Buyi Nationality, a relatively large minority in Southwest China, has the Buyi language as its national language. It belongs to the Zhuang Dai branch of the Zhuang Dong language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. It is closely related to the Zhuang language and is commonly used in Chinese.
The Buyi Nationality evolved from the ancient Liao people and focused on agriculture. The Buyi ancestors began to grow rice very early and enjoyed the name of "rice nation".
The Buyi Nationality is mainly distributed in Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan and other provinces, of which the Buyi population in Guizhou Province is the largest, accounting for 97% of the national Buyi population. They mainly live in two Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefectures in southern and southwestern Guizhou, as well as Anshun City, Guiyang city and Liupanshui City. Other cities, prefectures and regions are scattered, and a small part live in Vietnam.
In 2010, there were more than 2.87 million people in the sixth national census.
Buyi Nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||Buyi Nationality|
|population size||About 2.87 million (2010)|
|population distribution||Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, Shandong, etc|
|written words||Ancient bui, Latin new bui|
|faith||Moslem, Catholic, polytheistic worship|
|alias||A united nation, an industrious and thrifty nation|
|festival||March 3, July 1 / 2, June 6, full year|
|Famous songs||"Good red flowers", "sweet scented osmanthus blooms and happiness comes"|
|Famous scenic spot||Huangguoshu waterfall and Libo World Natural Heritage|
|National cuisine||Five color glutinous rice, girdle cake, zongzi|
|Humanistic ancestor||Buluotuo (Bouyei bauslegdoz)|
|historical event||"Nanlong uprising" of Buyi Nationality in Jiaqing of Qing Dynasty|
|National treasure quyi||Eight tone sitting singing, Buyi opera, Buyi song|
Chinese PinYin : Bu Yi Zu
The Buyi Nationality originated from the ancient "Baiyue". It was called "puyue" or "Puyi" before the Qin and Han Dynasties, the "Liao" during the Six Dynasties of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the "fan man" in the Tang and Song Dynasties, and the "Bafan", "Zhongjia", "Nongjia", "Bulong", "Longren", "turen" and "Yi" before the founding of the people's Republic of China.
Buyi people call themselves "puyue" or "Puyi", and use Chinese characters to write "Buyi", "Buyi", "Buyei", "Bujiang" and so on. In the Buyi language, "bu" means "family" or "person".
In the old local chronicles, there were people who recorded the Buyi Nationality as "Yi nationality", "Yi family" and "Yi people". In addition to claiming themselves, Buyi Ethnic Groups in different regions also call each other "Bulong", "Buna", "butu", "Budu", "Buyang", "bulongha" and so on.
In 1953, according to the wishes of the nation and with the approval of the State Council, it was uniformly named "Buyi Nationality".
Some scholars believe that the "Yelang" state in the Western Han Dynasty has a certain origin relationship with the Buyi Nationality. The evidence is that although Yelang has a wide jurisdiction, its central area should be in today's Guiyang City, Anshun City, Southwest Guizhou or Qiannan Autonomous Prefecture inhabited by Buyi Nationality; Secondly, "night" and "Yue", "Lang" and "Luo" sound close, while "Lang Ye" (i.e. "Yelang") and "Luo Yue" have the same meaning, meaning "Yue people's country with Lang's family as the leader". "Lang" and "Luo" are the transliteration of the ancient Yue people to the king, official, leader or leader of the "Lang" clan. It was first seen in the annals of Huayang · annals of nanzhong and the biography of Southwest Barbarians in the later Han Dynasty. It is said that "Yelang" came from "bamboo" (i.e. bamboo shoots). When he grew up, he was virtuous to Southwest Barbarians and was the king of Yelang. Descendants live side by side, with "Lang" as the leader or official. Today, Buyi and Zhuang still call bamboo shoots "Ranz", which is translated into Chinese characters as "Lang". In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, "local officials" were called "Lang", "Han officials" were called "Han Lang", and they were insulted and called "wolves". Later, the Han nationality was gradually used to call its nationality or its place.
From Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties to Tang Dynasty, Buyi and Zhuang were known as "Li Liao", "man Liao" or "Yi Liao". After the Five Dynasties, the Buyi Nationality was called "Zhongjia", and the Zhuang nationality was called "Zhuang" in the Song Dynasty. "Zhong" and "Zhuang" are homonymous. Later, due to long-term separation, Buyi and Zhuang nationalities gradually formed.
Archaeologists unearthed dozens of Neolithic polished stone tools in Anshun, Guiyang and Qiannan, Guizhou Province. Some of them, such as shoulder stone and shoulder axe, are very similar to similar artifacts in the southeast coast and South China. It is possible that these are the cultures left over by the ancient Yue people and are closely related to the ancestors of the Buyi people.
In the Buyi area in the Qin and Han Dynasties, hereditary kings or princes have emerged. The place where the princes lived has formed a "town gathering" and has a strong armed force. This shows that the social productive forces had developed greatly at that time. According to archaeological evidence, the cultural relics of the Han Dynasty unearthed in the Buyi area are mainly copper and iron. For example, bronze plows, hoes, axes and tomahawks of the Han Dynasty were found in Southwest Guizhou, bronze swords and tomahawks of the Han Dynasty unearthed in tomb 18 of Qingzhen, and iron hoes, hoes and shovels of the Han Dynasty unearthed in other areas, indicating that the agricultural production in the Buyi area was quite developed at that time, but it was backward than that in the Central Plains, and still remained in the stage of combining copper and iron. This situation is consistent with the statement in the annals of Huayang that "she mountain is a field, there is no sericulture, there is still a lot of learning,... There are few livestock, although there are servants, the counties are poor".
After the Western Han Dynasty, the local regime of "Yelang" was unified by the Han Dynasty. Since then, the contact between the Buyi area and the Central Plains has gradually increased. In the Tang Dynasty, the Central Plains Dynasty set up some Jimi prefectures and counties in the Buyi area, taking the local minority leaders as the assassins and inheriting their land. In the Five Dynasties, "eight Tibetan" chieftains were added. The Song Dynasty continued to implement the "Jimi policy", granting local leaders the titles of assassin, rank, GE and general respectively, which were divided into Sichuan Road, Hunan Road and Guangnan West Road. In the Yuan Dynasty, there were Luodian propaganda and comfort Department (under the jurisdiction of Anshun City), Shunyuan road Army Civil comfort Department (under the jurisdiction of Guiyang), Duyun military and civilian government (under the jurisdiction of some counties in Qiannan prefecture), yuyabu wanhusuo (under the jurisdiction of Qianxinan Prefecture and Pan County in Liupanshui City), Sicheng military and civilian government (under the jurisdiction of some counties in Qiannan prefecture), etc. The chieftain system in the Ming Dynasty became more and more complete. It was not until the large-scale implementation of "changing soil to flow" in the Yongzheng period of the Qing Dynasty that the Jimi system and chieftain system, which ruled Buyi areas for more than 1000 years, gradually ended.
