Gong Dingzi (from January 5, 1616 to October 12, 1673) was born in Hefei, Anhui Province. Poets and writers in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties, together with Wu Weiye and Qian Qianyi, are known as the "three masters of Jiangzuo".
Gong Dingzi became a scholar in the seventh year of Chongzhen (1634) of the Ming Dynasty, and was a member of the army. During his tenure in the Ming Dynasty, he impeached Zhou yanru, Chen Yan, Wang Yingxiong, Chen Xinjia, LV Daqi and other powerful officials. In 1644, after Li Zicheng captured Beijing, he became a direct envoy. After the Qing army entered the capital, they met the army and moved to Taichang temple. After that, they tired the Minister of rites. During his tenure, Gong Dingzi was able to protect the kind and support the talented people.
Life of the characters
Gong Dingzi was born on November 17, the 43rd year of Wanli in the Ming Dynasty (January 5, 1616). He is from Hefei, Anhui Province. Chongzhen seven years (1634) Jinshi, as Hubei Qichun county magistrate, Chongzhen 12 years as the military department to the matter. On the way to Beijing, I met Gu Hengbo, a famous prostitute in Nanjing, and took him to Beijing. Later, I accepted him as my concubine. He first lived in "Guteng bookstore" in haibosi street, xuanbeifang, and later moved to xuanwumenwai street, where he lived as "xiangyanzhai".
Gong Dingzi's grandfather and father are well-known. At the age of twelve or thirteen, he was able to write Eight Legged essays and was good at long poems and ancient prose. In the seventh year of Chongzhen reign of the Ming Dynasty, he was a Jinshi and a magistrate of Qishui County, Hubei Province. Later, due to the suppression of Zhang Xianzhong uprising, he was promoted to the military division. In the 17th year of Chongzhen, Li Zicheng captured Beijing. Gong Dingzi committed suicide by throwing himself into a well. After he was rescued, he assisted Li Zicheng and served as an envoy to inspect the north city. He moved to Taichang temple as a young minister. In the first year of Shunzhi (1644), Prince Rui duoergun came to the capital, Gong Dingzi came down, gave officials to Shizhong, moved to Shaoqing of Taichang temple, right servant of the Ministry of punishment, left historical envoy of the capital and so on. In the third year of Shunzhi, he was impeached, but he still held his original post because of the emperor's appreciation. In the 11th year of Shunzhi, due to the extreme performance of the law department, which involved the relationship between Manchu and Han, he was demoted and transferred to Nanyuan Tibetan education department to manage the vegetable garden. Later, he was demoted to Guangzhou. In the first year of Kangxi (1662), the government restored the minister. Later, he successively served as the censor of zuodu, the Minister of the Ministry of punishment, the Minister of the Ministry of war, the Minister of the Ministry of rites, and the examiner of the examination. He was ill and died on September 12, the 12th year of Kangxi (October 12, 1673).
Gong Dingzi was despised not only by the people of Ming Dynasty, but also by the people of Qing Dynasty. When King Fu of Ming Dynasty established his political power in Nanjing, he formulated the system of investigating and punishing "traitors". Gong Dingzi was included in the list of punishments, and the people of Qing Dynasty also ridiculed him for "only the sinners of Ming Dynasty, the Royal censor of rogues". And Dorgon even thought that Gong Dingzi "should only sit back and talk about others" and "people should be loyal and self reliant, then they can blame others". It is shameless to satirize him for "comparing himself with Wei Zheng and Li thief with Tang Taizong". Therefore, Gong Dingzi's official career was rather difficult. He often rose and fell repeatedly. In the third year of Emperor Kangxi's reign, Fang moved to the Ministry of criminal justice because of his talent. Gong Dingzi was wild, uninhibited and capricious. He was often ridiculed by people at that time for his untimely behavior. Sun Changling, a native of the Qing Dynasty, once denounced him, saying: "only drinking and singing, and competing with haiku masters, he used thousands of money to buy prostitutes in Jiangnan. It's hard to love them. Most of them are rare treasures to please their hearts. The appearance of wanton and wanton makes Chang'an laugh. "
His wife Gu Mei, named Hengbo, was a famous prostitute of Qinhuai in Nanjing. She is not only beautiful, but also works in poetry and painting orchids. Her poetic style is clear and elegant, and her paintings are also famous, including the collection of liuhuage. At that time, he was famous for his talents and skills, and he had a lot of friends with scholars. Later, Gong Dingzi married him as a concubine and was deeply loved. He was then called Madam Hengbo.
