Han nationality is the main ethnic group in China. It is the descendant of the Yellow Emperor and the Yan Emperor in ancient times. "Han" originally refers to the Tianhe River and the Milky way of the universe, "the book of songs" says: "there is Han in the heaven, and there is light in the prison." Han people used to be called Han people because of the Han Dynasty in China. Before the Han Dynasty, they were called "Huaxia" or "Zhuxia".
No matter in politics, military affairs, philosophy, literature, history, art and many other aspects, or in the field of natural science, the Han nationality has created many brilliant achievements.
Since ancient times, the Han nationality has adopted an inclusive attitude towards various religious beliefs. Destiny worship and ancestor worship are the main traditional concepts of Han religion. For thousands of years, we have advocated taking benevolence as the center and attaching importance to ethical education.
The Han nationality has always been known for its diligence and creativity. In the history of the Han nationality, the economy was dominated by agriculture and concurrently engaged in family sidelines, which was a typical natural economy of men farming and women weaving. The agricultural production of the Han nationality has always been developed in history, especially for irrigation and intensive cultivation. The handicraft industry of the Han nationality also has a fairly high level of development.
Han nationality is also a nation with a long history and the largest population in the world. As of 2009, the Han population is about 1.3 billion, accounting for 19% of the world's total population. In Chinese mainland, the Han nationality accounts for 92% of the total population; in Taiwan, the Han nationality accounts for 98% of the total population; in Hongkong and Macao, the Han nationality accounts for 95% and 97% of the total population respectively. In addition to the three places on both sides of China, the Han nationality is also widely distributed in Southeast Asia, North America and Western Europe.
Han nationality is the descendant of Yan Emperor (or Shennong's) and Huang Emperor (or Xuanyuan's) in ancient legend. It is the dominant ethnic group in China and overseas. In history, Xu zhuoyun, an expert in ancient Chinese history, believed that the Chinese tribes, through the Yin, Shang, Zhou and Qin Dynasties and other barbarians who were in the original position on the edge of the Central Plains, established the "China" headquarters on the basis of the various Xia dynasties, and formed a "cultural community" calling itself the Han people in the Han Dynasty. Han people are also called "Han", "Chinese", "Tang", "Qin", "taohuashi" and so on. In modern times, the word "nationality" was introduced into China, and "Han nationality" replaced "Han people" as the official name of this ethnic group. "Descendants of the Chinese people" and "descendants of the Chinese people" were used by the Communist Party of China and the Chinese Kuomintang as a substitute or another name for "Han nationality". In modern times, there are such titles as descendants of the dragon.
The name of Han nationality was established in the process of the formation and development of China's unified multi-ethnic country. In 206 B.C., the Han Dynasty developed after the Qin Dynasty. For more than 400 years, the unification of economy, culture and country had a new development. The residents of the Central Plains, formerly known as Huaxia, were called Han people. In the later historical development, the Han people became the ethnic name of the main ethnic group in China, accounting for the vast majority of China's population in the past dynasties, playing a leading role in all aspects of development. After the coexistence, migration and integration with other ethnic groups, the Han nationality has formed a centralized distribution in the Songliao plain, the Yellow River, Huaihe River, Yangtze River, Pearl River and other agricultural developed areas and cities, and the distribution characteristics of crisscross and mixed with local ethnic groups in the frontier. In addition, in the process of historical development, a considerable number of Han people migrated overseas, forming local Chinese or overseas Chinese.
Since the 1950s, especially after the reform and opening up, the Han nationality and various ethnic minorities have made great contributions to China's prosperity. In ancient times, the Han nationality created splendid culture and art with distinct characteristics. It has many far-reaching representatives and works. In the natural sciences, the achievements of astronomy and mathematics have attracted worldwide attention. There were more than 370 kinds of agricultural books in Ancient Agronomy. In the development of ancient Chinese literature, the development of poetry occupies a significant position, such as Chu Ci, Yuefu, Tang poetry, Song Ci, etc. there are many writers and works with high artistic achievements; others such as prose, novels are also famous in the world.
According to the legends recorded in the documents of the pre Qin Dynasty and the scope of the capitals of Xia, Shang and Zhou, the ancient ancestors of the Han nationality generally live in the central plains; the two types of Neolithic culture, Yangshao culture and Longshan culture, which are mainly distributed in this area, are generally considered to be the cultural remains of the ancient ancestors of the Han nationality.
The ancient legend also describes the long primitive commune age of the Han ancestors. Before the Yellow Emperor, it went through the matriarchal clan stage of "knowing the mother but not the father"; the legend of the Yellow Emperor marks the transformation from matriarchal clan to paternal clan, and has entered the stage of tribal alliance. It is said that Yao, Shun and Yu, who successively became the leaders of the grand tribal alliance in the form of abdication after the Yellow Emperor, are considered to be the descendants of the Yellow Emperor. However, historical legends also show that the ancient ancestors of the Han nationality actually included people from Qiang, Yi, Miao, Li and other clan groups. Therefore, there are also descriptions of Yushun from Dongyi and Xiayu from Qiang and Rong, and some legendary characters can be interpreted as Yiqiang, Yiyi and Miaoli according to different descriptions. This contradictory phenomenon of historical legend reflects the historical process of the gradual integration of clan groups from different sources into the same clan and the creation of a common ancestor.
