sandals.
Before and after the founding of new China, some well-off men and women wore thick soled cocked faucet shoes and cloth shoes made of green cloth.
In the 1960s and 1970s, young and middle-aged people gradually wore rubber shoes. For example, the Yao people in Dayaoshan, Jinxiu, Guangxi liked to wear release shoes suitable for climbing mountains and mountains and durable and wear-resistant.
Today, more and more people wear shoes and less barefoot. All kinds of leather shoes and sports shoes are loved by the young people of Yao nationality.
The Yao people take corn and rice as their staple food.
Lingnan is warm all year round and suitable for vegetable growth. The garden is evergreen in winter and summer. People can eat fresh and tender vegetables all year round, including mustard, cabbage, radish, pepper, eggplant, etc; Melons and beans include pumpkin, cucumber, white gourd, beans, soybeans, rice beans, etc; Meat mainly includes pork, chicken, duck, beef, mutton, etc; Oils include lard, peanut oil, tea oil, sesame oil, sunflower seed oil, etc.
"Playing oil tea" is popular among some Yao people in northern Guangxi, that is, the tea leaves fried in oil are fried into thick soup, seasoned with salt, and then used to brew fried rice flowers and fried soybeans. It has a special flavor, and some take it instead of lunch. Eating "meat mountain" is a unique way for Yao people in Jinxiu, Guangxi to entertain guests when they make "Three Dynasties" for children. Meat mountain is generally composed of nine layers of dishes, and the bottom layer is composed of bamboo shoots, mushrooms, green vegetables, pig intestines, pork, etc; The second and fourth floors are lean meat, pig liver and pig belly, each as big as a palm; The third and fifth layers are fat slices; The top layer is covered with a piece of fat weighing about two kilograms. The whole "meat mountain" weighs more than 20 kg and is installed in a large dustpan. Guests sit around the "meat mountain" and get what they need.
Most Yao people have the habit of avoiding eating dog meat. Even cooking must be done outside the house.
Yao nationality is a mountain people. Most of its villages are located in high mountains and dense forests at an altitude of about 1000 meters. They are generally built on the top of the mountain, on the hillside and at the foot of the mountain.
Before the founding of new China, most of the Yao people in remote mountainous areas lived in bamboo huts, wooden houses and huts, a considerable part still lived in "herringbone sheds", and only a few lived in brick houses.
There are four main forms of Yao's housing construction: horizontal width type, pole column type, curved corridor type and straight corridor type. The traditional houses in aoyao, Dayaoshan, Jinxiu, Guangxi are full of characteristics. The front door of the house has Yin and Yang doors. Usually, only the Yang door is opened for people to enter and exit, and the Yin door is closed. In case of funeral and sacrifice at home, the hell door is opened for funeral and dead souls.
After the founding of new China, especially since the reform and opening up, the Yao people have built more and more brick and tile houses, and many modern buildings with reinforced concrete structures. In 2001, after the road was built in Luoyun natural village (aoyao Village), luoxiang Township, Jinxiu Yao Autonomous County, almost all the old houses in the village were replaced with new houses in two years. Many houses are well designed and luxurious, even comparable to urban villas.
More than 60% of the Yao people speak a language belonging to the Yao branch of the Miao Yao language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. They call themselves "mian" (or youmian, biaomin, biaoman, bath Mian and Jiaogong Mian) or "men" (Jinmen and gandimen). One third of the Yao people speak the Miao language branch of the Miao Yao language family of the Sino Tibetan language family (they call themselves "Bunu", "Nunu", "Buno", "Dongnuo", "nauglau", "numao", "jiongnai", "yuno", etc.). The words spoken by a few Yao people who call themselves "Lajia" belong to the Dongshui language branch of the Zhuang and Dong language group. In addition, some people only speak Chinese. Due to the long-term coexistence and frequent contact with Han, Zhuang and other ethnic groups, Yao people in all places generally speak Chinese, and some people also speak the languages of adjacent ethnic minorities and other branches of Yao people.