At the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, the social production in the Buyi area developed further. During this period, the weight and length of hoe in agricultural tools generally increased, and the hoe was improved from sticking steel to clamping steel in the past; The use of a stick for rice threshing was changed to a tart bucket, which greatly improved the labor efficiency. Water mills are also used in Luodian, Anlong and Pingtang. Due to the improvement of production tools and production technology and the continuous improvement of productivity, the "people of grain farms" and "people of private farms" are gradually polarized. Some of them are becoming increasingly poor and become tenant farmers, while others are becoming increasingly rich and form rich farmers and landlords. The Qing Dynasty's movement of "changing soil to flow" provided strong policy support for the economic development of Buyi areas, and objectively accelerated the economic development of Buyi areas and the collapse of the Lord economy and chieftain system. However, with the development of the landlord economy and the high concentration of land, the exploitation of farmers by the landlord class has become more and more serious, and the class contradictions have become increasingly acute, which has aroused countless resistance struggles of the Buyi people. Among them, the largest was the "Nanlong" uprising led by Wei Chaoyuan (No. 7 lock beard), Wang Achong (No. Wang Baoxian), a Buyi farmer in Anlong county, and sang Hongsheng, a Han nationality, in the second year of Jiaqing of the Qing Dynasty. Wang Achong was an outstanding female peasant leader of the Buyi Nationality in the middle of the Qing Dynasty. He came from a poor peasant family in dongsazhai, Anlong county, Guizhou Province. In the first year of Jiaqing of the Qing Dynasty (1796), she was less than 20 years old when she led the "Nanlong" peasant uprising with Wei Chaoyuan. In September of the third year of Jiaqing (1798), Wang Achong and other uprising leaders were unfortunately captured and died bravely in Beijing. Afterwards, the local people placed the statues of Wang Achong, Wei Chaoyuan and others in Anlong county and dangzhang village. Their heroic deeds are still praised by the Buyi people.
Inspired and influenced by the peasant revolution of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, a peasant uprising of all ethnic groups in Guizhou broke out in the Buyi area for 18 years from the 1950s. The most influential are: the peasant uprising led by Yang Yuanbao, the leader of Buyi farmers in Dushan Prefecture in 1854; Anshun langdaima Shuang uprising in 1855; In 1861, the naturalized peasants responded to the peasant uprising broke out by Zeng Guangyi Department of the Taiping army, and so on. These peasant uprisings severely attacked and weakened the reactionary ruling forces in collusion between imperialism and the rulers of the Qing Dynasty. During the uprising, the Buyi people and the local Miao, Han and other fraternal people fought together and formed a deep class friendship.
In the 31st year of Guangxu (1905), Luo Faxian, a Buyi farmer, made an oath with Luo Guangyuan and others, put forward the slogan of "covering the Qing Dynasty and exterminating the foreign countries", and led the local farmers to hold an armed uprising. In the 32nd year of Guangxu (1906), the people of all nationalities along Duyun launched a struggle against the cultural aggression of French imperialism. People of all ethnic groups in guiding, Dushan, Libo and other places responded one after another, and as many as 20000 people participated in the struggle. They destroyed churches and punished bureaucrat landlords who betrayed the country to the enemy, which fully demonstrated their lofty patriotism and unyielding revolutionary will.
In 1932, Wang Haiping (Buyi Nationality in Wangmo county), then commander of the West Road column of the National Revolutionary Army, agreed to the requirements of the Guizhou Guangxi Border Committee of the Communist Party of China and received a company of the Red Army stationed in faka (now Wangmo county), which created conditions for the Border Committee to carry out work in Southwest Guizhou. In 1935, the Chinese workers' and peasants' Red Army went north to resist Japan and passed through southern Guizhou. Along the way, it was warmly welcomed by the people of Buyi and brother nationalities. Many Buyi people led the way, delivered food and information for the Red Army. When the Red Army came to Biandan mountain in Zhenning County, the Red Army publicized the party's national united front policy to the local Buyi people. Many Buyi young people bravely joined the Red Army and went north with the army to resist Japan. In 1936, the first column of the eighth Red Army cooperated with Wang Haiping's department to eliminate the invading Guangxi inspector army in banchen, Wangmo County, and then seized the residual firearms of Guizhou warlord Yang Yuliang. In 1937, the party organization in Western Guangxi organized the "Anti Japanese and National Salvation Association" in Southern Guizhou to unite all anti Japanese forces and crack down on illegal gentry and bullies.
In 1943, thousands of people, such as Buyi and Miao in Zhenfeng County, launched an "anti tyranny" uprising. The uprising masses put forward slogans such as "officials forced the people to oppose, had to oppose", "fighting the rich and helping the poor", "killing Yang gouer (pseudo county magistrate Yang Baiju)", and the uprising team expanded rapidly. They conquered Zhenfeng County, killed bullies, drove away the puppet county magistrate, and released the imprisoned people. The people of all ethnic groups in Anlong, Xingren, Zhenning and other places responded one after another, causing the reactionaries to panic. In 1944, when the Japanese imperialist invaders invaded Southern Guizhou, the heroic Buyi people organized one after another and launched a fierce resistance struggle in Dushan, Libo and Sandu, which dealt a heavy blow to the invaders.
In 1945, Lu Renjun, a young Buyi, led the Buyi and Miao people in Anshun to launch an uprising against the "three levies" (conscription, grain collection and taxation), which suppressed the puppet townships and Baochang with great public anger. In 1948, under the leadership of the party, the Buyi youth in Anlong county organized an armed force of more than 700 people to extensively carry out the struggle against the "three levies". In the same year, the Yunnan Guangxi Guizhou border region column of the Chinese people's Liberation Army was established and a compass guerrilla zone was established in Southern Guizhou. The Guanling guerrilla led by Buyi youth Wang Youzhi was adapted into the seventh Panbei guerrilla detachment of the Yunnan Guizhou Guangxi border region column. In June 1949, Wang binggu, a young Bouyei, was appointed by the party organization of the Yunnan Guizhou Guangxi border region to lead the Bouyei people to launch the Longguang uprising, severely attacked the local armed forces of the Kuomintang, and cooperated with the Chinese people's Liberation Army to liberate Guizhou Province.
The central court of the Tang Dynasty set up Jimi Prefecture County in the Buyi area, taking the local minority leaders as the assassins and inheriting their land. In the Five Dynasties, "eight Tibetan" chieftains were added. The Song Dynasty continued to implement the "Jimi policy", and the Yuan Dynasty placed propaganda and comfort departments, comfort departments, military and civilian governments, etc.
During the reign of chieftain system in yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, the social form of Buyi Nationality area basically stayed in the economic stage of feudal lords. Chieftains and local officials occupy all the land in the territory and ruthlessly exploit the local people (farmers and serfs), but they do not fully occupy the local people and cannot kill them arbitrarily. The Lord divided the local people and territory into sentry, armour, pavilion and Tun, handed them to sentry, armour, pavilion and armour respectively for inheritance, and then gave each local people a piece of land to cultivate and eat by themselves. They were not allowed to sell by pawn. The local people were tightly bound to this territory, so that they could be attached to the Lord and obey the local officials and envoys from generation to generation.
The rule of the local officials over the territory and the local people can be divided into direct and indirect. The territories and indigenous people directly ruled (including domestic slaves) include: (1) Indian fields and indigenous people who cultivated Indian fields. Yintian, also known as salary field, means that the chieftain distributes the best paddy field in his territory to nearby farmers for cultivation. The farmers bring their own farm animals and tools and farm for the chieftain free of charge. All the income of Yintian belongs to the chieftain. (2) Laboured fields and the local people who cultivate them. In order to meet the needs of his family life, the chieftain distributed part of the land to the farmers for self cultivation and self food. The farmers must perform free labor for the chieftain. These fields are called chef field, paddy field, needle and thread field, horse material field, firewood field, small vegetable field, etc. Farmers will serve whatever kind of labor they grow. (3) The field of general affairs, the field of officers and soldiers, and the field of general affairs, officers and soldiers. This is a kind of land with the nature of salaries distributed by the Chieftain to his assistants and servants. The servants cultivate and eat by themselves without land tax. The ownership of this land still belongs to the chieftain. Once the matter is removed, the land will be recovered by the chieftain. (4) Domestic slaves, mostly women, are slaves of the chieftain family. They have no personal freedom. Most of them are bought by the chieftain or dowry.
