(Dong Language: gaeml) is a minority nationality in China. The national language is Dong language. It belongs to the Dongshui branch of the Zhuang Dong language group in the Sino Tibetan language family, and it believes in many gods.
The ancestors of the Dong nationality are called "the head of Guizhou" in the literature before the pre Qin period. It is generally believed that the Dong nationality developed from a branch of ancient Baiyue. The Dong people are mainly engaged in agriculture, and the agriculture is mainly rice planting. Rice planting has a long history, and they are also engaged in forestry. The production of agriculture and forestry has reached a very high level. There are many basins called "Bazi" in Dong area.
Dong people are mainly distributed in Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture and Tongren area of Guizhou Province, Xinhuang Dong Autonomous County, Huitong County, Tongdao Dong Autonomous County, Zhijiang Dong Autonomous County and Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County of Hunan Province, Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County, Longsheng Miao Autonomous County and Rongshui Miao Autonomous County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Enshi Tujia Miao Autonomous Prefecture of Hubei Province, etc .
According to the statistics of the sixth national census in 2010, the total population of Dong nationality is 2879974.
Dong people call themselves gaeml.
Due to the change of local pronunciation, some places are also called jaeml or jongl. From the etymology point of view, the self claims in different places are the same. Within the Dong people, they are called jaemllaox, jaemljaox or jaemldanx, but their languages are basically the same and their customs are the same.
Shui people, who live together with Dong people, are also called gaeml for Dong people and daxgul for Miao people. The local Han nationality is called "Dong family" or "Dong nationality".
In Dong language, gaeml means "to use sticks and branches as barriers to defend, block and isolate", which is used as a national name. Its original meaning is "to live in people who are blocked by mountains and covered by forests".
Since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Dong people have been known as "Liao Ren", "Dong Liao", "Dong Ren", "Dong man", "Dong Miao" or "Miao" or "Yi Ren". During the period of the Republic of China, it was called "Dong family", and after the founding of new China, it was called Dong nationality.
There are different views on the historical origin of the Dong nationality. There are four main viewpoints: one is that the Dong nationality is an indigenous people who have worked and lived on this land since ancient times, and it is a people's community formed on this land; the second is that the Dong nationality migrated upstream from Wuzhou in the lower reaches of the Duliu River to today's Dong Township, because there is a migration ballad of "Zugong Shanghe" among the Dong Nationality in the southern dialect; the third is that the Dong Nationality in the lower reaches of the Duliu River migrated upstream The Dong nationality migrated from Wenzhou in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River through Dongting Lake along the Yuanjiang River, because there is such a legend in the song of "Zugong entering the village" circulated among the Dong Nationality in the northern dialect. The fourth holds that the main component of the Dong nationality is the aborigines, which has integrated other ethnic elements from other places in the long-term historical development process.
It is generally believed that the Dong nationality developed from a branch of ancient Baiyue. In the spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, the Dong people lived in Shangyu (Yue) area of Chu state. In the Qin Dynasty, it belonged to Qianzhong county and Guilin county. In the Han Dynasty, it belonged to Wuling county and Yulin County. From the Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties to the Sui Dynasty, it was called "the land of five rivers", and from the Tang and Song Dynasties, it was called "Xidong". Since ancient times, this place has been an area where ethnic minorities have been active. According to the literature of the past dynasties, from the spring and Autumn period to the Qin and Han Dynasties, there were "Yue people", "Qianzhong man" and "Wuling man" who lived here; from the Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties to the Tang and Song Dynasties, the minorities here were called "Wuxi man" or "manliao", and from the Tang and Song Dynasties, they were also called "Xitong Zhou man". In ancient times, Yue people were a huge ethnic group with several branches. This ethnic group was called "Liao" in the northern and Southern Dynasties. In the Tang and Song Dynasties, Liao people further divided into many ethnic minorities, including Dong people. Zhu Xi of the Song Dynasty said in his "three Miao" notes: "when Qing was in Hunan, there were four kinds of wild corvee in Xitong: Liao, GE and Ling, and Miao was the most successful one." The "Ling" here refers to the "Geling" and "Gelan" mentioned in the history of Song Dynasty and Lu You's works. By the Ming Dynasty, although the Dong people had been separated from the Liao people, some people called the Dong people "Liao". For example, Kuang Lu said in his chiya at the end of Ming Dynasty: "Dong is also a kind of Liao.". Gu Yanwu in Qing Dynasty said in the book of diseases of the prefectures and states of the world: "the people of Dongliao, who lived in the mountains and rivers, were called Shanyue in ancient times. Since the Tang and Song Dynasties, they have been developing and spreading." Thus, Dong, Liao and Yue are linked together.
The Dong nationality formed into a single nationality, probably in the Sui and Tang Dynasties. In the Tang Dynasty, the upper class figures, chiefs or leaders of the Dong nationality began to belong to the central dynasty. The Tang Dynasty began to set up prefectures and counties in "Dong District", established Jimi regime, and appointed the local leader of big surname as the governor. At that time, there were jimihuang prefecture (including the whole territory of Xinhuang Dong Autonomous County in Hunan Province and part of Zhijiang and Tianzhu in Guizhou Province), Tanyang prefecture (including linglongbiao, Tanyang and Langxi counties, including Zhijiang, Huitong and Jingzhou in Hunan Province and Jinping, Tianzhu and Liping in Guizhou Province), Ningyi Prefecture (including cengong, Shiqian and Yuxi in Guizhou Province) They are located in the eastern part of Zhenyuan, Sansui and Pingping, the loxing County of Guzhou (including the southwest of Congjiang, Rongjiang and Liping in Guizhou today), and Rongshui County of Rongzhou (including the northwest of Sanjiang, Rongshui and Longsheng in Guangxi today). In the late Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties, the feudal dynasty declined and was unable to rule the ethnic minorities in the border areas. The big surnamed local tyrants of the Dong nationality called themselves "Dongzhu". They were in charge of Chengzhou and Huizhou and had jurisdiction over ten Dongs. Today, Jingzhou, Huitong, Zhijiang, Suining, Tongdao, Liping, Jinping, Tianzhu and other places all belong to the scope of "ten Dongs". As the administrative division of Dong society, the politics, economy and military affairs in Dong society are controlled by the "Dong master".