It is generally believed in academic circles that the Yao nationality did not have its own national characters in history. In ancient times, the Yao nationality used "carving wood to record events", which is called "wooden deed", or "playing wooden lattice". Before the founding of new China, dayaozhai and Dayaoshan (cashshow Yao Autonomous County) in Nandan county, Guangxi also used "carved bamboo Chronicles". The Yao people in some areas of Western Guangxi use small stones, soybean kernels and corn kernels to "record events with things". Yao society generally adopts the method of marking to convey information, which is called "marking and recording". Yao people used Chinese characters to engrave inscriptions, record lyrics and copy scriptures earlier. Jinxiu Yao Autonomous County of Guangxi still retains hand copied song books and scriptures of the Ming Dynasty.
Some scholars in the academic circles also believe that the Yao nationality has its own characters, that is, after learning and skillfully using Chinese, Yao teachers, Taoist priests and folk singers copied some characters in combination with Chinese characters or based on Chinese characters when copying national classics, and created their own characters by increasing, decreasing or recombining Chinese characters, And used to record their own language. This kind of writing is called ancient Yao writing, and its font can be roughly divided into four categories: first, Chinese loanwords, that is, those with the same or similar sound and meaning between Chinese and Yao language, mostly directly adopt the sound, shape and meaning of Chinese characters; The second is to use the meaning of Chinese characters to read Yao sound, which accounts for the majority of such words; The third is to borrow the pronunciation of Chinese characters to express the meaning of Yao characters; The fourth is to borrow two Chinese characters or Chinese character radicals to re combine them into new characters. These ancient Yao scripts are mainly mixed and used by Taoist, Shigong and folk singers when copying national classics such as scriptures and song books with Chinese characters to make up for their shortcomings. Daogong, Shigong and folk singers are the creators and disseminators of ancient Yao Wen.
In July 1982, some Yao scholars in Beijing, together with relevant units, preliminarily designed a set of Yao language scheme (Draft) based on Mian language and Latin alphabet. This character is composed of 30 initials, 130 vowels and 8 tones. It was first tested and popularized in some areas of Guangdong and Guangxi. In 1984, combined with the research results of Dr. Joseph Hou, an American Yao Chinese living in the United States, the unification of the Chinese and American Yao language program was realized.
Yao folk literature is rich and colorful, mostly by word of mouth, and some are copied in Chinese. Its forms are diverse, including myths, stories, legends, ballads, riddles, words and so on.
The most famous myths are Pangu, Miluotuo, Fuxi brothers and sisters and Panhu, which reflect the origin of everything in heaven and earth and the origin of mankind. Yao legends, such as the legend of the long drum, the origin of the jumping king and the legend of Zhu Zhu Festival, were created in memory of their ancestors. The legend of crossing the sea and the legend of Qianjiadong reflect the course of Yao's continuous migration after major events. Yao folk stories are mostly in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, with themes such as love stories, magic stories, witty character stories, fairy tales, fables, jokes and so on.
Singing is a common hobby of the Yao people. Many folk singers see things, compose words, export into songs, and leave a lot of ballads. The duet between men and women often reaches the end of the day. This unaccompanied ballad is based on a wide range of materials, including the "creation song" describing the changes of everything in the world in the flood and famine era, the "biography song" and "historical migration song" describing the history of the nation, the "love song" of men and women talking about love, the "production song" about productive labor, the "historical struggle song" reflecting resistance to national oppression, and the "custom song" reflecting traditional customs, There are "winding songs" that cross examine and answer each other, there are "funny songs" with humorous content, there are "faith songs" that replace faith with songs, and the "song of entertaining God" that Shigong and Daogong sing when doing things. The Yao people's resistance to the oppression of the ruling class during the Ming and Qing Dynasties was reflected in the ballads of "ten thousand soldiers for officials, ten thousand mountains for me" and "the Golden Dragon comes out of the big hole, and the seahorse returns to the pond".
Yao people have lived in deep mountains and dense forests for a long time, with changeable climate and miasma. They often struggle with beasts, poisonous insects and various plague diseases. They have accumulated rich experience and technology in treating tendons and bones, insect claw injury and preventing and treating various diseases, and formed a unique Yao medicine.