The indirectly ruled territories and local people include: (1) "Liangzhuang" (also known as Liangtian and Gongtian) and "Liangzhuang people". "Grain field" refers to the field that farmers "divide the land and cultivate it, and rent it to the owner (chieftain)" within the jurisdiction of the chieftain. After changing the land to flow, the land ownership belongs to the dynasty, and the grain is supplied to the court, which is called "grain field" or "public field". People who cultivate "grain fields" are called "grain village people" or "grain village" for short. In addition to paying rent and taxes, they also bear the unpaid labor of printing fields. (2) "Private village" and "private village people". The so-called "private village" refers to the land formed by farmers who come from other places to take refuge in a chieftain and open up wasteland in the area designated by the chieftain; The farmers who cultivate this land are called "private villagers". They don't pay taxes, but they have to "give gifts" to the local officials during the new year's festival or when they have weddings and funerals. They also have to pay a certain amount of "fireworks money" to the local officials every year. The labor fields of chieftains are also cultivated by "private villagers". "Grain village people" and "private village people" are the higher class of the local people, and they have formed free farmers over the years.
In Buyi areas, some wealthy local officials, Ba Shi and a few dependent people who occupy more land, as well as Han landlords and usurers, have formed a new landlord class, and physical land rent has gradually replaced labor land rent. In the fifth year of Yongzheng (1727), the Qing Dynasty adopted a large-scale policy of "changing the land to the flow", objectively established and developed the feudal landlord economy in Buyi areas, accelerated the collapse of the Lord economy, and the chieftain system also disappeared.
In 1950, the Chinese people's Liberation Army sent a task force to the Buyi area to visit the poor. In 1951, the farmers' Association was established with the posts of chairman, vice chairman and member to exercise the responsibilities of grass-roots political power. In 1952, the land reform was completed. New people's governments at County, District, township and village levels have been established in Buyi areas. On August 8, 1956, Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture was established, marking the realization of the Buyi people's right to national autonomy. After that, seven Buyi and Miao Autonomous counties were established: Zhenning Buyi and Miao Autonomous County was established on September 11, 1963, Wangmo Buyi and Miao Autonomous County, Ceheng Buyi Autonomous County, Zhenfeng Buyi and Miao Autonomous County, Anlong Buyi and Miao Autonomous County and Ziyun Buyi and Miao Autonomous County were established in February 1966, and Guanling Buyi and Miao Autonomous County was established in December 1981. In May 1982, Xingyi Prefecture and its four subordinate autonomous counties of Wangmo, Ceheng, Anlong and Zhenfeng were abolished, and southwest Guizhou Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture was established.
Buyi traditional social organizations include "clan system", "Yelang system", "Zhailao system", etc. They originated from the ancient clan management system, are the inheritance and development of ancient democracy, and also have the characteristics of class society.
The Buyi clan system is composed of one or more villages of the same clan, which is common everywhere. Their blood organizations are closely linked, and intermarriage is prohibited. Every clan has a patriarch. The patriarch is naturally born among the adults of the clan, and is generally held by those with higher rank and prestige; Or those who are not high in seniority, but belong to a large economic family and have the ability and prestige in society can also serve. The duties of the patriarch are to apply for family rules and regulations, and educate the people in moral character. The education contents include fairness, respect for the old and love the young, mutual help, self-reliance and self-improvement, being kind to others, convincing people with reason, being enthusiastic about public welfare, loving the village and family, etc. The patriarch can criticize, educate and even punish those who violate clan rules. Externally, the patriarch represents the interests of the clan, maintains the dignity of the clan and reflects the style and bearing of the clan.
The form of clan proceedings is embodied in "family head plenary meeting", "family head representative meeting", "special meeting between parties and assessors", "consultation meeting of relevant parties", etc. In case of democratic consultation, the resolution shall be implemented by the patriarch.
The ancestral temple is a place for clan worship and gathering. Usually, it is guarded by a specially assigned person. The patriarch regularly presides over the sacrifice in the ancestral temple, announces the clan rules and gets together for family banquets. The expenses are paid by the family's "sacrificial field" income.
Clan gatherings include "Bronze Drum Festival" and "Tomb Sweeping Festival". Each Buyi clan has one or several bronze drums as the ancestral treasure of the clan. During the Spring Festival, drums were played for music and bronze drums were sacrificed; On the evening of the fifteenth day of the first month, the drum was collected and sacrificed again. Then, the group sent the bronze drums to the patriarch's house for preservation, and the whole family bought wine and banquet to show the unity and will of the clan. "Tomb Sweeping Day gathering" is presided over by the patriarch to hold parent meetings to determine the scale, division of labor and amount of expenses. Each family will pay a certain amount of money. At that time, they will gather in front of their ancestral tombs, kill pigs, prepare wine to worship their ancestors, and hold a family banquet. This has the function of recalling the past and thinking about the present and uniting upward.
In Buyi language of Pingtang, Huishui and other counties, it is called "Yelang"; In Wangmo, Ceheng and other counties, it is called "discussing each practice". "Lang" originated from the blood organization of the Buyi Nationality in the early society, and it is also the title of the clan to the tribal chief. "Discussion" means "concentration" and "gathering". With the development of society, the "Yelang" has gradually become a rural commune organization based on geographical relations.
"Bargaining system" organization, small, including one or several adjacent villages; The big ones include hundreds of villages. You can participate regardless of family name and clan. There are hammers, wizards, and leaders in charge of military affairs and justice. The largest authority of the organization is the parliament. Mainly discuss the major issues in the discussion; Formulate rules and regulations; Elect various deacons. The main contents of the statute are: to protect private property from infringement; Maintain production and living order; Maintain public ethics; Decide on specific measures to safeguard collective security and resist foreign aggression, etc. The rules and regulations reflect the will and desire of the masses in the organization and have strong binding force. Everyone must abide by them and those who violate them will be prosecuted. In the period of social unrest, the rules and regulations often play a great role.
Every village in Buyi area has an old Village Association, which is called "Bu board" in Buyi language. The village is always the natural leader of a village, elected by the masses. The number of old people in the village ranges from 23 to 56, depending on the size of the village and the number of candidates. The prestige and power of the stronghold are naturally formed. They are capable of handling affairs in the village. Usually, they are willing to consult them and listen to their opinions on anything in the village; When major events require concerted action, people are willing to follow their command and recognize their status. Village elders do not need to be formally elected, and there is no hereditary problem. He has no privileges and interests. His duty is to resolve all kinds of contradictions and disputes inside and outside the village, negotiate with the villagers to formulate "township rules and regulations" for the protection of mountains, forests and crops, make decisions to stop or fight, and preside over red and white weddings, village god worship ceremonies and various gatherings in the village. This primitive form of social organization remained in some Buyi villages until the 1980s.
Holding a temple meeting to sacrifice the village is also one of the functions of the village elders. During the period of the Republic of China, the custom of offering sacrifices to village gods prevailed among Buyi people. Generally, the village gods are sacrificed several times a year, which are the third day of the first month, the third day of March, the sixth day of June and the fifteenth day of July. Every time cattle, pigs, cocks and other sacrifices are sacrificed, the village old man will preside over the sacrifice, and the priest will read scriptures and pray for a good harvest. The villagers have a meal together, which plays a great role in strengthening the village rules and enhancing cohesion. After 1950, the village temple will gradually disappear, but the village old system still exists.