In the 21st century B.C., the era of primitive commune system in the Central Plains has come to the end of history, and class society has appeared in the plains of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. Since the 21st century BC, Xia, Shang and Western Zhou dynasties have appeared one after another. The king of Xia was the descendant of Dayu. The ancestors of King Shang were originally Dongyi. King Zhou claimed that his ancestors were a branch of Xia people. They lived together between Rong and di and had close relationship with Qiang people. Although they all considered the Yellow Emperor as their ancestor, they actually came from different tribal groups, first between the Yellow River and its tributaries Wei, Fen, Yi, Luoxia and Heji, as well as the upper reaches of Ru and Ying tributaries of the Huaihe River, and then to the vast areas of Huaihe River, Sishui River, Yangtze River and Hanshui River. After a long historical period of approach, communication, struggle and integration, it has formed a common ethnic group. In the Western Zhou Dynasty, the names of Huaxia and Huaxia had appeared, which were different from those of man, Yi, Rong and di. However, at this time, the debate between Chinese and foreigners was not very strict.
In the spring and Autumn period, the concept of the Chinese and the barbarians was very strong. At that time, the standard of distinguishing the Chinese and the barbarians, the clan and the culture were all valued, and the culture was the most important factor. Because of the factors of etiquette, dress and so on, the Chinese and the foreigners can often transpose to each other. In the Warring States period, the seven heroes joined forces, joined forces, merged and fought, but the ethnic groups were the same, forming the trend of the unification of all Xia. Rong, Di, Yi and man who entered the Central Plains gradually melted with Huaxia, so Huaxia became a stable ethnic group, and their distribution areas reached the middle and lower reaches of Liaohe River in Northeast China, Taohe River Basin in Northwest China, Bashu and Qianzhong in Southwest China, Hunan and Wuyue in Southeast China.
Formation and development
In the history of social development of the Han nationality, the long feudal society is a prominent feature. Although the academic discussion on the stages of ancient Chinese society has been going on for almost half a century, there is still no completely consistent conclusion, but when Qin Shihuang unified China, he had entered the feudal society and basically got a unified understanding. As for when the Han nationality came into being, it is generally believed in the academic circles that the Han nationality took the pre Qin Huaxia nationality as the core and formed into a unified nation in the Qin and Han Dynasties. By 1840, it had experienced two thousand years of development under the feudal autocratic monarchy system; by 1840 to 1949, it had a new development in the struggle against imperialism and feudalism; after the founding of new China in 1949, it had a new relationship with the Han nationality The Chinese people of all ethnic groups have gradually developed into a socialist nation.
In 221 B.C., Qin Shihuang annexed six countries. In the "great unification", the Chinese nation also moved from decentralization to unification. After the establishment of the Qin Dynasty, the first emperor of Qin adopted a series of measures to unify and stabilize the Chinese nation, such as implementing the county system, stipulating that "books are the same as characters", unifying currency, weights and measures, and "cars are the same track", "lines are the same Lun", and building the Great Wall. For the first time in Chinese history, a unified autocratic centralized feudal state was established. Under the condition of national unification, the Han nationality formed a unified nation.
After the unification of the Qin Dynasty, the Chinese clan name was still used. However, originally belonging to the people of six countries in Shandong (to the east of Gushan), they were the "head of Guizhou" in the Qin Dynasty. Although the state of Qin was short, all the nationalities in the western regions (including Xinjiang today), Xiongnu and Han Dynasty still called the Central Plains Qin people. The Han Dynasty lasted more than 400 years from the Western Han Dynasty to the Eastern Han Dynasty, which provided historical conditions for the name of the Han Dynasty and the name of the Chinese nation. In addition, the Han Dynasty was powerful. In foreign exchanges, other nationalities called the Han Army "Han soldiers", the Han emissary "Han envoys", and the Han people "Han people". As a result, the name of the Han Dynasty was called the name of the Chinese nation by other ethnic groups in the unprecedented frequent exchanges between the Han Dynasty and the surrounding ethnic minorities. Lu simian said: "the name of the Han nationality began after Liu Bang became emperor." Lu Zhenyu said: "since emperor Xuandi of the former Han Dynasty, the Chinese people have been called Han people." In a word, the name of the Han nationality began from the Han Dynasty.
After the Eastern Han Dynasty, the Central Plains was in chaos, and the centralized feudal state was fragmented. There were feudal separatist regimes and wars everywhere. In the process of great division, great scuffle and great turbulence, all ethnic groups or tribes moved everywhere. The northern Xiongnu, Xianbei, wuwan, Di and Qiang people came to the Central Plains one after another, which is known as "five Hu Luanhua". Some barbarians in Jianghan Region also flocked to the Central Plains, forming a situation in which the Han people and the Xiongnu, Xianbei, wuwan, Di, Qiang and barbarians lived together in the Central Plains In the Yangtze River and the Pearl River Valley, the Han nationality and other southern minorities or tribes, such as man, Li and Liao, live together. But most of them have been assimilated by the Han nationality, lost their own characteristics and become part of the Han nationality.
The Han nationality has always been a minority
Chinese PinYin : Han Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:20:41
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