For example, Congjiang PanYao's medicine bath is famous. The medicinal bath potion is made of dozens of herbs from Yaoshan mountain. There is also a complete set of technology for the extraction and brewing of herbal medicine. It is necessary to master the growth direction of herbal medicine, the season and season of extraction, the heat and temperature of brewing, the length of boiling and bathing time, etc. Common medicine bath can dispel fatigue, relax meridians and activate collaterals, prevent colds and colds, and treat skin diseases, sores and boils, tumors, rheumatism, arthritis, gynecological diseases, etc. Yao folk herbal medicine mostly uses unilateral and empirical prescriptions to treat one or more diseases. Technology is mostly handed down from ancestors, father to son, son to son, and mostly single handed down, while some are handed down to daughter-in-law rather than daughter-in-law.
In history, the Yao nationality did not have its own words. The way of transmission of Yao medicine depended on word-of-mouth, medicine instruction and syndrome transmission. In the practice of medicine collection and treatment, it gradually mastered the names, forms and functions of various herbs, and learned various secret prescriptions, prescriptions and use methods.
There are more than 20 kinds of Yao music tunes, rich in national and local colors. For example, Bunuyao's "wine song", the lyrics are rough, high pitched, vigorous, short, powerful and exciting. Ao Yao's "loud song" is a song of collective sacrifice. The melody is solemn and heavy. When dozens or even hundreds of people sing together, it is overwhelming.
In addition to the suona, gongs, cymbals and drums introduced from the Han area, there are also long drums with unique national style. It is said that this waist drum has been popular in Yao areas as early as the Song Dynasty.
Yao dance is mostly related to religious sacrifice, among which the most famous are long drum dance and copper drum dance. Chang drum dance is mainly popular in Yao areas of Pan Yao branch.
In 1996, Guangxi Jinxiu aoyao performed in Japan and won great praise.
As early as the Han Dynasty, there was a record of Yao ancestors "weaving wood bark and dyeing grass". By the Song Dynasty, the Yao people had dyed exquisite patterns on white cloth with blue indigo and yellow wax, which was called "Yao banbu". This exquisite technology once enjoyed a high reputation in China. The patterns of weaving and embroidery mainly include cross stitch, weaving and embroidery. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, there was a record of "using five-color velvet and miscellaneous embroidery of flowers". It is a relatively exquisite handicraft of the Yao nationality.
Since the reform and opening up, in order to better preserve national traditional culture and develop national style tourism, some local governments have allocated special funds to let young people learn traditional handicrafts from the elderly, including traditional weaving, dyeing and embroidery. The weaving techniques of Yao nationality mainly include bamboo basket, bamboo basket, bamboo basket, bamboo hat, rattan box, rattan clip, etc.
Carving art mainly includes door plaque, cigarette box, hanging tower, as well as statues and shrines, with the highest level of chashanyao.
In Yao areas at different stages of social and economic development, their production customs are different. In some Yao areas in Hunan, Guangdong and Guangxi, which have better natural conditions and are more affected by the Han nationality and account for the majority of the Yao population, agriculture is the main industry and sideline forestry. Their production customs are similar to those of the local Han and Zhuang nationalities. Ploughing accounts for a large proportion of dry land and paddy fields. All production tools are made of iron, which are basically made by the Yao nationality, and only a small amount are purchased from abroad. There are machetes, sickles, flat knives, firewood knives, machetes, digging knives, hoes, pears, rakes, axes, crop shears, Guazi, stone mills, water pestles, etc. The sickle is mainly used to cut grass and harvest rice, the machete is used to cut the land, the digging knife is used to dig the nest for planting, the hoe is used to scrape the soil, weed and dig the land, the plow and rake are used for farming, and the stone mill and water pestle are used for milling and shelling.