During the Qin and Han Dynasties, the agricultural production in Buyi district had developed, but it was backward than that in the Central Plains. With the extension of the feudal forces in the Qin and Han Dynasties, it objectively promoted the development of the Buyi social productive forces, and the feudal production relations were gradually established. Around the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, the social productivity of the Buyi Nationality had a new development. The weight and length of hoes in agricultural tools generally increased, and the hoes were improved from sticking steel to clamping steel.
With the improvement of production tools and production technology and the further development of production, the landlord economy came into being. After the Opium War in 1840, imperialist forces began to invade Southern Guizhou, which contributed to the gradual disintegration of the feudal natural economy in the Buyi area and gradually became a semi colonial and semi feudal society.
After the founding of the people's Republic of China, the Buyi people, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China and the people's government, carried out a series of social reforms, eliminated feudal land ownership and abolished the root causes of national oppression and feudal exploitation.
The party and the government have made great efforts to help the Buyi people develop medical and health undertakings in terms of human, material and financial resources. A medical and health care network has been initially formed in the Buyi area, effectively ensuring the people's health.
According to the data of the sixth national census in 2010, there were 2870034 people, accounting for 0.2153% of the national population.
The Buyi people in China are mainly distributed in Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan and other places, most of them in Guizhou. Most of them live in the two Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefectures in southern and southwestern Guizhou, Anshun City and Guiyang city. They are also distributed in the Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture in Southeastern Guizhou, Tongren region, Zunyi City, Bijie district, Liupanshui City, Luoping in Yunnan, Ningnan, Huidong, Puge and other places in Sichuan.
A small number of Buyi people live in Vietnam and immigrated from China more than 200 years ago.
Buyi people believe in ancestors and many kinds of gods. Mountains, water, wells, caves and ancient trees with strange growth are all regarded as the embodiment of gods. Local temples are built in each village. In some specific religious ceremonies, God bamboo should be worshipped. Buyi people in various places also worship Thor, door god, Kitchen God, Dragon King and so on. These reflect the primitive religious beliefs of Buyi Nationality as an agricultural nation.
"Mo religion" is a relatively mature religious belief form of Buyi Nationality, which is between the type of transition from primitive religion to man-made religion. Its religious professionals are divided into "Bumo" and "Maya". Bhumo was formed through learning. Under the leadership of master, he learned a series of scriptures and ritual procedures. If he can inherit master's mantle, he can become a monk. Bumo worships "baolutuo" as the founder. In all kinds of ancestor worship activities, the first ceremony is to invite "baolutuo" to show the authority of the whole sacrifice activity.
In the Sutra, "baolutuo" has extraordinary power and wisdom, can insight into ancient and modern times, and can solve any problems in the world. The basic idea of Mojing is that all things on earth are created by the ancestor god "baolutuo". All things have spirits. The soul has mysterious power and needs sacrifice and worship. After specific rituals and conditions, all things can change each other to achieve the purpose of disaster and blessing. People suffering from diseases are caused by some kind of ghost. Diseases can be expelled by holding some kind of ceremony. After death, the soul will not die. Through the transcendence of ceremony, the soul will enter the fairyland. Bhumo has a relatively complete sacrificial classic - Sutra, as well as relatively fixed and standardized religious rituals.
In addition to performing certain religious rituals, sacrificial activities should also be supplemented by reading classics. The numerous Mo Sutras in ancient books can be roughly divided into many volumes of funeral Sutra and ancient Xie Sutra used in funeral activities, as well as various miscellaneous sutras used for blessing, exorcism, disaster and other purposes. Mo Jing contains the national political, economic and cultural life of Buyi ancient society, as well as people's social communication and moral etiquette. Maya was formed on a specific occasion through the attachment of ghosts and then through the Enlightenment of Bumo (Antan). Maya's Witchcraft activities are called "Da Fan Na".
After the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Buddhism, Taoism and Catholicism were successively introduced into Buyi areas, and there were a few believers among the people. From the contents of Mo Sutra and the props used in various rituals, we can see the infiltration of Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism into Buyi culture. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Catholicism preached in Buyi areas, with Bishops' offices and advisory councils, under which there were chief priests and church gates. However, Catholicism was opposed by the Buyi people because of the misdeeds of missionaries and the difference between Catholicism and the Buyi people's beliefs.
There are several kinds of Buyi folk houses, including buildings, half buildings and bungalows.
Half buildings generally adopt the architectural pattern of bungalows in the rear half, buildings in the front half, or bungalows in the left (right) half and buildings in the right (left) half. Buildings and half buildings are the traditional architectural forms of Buyi Nationality. The upper floor of the building is high, people live, and the lower floor is low. It is surrounded by livestock. It was called "dry fence" or "hemp fence" in ancient times. The utility model has the advantages of simple structure and beautiful form, and is suitable for the topographic characteristics of southern mountainous areas.
In the room layout, a shrine is set on the back wall of the hall house to worship the ancestors, and the left and right sides are divided into kitchen, bedroom and guest room. There is a fire hall in the room for the family to warm and cook.
In Central Guizhou, due to the real estate stone, the foundation and wall are built with stone, and the roof is also covered with slate, which is called slate house; In addition, the stone Walled Village wall and the stone castle on the top of the mountain form a typical stone building complex. For example, there are more than 230 families in the stone village of Biandan mountain. All houses are arranged along the contour line and are built of stone.
The layout of the village is set against the Tianba and Xiaohe in front of the village, as well as the stone slab flat bridge and stone arch bridge leading everywhere.
Buyi people take rice as their staple food and eat corn, wheat, red barnyardgrass, buckwheat, etc.
Buyi people especially like glutinous food and have a variety of production methods, such as making Ciba, round sugar Ba, ear block Ba, pillow Zong and triangle Zong. Every new year's festival, we must eat glutinous rice and give glutinous rice cake to relatives and friends. The festival also likes to eat all kinds of "glutinous rice" dyed with flower juice and leaf juice.
Non staple foods include all kinds of vegetables, beans and meat. Vegetable processing products include famous "Dushan hydrochloric acid", "sour pepper" and so on. Meat processing includes bacon and sausage; It likes to eat dog meat, with different processing methods and unique flavor. The more famous ones are "Huajiang dog meat", "Duyun braised dog meat", "Ceheng dog meat banquet", etc. Bean products mainly include Douchi, tofu, blood tofu, etc.
Pepper, pickled cabbage and sour soup are indispensable for daily life.
Every family in Buyi can brew glutinous rice wine, rice and corn liquor. Some places also make glutinous rice cellar wine, Yanren rice wine and sucrose wine, which are quite characteristic. Some rice wine is brewed with wild thorn quinoa fruit, which is rich in nutrition and used to entertain distinguished guests. The brewing technology of thorn quinoa wine has a history of hundreds of years.
Buyi costumes are mostly blue, blue and white.
Before the 1970s, men wore headscarves, short clothes or long shirts and trousers. The old man wears many long clothes.
After the 1970s, men's clothing was no different from Han clothing. There are many styles of women's costumes. At present, the older costumes of the Buyi Nationality are still preserved in Zhenning, Guanling, Puding and Liupanshui: large neckline short clothes, neckline, pan shoulder, sleeves and foot edges are inlaid with brocade and batik geometric patterns; Wear a pleated skirt, sewn with blue batik cloth on a white background, and wear all kinds of silver jewelry. The women's clothing of Buyi Nationality in Qianxinan Prefecture and Luodian County of Qiannan Prefecture is generally large skirt clothes and trousers feet; The shoulders, cuffs and lapels of the clothes are inlaid with orchids; The trouser legs are large pleats, or blue trouser legs are inlaid with blue cloth and blue stem. The length of clothes and the size of trouser legs vary from region to region. Self made brocade and batik are the main characteristics of Buyi costumes.