During the Northern Song Dynasty, the leaders of the Dong nationality successively attached themselves to the feudal dynasty and paid tribute to the imperial court for local specialties, while the imperial court made them hereditary local officials. In 980, Yang Tongbao, the leader of the ten caves in Chengzhou, accepted the land from the Song Dynasty. In the first year of Dazhong Xiangfu (1008), the leader of the Song Dynasty was appointed governor of Guzhou (now in Xinhuang and Yuping). In the second year of Daguan (1108), Yang Zaili of the West Road of Jingzhou offered his land. There were more than 3000 Li around, 4500 households and 11000 people. The imperial court granted them the official posts of assassins, but did not give them the power of assassins. In Song Dynasty, due to the strong influence of Han nationality's economy and culture, Dong nationality's politics and economy also developed greatly. In the areas that could be influenced by the dynastic forces, the "Dongshou" also began to set up cities and schools. According to the records of "general textual research of documents", the leaders near Chengzhou had already "established Chengzhai" and "made it the king and people of the mainland." The "Dongding" who live near the "Dongshou" castle have gradually become "familiar households", and those remote mountain areas are called "Shengjie".
The rule of the Dong Nationality in the Yuan Dynasty followed the "Jimi" policy since the Tang and Song dynasties. In 1283, the Yuan Dynasty conquered the "Eighteen caves of Jiuxi". Most of the local officials in the Dong nationality area belonged to the Yuan Dynasty. The imperial court "decided the place where the chieftains could go to the palace to set up officials, and those who could join the government, the big place was the state, the small place was the county, and the general office was established.".
In 1372, the fifth year of Hongwu in Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang ordered Wu Liang, the Marquis of Jiangyin, to accept the Dong areas such as wukai (now Liping County in Guizhou) and Guzhou (now northwest Liping and Jinping area in Guizhou) and obtain 223 caves with a population of more than 15000. Zhu Yuanzhang appointed the local officials who were attached to him. In 1414, the Ming Dynasty set up Liping and Xinhua government, and appointed Liuguan to directly control the Tusi. There was a ruling situation of "Tu Liu and Zhi" in Dong area.
In 1378, the Dong People's uprising broke out in Liping under the leadership of Wu Mian. The uprising army directly attacked Jingzhou and swept the Dong area. All the 12 officers and departments in Guzhou supported Wu Mian. With the development of the uprising army to 200000 people, Wu Mian was promoted as the "king of shoveling". Later, the uprising army occupied the border area of Guizhou and Guangxi, and shocked Huguang. In August of 1385, the Ming Dynasty ordered Tang He to be the commander-in-chief, and Zhu Zhen, the king of Chu, led 300000 troops. Wu Mian was captured and killed when the uprising army failed in the first World War. The Ming Dynasty set up a large number of military institutions in the Dong area, such as guard, station, village and fort, to further strengthen the feudal rule of the Dong area. In 1397, the Ming Dynasty set up a bronze drum guard in Jinping County, where more than 18000 troops were stationed and 354 hectares of land were occupied. A peasant uprising led by Lin Kuan broke out in shangpodong area of Jinping.
In the early Qing Dynasty, the rule of the central dynasty in the Dong area still followed the Ming Dynasty's "coexistence of Tusi and Liuguan", but the real power of Tusi was weakened, and they were controlled by Liuguan. During the reign of Yongzheng, the central dynasty adjusted part of the Wei and Suo in the Dong area and strengthened the control of the officials. In 1725, wukaiwei and tongguwei were changed to be subordinate to Liping Prefecture. In 1727, tongguwei was changed to Jinping County, wukaiwei to Kaitai County, pingxiwei to Yuping County, and qinglangwei to Qingxi county. In 1729, Zhang Guangsi, the magistrate of Liping, "bribed Miao people with gold coins to enter the province under the pretext of passing the road. Because he kept a secret record of the road, mountains and rivers, and the dangerous situation, marshal Chen Qing bought and raised money, unified his troops to suppress and pacify them, and determined the place slightly." After calming down the Miao and Dong areas around Leigong Mountain, Guzhou hall and Qingjiang hall were set up in Rongjiang and Jianhe respectively. By changing the land to Liu, Dong people were basically brought into the rule of Liu officials. In the second year of Qianlong (1737), Gu Cong, the Assistant Minister of the Ministry of official affairs, played in Song Dynasty: "in the deep mountains and deep valleys, Guizhou recruited people to settle down in the fields, so as to seize the land of food and clothing for the seedlings. Now that they are still in a state of decline, they have to live in caves and have difficulty in finding food. When autumn comes, they will gather people to urge them to change their lives, kill and plunder them. They must not refuse to raise money. "
After the Opium War in 1840, with the invasion of foreign capitalist forces, the Dong nationality area gradually became a small area
Chinese PinYin : Dong Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:21:46
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