In some stone mountain areas in Western Guangxi, the central area of 100000 mountains and some Yao Minority areas that retain the remnants of primitive clans on the border of Yunnan, there is a production custom of "slash and burn farming". The so-called "slash and burn farming" means that in October and November of the lunar calendar, the Yao people of the same joint farming unit go up the mountain and cut down the vegetation on the barren mountain selected for reclamation with a knife and axe. When the vegetation cut down in the next spring has been dried, they choose a sunny weather to set the mountain on fire, leaving a thick layer of vegetation ash as fertilizer, and then cooperate with men and women to make holes, Women on demand. This farming method is a kind of floating farming method that depends on the weather. When the fertility of the mountain decreases and is no longer suitable for crop growth, we must find another mountain for slash and burn cultivation.
When Du Fu, a poet of the Tang Dynasty, visited the Xiangjiang River, he wrote a poem "old Yan Xing", in which there was a poem "Mo Yao shooting wild geese and singing mulberry bow", which reflected the situation of Yao hunting with bows and arrows in Hunan at that time. The poet Liu Yuxi wrote a poem in Lianzhou, Guangdong, entitled "watching Mo corvee and hunting the western mountains on the lunar calendar in Lianzhou", which describes the scene of Yao people burning mountains and hunting animals in northern Guangdong. Yao people are good at hunting, and all birds and animals are the objects they hunt. Hunting can be carried out throughout the year, but collective hunting is generally in February and March of the lunar calendar, and some in July during the slack season. In collective hunting, hunting is the main method. Other hunting methods include trapping, setting traps, opening nets, setting sets, setting iron clips, ambush and so on.
In modern times, fire gun was the main hunting weapon of Yao nationality. In addition, there were bows and arrows, bird cages and so on. When hunting, you should first sacrifice to the mountain god and pray for the mountain god to bless the whole hunting activity. All hunters are divided into two groups. One group is responsible for driving animals, that is, pay attention to the traces of animals, generally shout up from the foot of the mountain to the top of the mountain, and release hunting dogs to catch up after discovering wild animals; The other group is responsible for the siege. When you hunt big prey, you usually have to sacrifice to God and thank the mountain god for his gift before you can distribute it.
As a production department, the function of collection is only a supplement to the economy. The Yao people mainly collect Auricularia auricula, mushrooms, fungi, bamboo shoots, wild vegetables, edible plant roots and fruits for food supplement or livestock feed. It can be eaten or sold for daily necessities. After the founding of new China, especially since the reform and opening up, the industry and agriculture in Yao areas have developed continuously and rapidly. Collection has lost its economic status as an independent production department and is insignificant in the economic life of Yao people.
There are many traditional festivals of Yao nationality, with sections almost every month, and life is different everywhere. Major festivals include Spring Festival, Qingming Festival, social Festival, Panwang Festival, "Zhu Zhu Festival" and "Shuwang Festival".
During the Spring Festival, the Yao people hold cultural and sports activities with national characteristics, such as singing songs, playing bronze drums, racing gyroscopes, shooting crossbows, hunting, throwing hydrangeas, fighting thrushes and so on.
King Pan Festival, also known as "being King Pan", "returning King Pan's wish" and "jumping King Pan", is a grand traditional festival for Pan Yao to commemorate the ancestor "King Pan". Before the 1980s, it was generally held regularly or irregularly during the slack period from autumn to Spring Festival. In 1984, the date of King Pan festival of Yao nationality in China was fixed on October 16 of the lunar calendar.
The Zhu Zhu Festival is a very warm and grand festival for Bunuyao in Guangxi to commemorate the birthday of his ancestor Miluotuo. On May 29 of the lunar calendar, people beat bronze drums and celebrated for three days. Shuawang Festival is held every three or five years, usually around October 16 of the lunar calendar. It is a day for young men and women to sing and courtship.
The marriage form of Yao nationality is mainly to marry women, followed by recruiting Lang into redundancy.
Before the founding of new China, Yao generally did not intermarry with foreigners. Their marriage was generally established by young men and women through festival singing or other ways, free love, and married with the consent of their parents.