Buyi women pay attention to headwear. They wear braids and embroidered headscarves before marriage; After marriage, the bamboo shoot shell must be used as the special decoration of the "skeleton", which is called "gengkao", which means becoming a family. In Zhenning and Guanling areas, girls like to wear high bun like an arch bridge, with silver hairpins about feet long inserted in their hair, short clothes, long skirts and embroidered cloth shoes. They walk with elegant charm. In other areas, short clothes and trousers are often worn, or batik or embroidery lace is inlaid on the skirt, neckline and trouser legs. Women in Anlong and Xingren in Southwest Guizhou like to use white cloth as headscarves and wear colorful embroidered waistbands, which are simple, elegant and generous. Silver, jade bracelets, hairpins, rings, collars and other accessories are loved by Buyi women, and their styles are unique.
The Buyi family implements the patriarchal system. Parents have the power to control the economy and command members of the family. Male elders are respected, and those with integrity have more prestige. Disputes among ethnic groups can be mediated by themselves without appeal to the government. Women's status is lower than that of men. Widows can inherit property, but they can't if they remarry. In some places, there is a marriage system of "brother and brother" (commonly known as "filling a house").
The family structure is generally small families, but also large families with three or four generations. Generally, families with a large population live separately after their sons grow up and get married. When separating families in some areas, the property of the family must first be left in the "pension field" of the parents and the "girl field" of the unmarried girl, and the rest of the fields and real estate shall be divided equally by children. In case of a bereaved family, the property shall be inherited by their relatives. After separation, most parents live with Manzi (young son). In some areas, there is no "pension field", and several sons take turns to support their parents and share the responsibility of burial.
Myths, stories, fairy tales, fables, proverbs, poems and other oral literature widely spread among the people tell the ancient national history, praise the people's diligence and courage, expose the darkness and cruelty of the old society, and look forward to the happiness and brightness of the new society. It has a wide range of themes, beautiful artistic conception, healthy content, vivid language and imagination. Myths and legends such as flood tide days, twelve suns, smoke made by Saihu Ximei, boding shooting the sun, searching for grain seeds in mangye, and the legend of Huangguoshu waterfall are all popular works.
Buyi folk songs are full of national characteristics, including narrative songs, ancient songs, production and labor songs, custom songs, love songs, bitter songs, wedding crying songs, children's songs, new folk songs, etc. Singing in Buyi or Chinese has different sentence patterns and structures. In Buyi language, there are three sentence patterns of five words, seven words and miscellaneous words, and three rules of single paragraph, double paragraph and long article. Single paragraph song is also called "Sanhua tune", that is, a single paragraph becomes a song by itself; A two part song is also called "two tone", that is, one song is divided into two parts; A long song consists of several paragraphs, or although it is long, it is not divided into paragraphs. The tune can be divided into "major" and "minor". "Major" is used in grand occasions such as weddings and funerals. Its tone is high, generous and fascinating; "Minor" is sung on the moon night or when "Lang Shao Lang Mao" talks about love. The tone is soft, gentle, lively and beautiful. Singing methods include solo, duet, ensemble, chorus, etc. In the event of building a house, marrying a woman, the death of the elderly, greeting and sending, we should sing songs with corresponding contents. Sometimes we have to sing day and night for several days, which often has the nature of mutual competition. Capable singers can inspire their creative inspiration for the flowers, plants, birds, etc. around them, and make up and sing beautiful and implicit lyrics.
After 1950, the people's Government trained its own team of writers for the Buyi Nationality, and these writers created a lot of Buyi written literature. For example, the novel dawn of the ancient mountain, the mystery of the general's assassination, the short story eagle flying over the river valley, the children's affairs, the dream, the flower on the cliff, etc., the prose collection green dream, the record of the customs of waterfall Town, the sun woman, etc., and the poetry collection Panjiang singing, ye Ying Ji, mountain river love, distant mountain, ancient well, etc, The scripts include Luo Xixing, Jin Zhu Qing, black mountain man, etc., and the TV series six horse brothers and sisters, Buyi woman, etc. After the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee, three Buyi literary history were officially published.
Buyi language belongs to the Zhuang Dong language family of the Sino Tibetan language family, which has a close kinship with Zhuang language.
The northern dialect of Zhuang is basically the same as Buyi in Wangmo, Ceheng, Dushan, Pingtang, Anlong, Xingyi and other cities and counties in Guizhou. Due to the long-term cultural contact and communication between Buyi and Han, there are many Chinese Loanwords in Buyi vocabulary system.
Buyi language has a complete phonetic system, rich vocabulary and expressive grammatical structure. Buyi language is divided into three local language areas in Southern Guizhou, Central Guizhou and Western Guizhou (traditionally known as the first, second and third local language areas).
In the past, the Buyi people did not have their own characters and generally used Chinese. In the Buyi Mo Sutra, they used Chinese characters to remember sounds or used partial radicals to create some new characters to record scriptures according to the Chinese character "six books". In 1956, the Central People's government organized experts to create the Buyi Pinyin writing scheme based on the Latin alphabet. The program has been revised twice, and now it is mainly implemented in Buyi areas.
The commonly used musical instruments of Buyi Nationality include suona, Yueqin, Hulu Qin, bamboo Qin, Bala, Dongxiao, short Xiao, sister Xiao, bronze drum, ox bone Hu, etc. The bronze drum is the oldest and most characteristic musical instrument of Buyi Nationality. It is all made of bronze, and the drum body is cast with various patterns.
Before 1950, almost every village had bronze drums, which must be knocked for music during grand festivals. For funerals and sacrifices, only Duke Mo can beat bronze drums according to the ritual procedures.
The dance of Buyi Nationality mainly includes weaving dance, chaff bag dance, lion dance, dragon dance, transition dance, cymbal dance, flower skirt dance, copper drum dance, copper drum brush handle dance, etc. the dance moves are beautiful and moving. They integrate the production, life and customs of the Buyi Nationality and vividly express them in artistic forms.
Buyi local operas are popular in Guiyang, Changshun and Ceheng County in Southwest Guizhou, and most of them organize performances during the Spring Festival. There is a special drama team, and the actors and masks are mostly figures of the Three Kingdoms and buyimoshi. In Dushan, Pingtang, Sandu and other counties, a kind of Lantern opera based on the lantern song and dance and absorbing the color tone art of Guangxi is popular.
Buyi opera began in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty. The conveners, performers and actors of each troupe were farmers. Its repertoire and singing form have a strong local flavor. Most of the plays are based on the stories and legends of their own nation, such as June 6, Wang Shan beating birds, four relatives, golden cat treasure ladle, Mabian moon, etc. There are also Han operas, such as jade hall spring, willow shade, Baogong case, etc. Buyi opera music is derived from the national folk songs and folk sitting and singing tunes; The language is full of meaning, good at using the techniques of "comparison" and "Xing", which is humorous, vivid and vivid; Martial arts in the play is directly influenced by martial arts and puppet show. It is simple, flexible and unique; In the past, the makeup of actors used to rely on the exaggerated expression of the face shell and personalized modeling, which has attracted the attention of the drama industry.
In 1956, Buyi opera "four relatives" and "yutangchun" participated in the first amateur art performance of industry and agriculture in Guizhou Province and won high praise; In 1984, Buyi operas Luo Xixing and Jin Zhu Qing participated in the performance of Guizhou minority Opera Research Report. Luo Xixing was also selected to participate in the video observation performance of national minority opera excellent operas, and won the "peacock Award".