After the founding of new China, the state implemented the policy of ethnic equality, eliminated ethnic estrangement, and the phenomenon of intermarriage between Yao and foreign nationalities continued to increase. According to the data of China National Statistical Yearbook 2006, the intermarriage rate between Yao and other nationalities reached 26.46% in 2000. When getting married, the woman often receives a certain amount of money and pork as a bride price. The way of living after marriage can be either for a woman to live in her husband's house, or for a couple to live in their parents' families in turn, or for a woman to live in her mother's house after marriage, and then return to her mother's house with her husband after giving birth to a child or living for a period of time.
Ao Yao in Jinxiu Yao Autonomous County, Guangxi has a marriage custom called "top two ends". If both sides of the marriage are only children, the married couple will live and work in their husband's house and mother's house in turn. The first child will follow the father's surname and the second will follow the mother's surname. When the children are young, they will live with their parents and stay in their grandfather's house and grandfather's house respectively when they grow up. Uncle power is highly respected among Yao people.
In the past, the daughter of my aunt had to marry the son of my uncle. Only when my uncle had no children could she marry someone else. As a bad habit of intermarriage, this custom has been eliminated after the founding of new China.
The Yao people in most areas are buried in earth, Chashan Yao in liula, Jinxiu County, Guangxi is popular for cremation, Qingyao in yaolu Township, Libo County, Guizhou is buried in caves, and Baiku Yao has also practiced this kind of burial.
After the death of the eight rows of Yao people in Liannan, Guangdong Province, they tied their bodies to chairs and sent them to the cemetery like sedans at the funeral, which is called "walking corpse burial".
In the past, chashanyao, Hualanyao and aoyao in Jinxiu, Guangxi believed that children came to the world from a "Huapo God" who managed fertility. If the child died before the age of five or six, they wrapped the body with broken wadding, broken clothes, brown skin and other things, put it in bamboo baskets, hang it on trees in deep mountains and forests, and carry out hanging burial, so as to let his soul return to the "Huapo God", Reincarnation again. This kind of child's burial is called "hanging burial", which is very rare now.
With the development of the times, the funeral customs of the Yao nationality are constantly changing. For example, Ao Yao of Gu Chen and Luo Yun in Jinxiu County, Guangxi, was originally buried by "stopping coffin to burn bones and pick up ashes". Later, under the influence of Hua Lanyao, it developed into "stopping coffin to pick up bones" and then into the current "burying coffin to pick up bones". In today's vast Yao areas, burial is popular in rural areas; In a few economically and culturally developed areas, the way of cremation in funeral homes is gradually accepted by people.
Li Tao, Yao nationality. Born in September 1905 in Xinpo village, Yanshou Township, Rucheng County, Hunan Province, he was the founding General of the people's Republic of China.
Jiang Hua, Yao nationality. He was born in zhegutang village, Jianghua County, Hunan Province in July 1907. In 1975, he served as president of the Supreme People's court. He is an alternate member of the 8th and 10th CPC Central Committee and a member of the 11th CPC Central Committee. In 1982 and 1987, he was elected as a standing member of the Advisory Committee of the CPC Central Committee at the 12th and 13th National Congresses of the CPC.
Chen Weiren (Yao): a revolutionary martyr, he was one of the 57 early party members of the Communist Party of China when it was founded. During the May 4th movement, he founded the China Socialist Youth League with Zhang Tailei and others, and once served as the first Secretary of the Manchuria Provincial Party committee of the Communist Party of China.
Li qihan (Yao nationality): the earliest member of the Communist Party of China during its founding period and a famous leader of the early workers' movement. He once served as director of the Secretary Department of China's labor union, executive member and organization Minister of the all China Federation of trade unions, member and director general of the provincial and Hong Kong strike committee, and contributed everything to the liberation of the Chinese working class.
He Mengxiong (Yao nationality): one of the founders of the Communist Party of China and one of the earliest 53 party members in the country. He has successively served as secretary of the Beijing Municipal Party committee, Secretary of the Tangshan Municipal Party committee and Secretary of the Nanjing municipal Party committee. He has written to the CPC Central Committee three times to criticize the "left leaning" mistakes. He has been imprisoned five times in his life and remains faithful and unyielding.
Wang Zhi, a Yao nationality from Datong gorge, Guangxi, was one of the powerful officials in the Ming Dynasty. He entered the palace since childhood and served as the imperial concubine of emperor Xianzong of the Ming Dynasty. He has successively served as the imperial horse supervisor, the palm print eunuch and the Western factory supervisor of the Ming Dynasty. Due to the meritorious service of supervising the army in Liaodong, the general leader of the elite "Twelve regiments and battalions" of the Beijing army. The imperial army of the enlightened Dynasty was in charge of the internal ministers.
Hou Dagou (Yao): leader of the Yao uprising in Dateng gorge, Guangxi during the orthodox period of the Ming Dynasty. In the 11th year of orthodoxy (1446), the Yao volunteers supported tens of thousands of soldiers, successively controlled more than ten counties of Liuzhou, Xunzhou and Wuzhou, and then divided troops to attack Zhaoqing, Luoding, Shikang, Lianzhou, Maoming, Huazhou cities, Jianghua and Ningyuan in Guangdong. Some naval forces also attacked Fujian and Zhejiang. Hou Dagou's rebel army then broke through Gaozhou, Leizhou and Lianzhou in Guangdong and approached Guangzhou. The victory of the rebel army shocked the Ming Dynasty.
Zhou Wei: a virtuous official of the founding of the great Song Dynasty, supervising the imperial historian. Zhou Wei, a member of the Yao nationality in Gongcheng, Guangxi, is a virtuous minister who is as impartial and strict as a mountain. His official voice and political achievements are also highly respected and cited as a model by Bao Zheng.
Empress xiaomuji: The Empress of Yao nationality in the Ming Dynasty, whose real name is Li tangmei, and the biological mother of Emperor Zhu Youyu, the Ming monarch who made great efforts to govern in the middle of the Ming Dynasty.
Panhu: the ancestor of the Yao nationality, who married the three princesses (Han nationality) of emperor Hu, was the son-in-law of emperor Hu, the grandson-in-law of the Yellow Emperor (Han nationality ancestor), and the brother-in-law of Emperor Yao and Chang'e among the three emperors and five emperors.
Wang can (Yao): No. 1 in Science in Hunan college entrance examination in 2010.
Mo fanren (Yao): the No. 1 in Science in Guangxi college entrance examination in 2013, from Fuchuan Yao Autonomous County, Guangxi.
Li Zhongming (Yao): the top student in Science in Guangxi college entrance examination in 2015, a native of Dongshan Yao nationality in Quanzhou County, Guangxi.
Meng Dixiao (Yao): his real name is Meng Dixiao. He was the top liberal arts scholar in Guangxi college entrance examination in 2016. He was born in Gongcheng Yao Autonomous County, Guilin City, Guangxi.
Luo Meizhen (Yao nationality): China's oldest star, born in Bama Yao Autonomous County, Guangxi, was born in the late Qing Dynasty. On July 9 of the 1885 lunar calendar, she died on June 4, 2013, spanning three centuries. She was 128 years old. In the third China's top ten birthday stars list released by the Chinese Geriatrics Society in 2010, it ranked first at the age of 125.
Zhao tingguang (Yao): former member of the Standing Committee of Yunnan provincial Party committee, director of the Publicity Department of Yunnan provincial Party committee, deputy secretary of Yunnan provincial Party committee, vice governor of Yunnan provincial government and President of Yunnan Chinese Civilization Research Association.
Zhao Yisheng (Yao): former member of the Standing Committee of the CPC Guangxi Autonomous Region Committee, director of the Organization Department, and Secretary of the Nanning Municipal Party committee.
Yu Yizhong (Yao): former vice president of Guangxi University, deputy secretary of the Party committee of Guangxi Agricultural University, secretary and director of the Party group of Guangxi Department of education, Secretary of the working committee of colleges and universities of the autonomous region, secretary and director of the Party group of the Department of culture of Guangxi autonomous region.
Zheng Junli (Yao): member of the Standing Committee of the 12th CPPCC National Committee and President of Guangxi Academy of Arts.