Buyi arts and crafts mainly include batik, embroidery, brocade, bamboo weaving, weaving and dyeing, ceramics and carving, etc.
Batik is a treasure in the treasure house of Chinese culture and art. There are four traditional processes: indigo dyeing, batik, maple dyeing and tie dyeing, of which batik is the most famous. The production method is to draw vortex patterns, wavy patterns, rhombic and symmetrical geometric patterns on the white cloth with a copper wax knife stained with wax liquid, and then use indigo solution to cooperate with herbal printing and dyeing, and remove the wax. The natural ice crack of the finished product has various forms and is beautiful. Before 1980, there were many printing and dyeing workshops in Buyi area. In 1953, in order to carry forward the fine craft tradition of ethnic minorities, the local government established a batik factory in Anshun City. On the basis of traditional patterns, wax removal and cleaning, many innovations were carried out, which further developed the traditional batik process and became one of the precious crafts sold at home and abroad.
Brocade, also known as "Najin", is called "reading GUI" in Buyi language. There are "lamb brocade", "fish brocade", "figure brocade" and "butterfly brocade". The patterns are interleaved and combined with diamond, square, triangle or back shape characters. The patterns are exquisite, compact, magnificent and beautiful. The brocade surface is similar to silk embroidery, but it is woven on an ancient cloth machine, and the back of the brocade flower faces the weaver. If you want to review the design and color during weaving, you need a mirror to reflect from below. In this way, women operate skillfully by memory and inherit the technology of their ancestors. At the national tourism product evaluation meeting in 1984, Buyi brocade was rated as an excellent product; In 1985, he won the "first prize for excellent creation" and won the "Hope Cup" in the Fifth National Arts and crafts exhibition.
The Tuhua cloth of Buyi Nationality, known as "earth cloth", has excellent texture and various varieties. It can be made into clothing, bed sheets, quilt covers, tablecloths and other articles. Today, the tradition of self spinning and self weaving is still maintained in rural areas. In 1985, the Chongqing Museum collected as many as 35 kinds of colored tulips in a village in Liuma District, Zhenning County. Libo County takes Tuhua cloth as the development project, with an annual production of more than 200 varieties, an output value of more than 2.5 million yuan and a foreign exchange of more than 200000 US dollars.
In addition, Libo's mat, Dushan's hat and Pingtang Yazhou's pottery are all famous. Women's embroidery, paper cutting technology, silver and copper jewelry processing and Fengxiang printing and dyeing wax paintings in Huishui are also very exquisite. In particular, Pingtang Yazhou pottery has a long history. Ceramics designed and produced by local artists have also been presented to foreign dignitaries such as the Prime Minister of New Zealand as gifts from the Guizhou provincial government.
Buyi Nationality has many traditional festivals. Except that the lunar new year, Dragon Boat Festival and Mid Autumn Festival are similar to those of Han nationality, "March 3", "April 8", "June 6" and other festivals have their own inherent characteristics.
On the Lunar New Year's day, according to local chronicles, the Buyi people "start the year in November". Pingtang and Libo are still celebrating the lunar new year on November 30, but most areas have incorporated the New Year Festival into the Spring Festival. Every December, every family is busy making wine, making glutinous rice cake, pickled bacon, making blood tofu, or sewing new clothes. On New Year's Eve, the ancestors were presented with rich wine and vegetables, and firecrackers were set off to keep the whole family until the rooster crowed. On the first day of the first month, a girl competed to pick the first load of water to go home (called "smart water") and a boy competed to go to the earth temple first and bring a small stone with a rope into the livestock pen (meaning "prosperity of six livestock"). During the new year, young people were invited to go out to "Lang Shao Lang Mao"; The middle-aged and elderly people pay New Year greetings to each other and drink together. Some places also hold recreational activities such as dragon playing, lion dancing, horse racing, stone throwing, bronze drum, suona, song and dance, basketball and so on. Generally, they don't start to work in the fields until after the Lantern Festival on the fifteenth day of the first month.
On February 2, it is mainly to offer sacrifices to the "land God", bless the peace of the whole village, kill chickens and respect their ancestors, and eat two-color (white and black) glutinous rice. Buyi people in Yunnan Province, this festival takes three days to carry out sacrificial activities centered on sacrificing the "old man's house". On the third day of March, it is mainly to offer sacrifices to mountain gods or sweep the village to drive out ghosts and wish a good harvest. In villages near Guiyang, "three pairs of songs in March", also known as "fairy Song Festival" or "earth silkworm Festival" (it is said that pests dare not harm crops when they hear songs on this day). April 8 is a festival to commemorate cattle. This festival is called "Cow King's Day" or "shepherd's Day" and "seedling opening day" in all parts of Buyi Nationality. On this day, every family ate "Niuwang cake" and glutinous rice, fed it to the cattle, let the cattle rest for a day, and bathed the cattle in water with maple leaves. This day is also a day for young Buyi men and women in Huishui to get together on the slope, eat glutinous rice, sing and have fun.
On June 6, the field God, the land God and the mountain god were sacrificed. After the sacrifice, the paper flags of various colors were stained with chicken blood, or made into a big bird shape and inserted into each field respectively. At the same time, a "hammer discussion" meeting was held to announce various hammer rules and regulations, which were supervised and implemented by the hammer, so as to protect the safety of social property. Many places (such as both sides of donglang River in Huishui county and chabai field in Xingyi City) also hold large-scale mountain activities. There are related legends on June 6. For example, the legend of chabaichang in Xingyi is to commemorate a pair of young men and women who were forced to marry and died by bullies; Anlong county commemorates the victory of the Buyi people's uprising against feudal rule. After the Third Plenary Session of the CPC Central Committee, due to the implementation of the ethnic policy and with the approval of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission, it was determined that "June 6" was the common festival of the Buyi people. Its grandness is second only to the Lunar New Year Festival.
Eat the new festival, also known as the new festival. Because the rice in different places is mature first and then, the festival dates are different. Generally, when the rice is about to mature, a man from his family goes to the field to pick a small amount of ears, put them in a steamer and steam them with glutinous rice to honor his ancestors. Wangmo, Ceheng and other places, after taking the new glutinous grain, first cook it and dry it, pound the grain shell, and then soak it in boiling water and steam it into glutinous rice. In Buyi language, it is called "root gold milligram".
After the Han Festival spread to the Buyi area, some variations occurred. For example, on the Tomb Sweeping Day, the Buyi people not only go to the grave for the new old people, but also Hang paper for all the deceased ancestors (commonly known as hanging green). However, in Sanglang area of Wangmo County, tomb sweeping is not carried out during the Qingming Festival, and the tomb is not visited until the third day of March. Three color glutinous rice is eaten during the Qingming Festival along the Hongshui River. The Dragon Boat Festival is divided into the Big Dragon Boat Festival (the fifth day of may in the lunar calendar) and the small dragon boat festival (the fifteenth day of may in the lunar calendar). On this day, the Buyi people not only eat zongzi, but also eat five-color glutinous rice. In July and a half, Buyi people will kill chickens, pigs or cattle to sacrifice their ancestors, burn paper money or gold, silver and green ingots for the dead, and send cold clothes and other daily necessities. It will take three days along the Hongshui River. On the 14th, we made "Ta Lian Ba" for our ancestors. On the evening of the 15th, go to the river to put the ghost boat and let it drift with the water. 15、 On the 16th, young people and children gathered under the big banyan tree, or swing, or play top, or go swimming. Huishui Duanshan area focuses on ancient bridge Castle duets, Ba stick dance and copper drum dance, and suona competition at the same time. On the Mid Autumn Festival, some places of Buyi Nationality have the custom of children "stealing melons". The children wrapped the "stolen" old melons in red cloth and sent firecrackers all the way to the childless young couple's home. The childless couple cooked the pumpkin and glutinous rice. The owner of the "stolen" pumpkin can't beat and scold the "melon thief". People believe that glutinous rice cooked with "stolen" melons can have children.