Song Kehui (Yao nationality): President (president) of Huaihua University. He is mainly engaged in the teaching of quantum physics and the research of quantum optics, quantum information and higher education. He is the discipline leader of colleges and universities in Hunan Province. His research results won the first prize of scientific and Technological Progress Award of Hunan Provincial Department of education in 2000 and the second prize of Hunan Provincial Natural Science Award in 2011.
Deng Youzhi (Yao): former member of the Standing Committee of the CPC Hunan Provincial Committee and vice chairman of the CPPCC Hunan Provincial Committee.
Jin Baosheng (Yao nationality): he used to be the leader of the agricultural technology team of China's support to the Gabonese Republic, member of the national affairs committee, vice chairman of the people's Government of Guangxi Autonomous Region and Deputy Secretary of the Party committee of Guangxi autonomous region.
Dajun (Yao nationality): a new generation of migrant worker singer, whose representative works are "brother is a migrant worker", "want to make a home in the city", "the most beautiful is home", etc., from Jiangyong County, Hunan Province.
Zheng Junjian (Yao): member of China Calligrapher Association and chairman of Guangxi Calligrapher Association. He once served as deputy director of the Department of education of Guangxi Autonomous Region, Secretary of the Party committee of Nanning Vocational and technical college, Secretary General of the Secretariat of China ASEAN Expo, director of Guangxi International Expo Affairs Bureau and Secretary of the Party group.
LAN Huaichang (Yao): former chairman of Guangxi Federation of literature and art. The epic Miluotuo won the first prize of the second national folk literature works, the night of Danu Festival won the Creation Award of the Ministry of radio, film and television and the Ministry of culture, there is quiet love here won the Creation Award of the Ministry of procuratorial affairs of China, the collection of papers on poetry in the song hall of Yao nationality won the excellent award of research achievements of Chinese ethnic minorities, and the lyrics "crossing the mountain with a good day" won the "five ones" project award of the Central Propaganda Department.
Peng Zuyi (Yao): former alternate member of the Central Committee, member of the Standing Committee of the Party committee and Secretary of the political and Legal Committee of Guangxi autonomous region. From Gongcheng Yao Autonomous County, Guangxi.
Feng Henggao (Yao nationality): former member of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, vice chairman of the people's Government of Guangxi Autonomous Region and director of the poverty alleviation and Development Office of the autonomous region. From Fuchuan Yao Autonomous County, Guangxi.
Mao Hanling (Yao nationality): Vice President of Guangxi University (main hall level), Professor, doctor of engineering, master's supervisor. He has successively served as director of organization of Guangxi University, deputy secretary and vice president of the Party committee of Guangxi University of science and technology, deputy secretary and vice president of the Party committee of Guangxi University for nationalities, and President of Guangxi Radio and Television University. He has passed the provincial appraisal of four scientific research achievements and obtained four national patents.
Wang Mingjuan (Yao): from Jiangyong, Hunan Province, the champion of 48kg women's weightlifting at the 2012 London Olympic Games.
Jiang Huihua (Yao nationality): born in 1998, she began to practice weightlifting in 2008. After years of training, she won the national championship. Then she easily won the gold medal with a total score of 183kg at the 2013 Nanjing Asian Youth Conference. On November 22, 2015, Jiang Huihua won the women's 48kg class at the 2015 world weightlifting championship with a total score of 198kg.
Li Zhibao (Yao nationality) : member of China Artists Association, member of China Calligraphers Association, vice president of China western painting academy, deputy director of China rock color art research center, director of the Art Committee of Xu Beihong Painting Academy of the Federation of overseas Chinese of the Ministry of culture, Professor of the high research class of heavy color rock color painting of the Ministry of culture, visiting professor of Shaanxi Institute of education and Tibet University, vice president of Tibet calligraphy and painting academy, vice president of Tibet Artists Association, and art photography of Lhasa President of Calligrapher Association, President of Lhasa Federation of literary and art circles, vice president of Chinese painting and Calligraphy Institute, and national first-class artist.
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