In history, the marriage customs of Buyi people in different places are different. There are both parents arranged marriages and fully autonomous marriages. According to historical records, the Buyi Nationality had independent marriage before the Ming Dynasty. After the Ming Dynasty, due to the frequent communication and cultural exchange of all ethnic groups, especially the influence of Han culture represented by Confucian culture, the marriage etiquette and customs of Buyi Nationality gradually changed, and the marriage conclusion changed from independent matching to absolute arrangement by parents. Arranged marriage leads to early marriage (commonly known as "carrying relatives"), that is, the parties to the marriage are engaged by their parents when they are young, and then get married when they are teenagers. After the wedding, return to your mother's house, that is, "don't leave your husband's house". Others implement "Uncle table marriage", that is, the son of an uncle marries the daughter of an aunt, or vice versa.
The conclusion of marriage is divided into three stages: open marriage, engagement and marriage. First, the man's house will invite the media to and from the woman's house. When the matchmaker comes to the woman's house for the first time, he doesn't need to mention the marriage proposal. He just needs to put the gift on the shrine of the woman's house, indicating that the gift is from a certain family. He will return after chatting for a while. If the woman does not return the gift in a few days, the matchmaker can come to the door for a second time. After obtaining the consent, the man prepared some gifts and invited the elderly, young people and relatives of the family to go to the woman's house with the matchmaker for engagement wine. This kind of ceremony is called "opening meal". Buyi people in some areas call it "eating chicken" or "eating chicken legs", "inserting Maoxiang" and so on. For the second time, the man brought wine, rooster, pork and bride price to the woman's house for "engagement". This ritual is called "Gengke (eating sheep)" or "genglao Ni (eating small wine)", "genggan (GaN is the recognized meaning)" and so on. Although the names are different, their contents are "connected with eight characters" and agreed bride price. After that, the man's family can determine the date of marriage and ask the matchmaker to inform the woman's family so as to prepare the dowry. During the wedding, the bride and groom are not allowed to sleep together for three days. On the second day of the wedding, the bride will meet with Weng Gu and his relatives. On the morning of the third day of the wedding, the bride carries water or goes to the kitchen to have a look, which is similar to the Han nationality's "cooking". After this ceremony, the bride will leave for her mother's house, which is called "back door". At the wedding in Buyi village, young people from far and near can come to listen to songs and sing for seven or eight days and nights in some places.
While implementing arranged marriage, the communication between Buyi young men and women is relatively free. Young men and women can take advantage of festivals, visiting relatives and friends or going to the market to gather together to "langshao langmao" ("langshao" refers to girlfriend and "langmao" refers to boyfriend). If a man likes a girl, he asks his sister or sister in the family to act as a "silver sparrow" to convey the message. If the woman wants, she will throw the hydrangea carefully embroidered in advance to each other. Both men and women go out of the crowd and sing a song not far away. After many meetings and establishing feelings, you can swear for life.
"Lang Shao Lang Mao" social activities are not limited to unmarried men and women, but married people can also participate. But for unmarried people, it's love; For married people, it may be to show off their singing ability, or to resist their parents' arranged marriage. "Lang Shao Lang Mao" not only sings love songs, but also bitter songs, complaint songs and runaway tunes. In the past, young people often couldn't find a partner because they couldn't sing. Now, "Lang Shao Lang Mao" is no longer the only way for Buyi young men and women to communicate.
Before the Qing Dynasty, Buyi people were buried by cremation rather than by grave.
After the middle of the Qing Dynasty, tombs and steles were gradually built. When the old man died, the bereaved family reported the funeral to their uncle's family and close relatives and friends, and asked the "Bumo" (Priest) of the nation to choose an auspicious day to hold the funeral.
The complexity of the funeral ceremony depends on the family's economic situation. Rich families should hold the "ancient night king" ceremony, chop cattle for fasting, hold large banquet, and even have a funeral period of seven or nine days. During the period when the coffin was closed, all funeral families were vegetarian. Burial styles include earth pit tomb, stone coffin tomb, stone chamber tomb, cave burial, coffin stopping for burial (secondary burial), urn coffin burial, etc.
On the first day of the new year, do not open cabinets, sweep the floor, comb your hair or dry clothes. From the first day to the third day of the first day, the ground is not moved, and the knife is not moved on the fifteenth day of the first month. The dishes can only be broken by hand. It is forbidden to bury graves in front of and behind the village. Outsiders are forbidden to enter the village when sweeping the village, and outsiders are forbidden to enter the house when expelling ghosts. A married girl is forbidden to have children in her mother's house. There are pregnant women at home. They hang red cloth and bamboo hats at the door to refuse people to enter the house. Men are not allowed to enter the house where women give birth. It is forbidden to whistle and sing love songs in the house. Those who die abnormally should not report the funeral with the sound of drums.
Visitors to Buyi people's homes are not allowed to touch shrines and tables. It is forbidden to trample on the tripod near the fire pond. Buyi people are used to drinking to honor their guests. Guests should drink more or less. No one is allowed to touch and cut down the mountain god tree and daluohan tree in Buyi village. Buyi people must give gifts in even numbers.
If a child is weak and ill, his parents should find him a protector, Godfather and godmother. There are two ways to find Godfather and godmother:
First, wait at home on a selected day. The first person to come to the door within three days is the protector of the child;
Second, on an auspicious day, parents lead their children and wait for the first passer-by on the road, that is, the protector.
Some Bouyei people do not eat dog meat. One explanation is that dogs once saved their ancestors. The other explanation is that humans had no rice before. Dogs brought rice back to the Bouyei people from the God's rice drying field, making the Bouyei people the first "rice nation" to grow rice among humans. Some Bouyei people do not eat fish, because it is said that the earliest Mother of the Bouyei people was a divine fish, the daughter of the Dragon King.
Wang Baoxian (1777-1797), female, Buyi Nationality, whose real name is Wang Achong (also known as acong), has practiced martial arts since childhood. She can cure people with witchcraft and organize the Buyi people's uprising in the form of religion. It is called Baoxian (Buyi language, which means Xiangu); It started on the fifth day of the first month of the second year of Jiaqing (1797), known as the empress of Huangxian, and its army reached hundreds of thousands at most.
The rebels successively captured puping, Zhenfeng, Xingren and Xingyi, and went straight to Ziyun, Changshun, Zhijin and other places. People of Buyi, Miao and Yi Nationalities all over the country rose up one after another, pointing directly at Guiyang, the provincial capital.
The Qing government sent a large army to suppress, so that the Bouyei army gradually fell into a dilemma and gradually retreated; Capture the Buyi army base and capture Wang Baoxian alive; Wang Baoxian was escorted to Beijing in a prison car and executed at the age of 20 on the seventh day of November of the lunar calendar (December 24, 1797).
The Nanlong Buyi uprising in the Jiaqing period of the Qing Dynasty was one of the major historical events in the Jiaqing period. Therefore, the Buyi Nationality left a strong mark in the history of the Qing Dynasty.
After the rulers of the Qing Dynasty carried out the policy of "changing land to flow" in Guizhou, they intensified class exploitation and national oppression; In the Qing Dynasty, officials, landlords and usurers entered the Buyi Nationality's residential areas one after another, colluded with the local villagers and kiosks, and jointly exploited and oppressed the farmers. The chieftain who occupied a large amount of land not only forced the farmers to plant "Indian fields", but also forced the farmers to perform various labor services for their weddings and funerals, banquets, accommodation, transportation and all eating, drinking and fun. Feudal landlords, officials and even soldiers also took every opportunity to blackmail the people. Even wearing national clothes was accused of "violating the system" and punished.
Under cruel exploitation, in the second year of Jiaqing of the Qing Dynasty (1797), an anti Qing uprising, Nanlong Buyi uprising, with Buyi as the main body and the participation of people of Miao and Han nationalities, lasted for 8 months, shocked the Qing government. It was a shaking and far-reaching peasant revolutionary struggle in Guizhou during the Qing Dynasty, and it was also the largest and far-reaching uprising in Buyi history.
Wei Chaoyuan (1768-1797), also known as Deming, was born in Nanlong, Guizhou Province in the Qing Dynasty. Buyi. A good fist can cure. Dissatisfied with the cruel oppression of the Buyi people by local officials, exiled officials, landlords and usurers, under the influence of the Qianjia Miao people's uprising, in February of the second year of Jiaqing (1797), Wang Baoxian and other organizations jointly launched an anti Qing uprising. In the heyday of the rebel forces, they occupied Weining and Western Guizhou in the northwest, reached the border of Yunnan in the west, and half of Guizhou, Guangxi and Yunnan.
Wang Naiyuan was born in Luohu county (now Luodian County, Guizhou Province) in the dynasty. The leader of the Buyi peasant uprising army is bold and unrestrained, especially for the poor.
Hai Ping Wang
Wang Haiping (? - 1941) was born in Wangmo County, Guizhou Province. The powerful figures in Southwest Guizhou during the period of the Republic of China. Under the active struggle of the Communist Party of China, it once actively approached the party organization and made contributions to the construction of the revolutionary team under the extremely difficult conditions of the revolutionary situation. In 1934, Wang Haiping actively responded to the proposition of "opposing civil war" and "going north to resist Japan" put forward by the Communist Party of China, participated in the Anti Japanese democratic coalition army organized by the Communist Party, and transformed his troops organizationally and ideologically. As a local power figure of Buyi Nationality, Wang Haiping actively pursues progress and yearns for light, which is commendable and memorable.
Mo Youzhi (1811-1871) has the word "Luo", also known as Ziquan and LRI Pavilion. In his later years, he was also known as "Lao". Jiaqing was born in the 16th year of the Buyi Nationality in the prestigious family of Mo in Dushan. Mo Youzhi has made great achievements in poetry, catalogue collation and phonological exegesis. He has deep attainments in calligraphy. He was a famous calligrapher and book collector during the Xianfeng Period.
Lu Ruiguang, Buyi Nationality, nicknamed "Lu ma er", was born in Zhenning County, Guizhou Province in 1901. In the early 1920s, he began to organize peasant armed forces and became a peasant leader who robbed the rich to help the poor and defended his hometown.
Cheng Lianzhen (1921 ~ 1998), also known as sister-in-law Chen, has a nickname of Cheng Yaomei, a Buyi Nationality, and is from shunchaopai village, Guang Township, Changshun County, Guizhou Province. As a young girl, she was called a great beauty by the local people because of her slim and tall, delicate and white skin and beautiful face. In the winter of 1957, Cheng Lianzhen arranged to work as a worker in the county. On July 4, 1960, he became a member of the county CPPCC. On October 21, 1998, Cheng Lianzhen died of illness.
Cheng Lianzhen, known as "the first beauty of Yilin mountain country", was a female bandit leader of the Buyi Nationality. She was graceful and graceful in those days. She galloped through the mountains of Guizhou. She shot with two guns, was bold and resourceful, and had experienced the storms of the old and new society... In the early days of liberation, in the more than three years of bandit suppression struggle of the PLA, the "female bandit leader" repeatedly missed the net and caused casualties to the PLA soldiers, The commander of a certain unit took the blame and wrote down his resignation. When a female bandit leader was captured and wanted to be shot, Chairman Mao Zedong thought it was rare to have a female bandit leader who was still a minority, so he treated her leniently. Cheng Lianzhen was released. Later, she actively cooperated with the people's Liberation Army in the fight against bandits and made many war achievements. She was known as "female Meng Huo".
The story of "female Meng Huo" was first published in Sichuan virgin land magazine in August 1989 by Buyi writer Wang Tingzhen, entitled "Mao Zedong's words explain female bandits"; In 2003, Wang Tingzhen published a novel "the legendary experience of a female bandit leader" based on the story of "female Meng Huo" again; In 2005, the PLA literature and Art Publishing House published the rain lotus -- the legend of "female Meng Huo" released by Mao Zedong, CO authored by Wang Tingzhen and Zhou Weiyi. The preface of these two books was written by Wang Siming, the witness who personally handled the problem of Cheng Lianzhen and the former vice chairman of the CPPCC Guizhou Province. They have become the only two documentary novels that truly reflect Cheng Lianzhen's legendary experience.
Cheng Lianzhen is a legend. Based on her legend, she compiled a 10 episode TV series "female bandit leader", which was broadcast on the TV screen in 2008. In 2009, Zhejiang great wall film and Television Co., Ltd. adapted and filmed 40 episodes of the series "supreme amnesty" (also known as the story of suppressing bandits in the southwest). Masu plays the female bandit leader.
Release Time:2021-11-02 22:10:26
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Yi is the sixth largest ethnic minority in China. Its national language is Yi. It belongs to the Yi branch of the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. There are 6 dialects in the north, East, South, Southeast, West and cent. Yi Zu
Tujia nationality (Tujia Language: bifzivkar) is a nation with a long history. It has a national language. It belongs to the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family, close to the Yi language branch. There is no national languag. Tu Jia Zu
Qiang nationality originates from ancient Qiang and is an ancient nationality in Western China. Ancient Qiang has a broad and far-reaching impact on China's historical development and the formation of the Chinese nation. The national language is Qiang lan. Qiang Zu
Gelao nationality, ethnic origin and ancient Liao (L ǎ o) It is related to people. The national language is Gelao language, belonging to the Sino Tibetan language family. There is no national language, and Chinese is commonly used. Gelao people worship th. Yi Lao Zu
The Russian nationality, one of the 56 nationalities of the Chinese nation, belongs to the East Slavic branch of the Slavic language family of the Indo European language family. In China, the Russian people use Russian, and generally speak Russian, Chines. E Luo Si Zu
Yugur Nationality from the Uighurs nomadic in the erhun River Basin in the Tang Dynasty. They use three languages: Yugur (yaohur) belonging to the Turkic language family of Altai language family, Yugur (Engel) belonging to the Mongolian language family of. Yu Gu Zu
The Tatar nationality is a Siberian type of Mongolian race. It has its own language. It belongs to the West Hungarian branch of the Turkic language family of Altai language family. It has words based on Arabic characters and its main belief is Islam.. Ta Ta Er Zu
Dulong nationality is one of the ethnic minorities with a small population in China and the least populous nationality in Yunnan Province. It uses Dulong language and has no national characters.. Du Long Zu
Oroqen nationality is one of the nationalities with the least population in Northeast China. According to the fifth national census in 2000, the population of Oroqen nationality is 8196. Oroqen language belongs to the Tungusic branch of man Tungusic langu. E Lun Chun Zu
Jino nationality is one of the seven unique nationalities with a small population in Yunnan Province. The national language is Jino language. It belongs to the Yi language branch of the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. . Ji Nuo Zu