There is an anecdote in the heart history series, a textual research on madam Hengbo, which says that Gong Dingzi surrendered to Li Zicheng and accepted the post of direct envoy because he "took Hengbo as his life in his life and his concubine who was not appointed to die". It can be seen that Gong Dingzi dotes on Gu. He once wrote many poems for Gu Meisheng, called her "good holding monarch", and was jokingly called "good holding lady" by scholars at that time.
Gong Dingzi's indulgent and uninhibited lifestyle was also criticized by people at that time. Sun Changling blamed him for "leaving his parents and wife out of the way, and singing and drinking after hearing the obituary. He still lost his family." In the early Qing Dynasty, in order to consolidate the rule and further strengthen the feudal autocracy, the rulers made great efforts to emphasize the Confucian ethics. Naturally, his behavior was not appreciated by the rulers, and he was demoted and demoted by the Qing government for many times because of his "plain behavior does not conform to the popular expectation".
However, Gong's wife, Tong Shi, is far more virtuous than Gong Dingzi. She was twice granted the title of Ruren by the Ming Dynasty. After the fall of the Ming Dynasty, Gong Dingzi came down to the Qing Dynasty. She not only lived alone in Hefei and did not go to Beijing with Gong, but also refused to accept the reward from the Qing Dynasty, which formed a sharp contrast with Gong's behavior.
On the other hand, he was famous for his ability to protect the literati and ask for help for the people. He also cherished his talents and cherished his scholars. He often helped the poor and famous people. He has the reputation of "if you have a poor friend, you will spare no effort to give it to others". Because of his talent, erudition, and the combination of poetry and prose, he had a high reputation among the literati. At that time, people called him the "three masters of Jiangzuo" together with Qian Qianyi and Wu Weiye in Jiangnan.
Gong Dingzi had the talent of Qing Dynasty and had extensive contacts with scholars in Ming Dynasty. He was famous for Wu Weiye, Qian Qianyi, Mao Xiang, Fang Yizhi, Yan Ermei, Wan Shouqi, Cao Rong, Yu Huai, Ji Yingzhong, Du Jun, Gong Xian, Tao runai, Zhou Lianggong, Li Wen, Zeng can, Gu Yuzhi, Deng Hanyi, Wang Zijia, Liu Jingting and other artists. Because of his ability to protect the literati, Wu Weiye praised Gong Dingzi as an official who "only devoted himself to his work and helped Si Min". Chen Weisong, a famous poet in the Qing Dynasty, was down and out when he was young, so he got Gong Dingzi's generous help, which made him always remember him.
Gong Ding was well-known for his erudition, his poetry and prose, and his reputation among the literati was very high. At that time, people called him the "three masters of Jiangzuo" together with Qian Qianyi and Wu Weiye in Jiangnan. The book is good at landscape. The poems and paintings are all handed down by Fu Su, the father. The painting of mountains and rivers is gloomy and thick, and the poems of Wei Huanji are tasted and presented, and the landscapes are gloomy and thick. One side of the seal office: "Linchuan 27" grandson. Poetry is as famous as Wu Weiye. The style of poetry is mostly influenced by Du Fu, and the emotion of writing poetry is deep. In the graceful and beautiful, it also contains the feeling of rise and fall. Wu Meicun said that "he is sincere, and he should be moved when he sees the articles.". However, his works are not deep enough to reflect the reality, and most of them are for banquets. In the early years, ci poetry took "Yanzong" as the fashion, followed by "Qizheng", and in the later years, it became "bold and unconstrained", with dense images, careful exercise, good use of personification, good at harmony as the main style. It was unique in the history of Ci Poetry in the early Qing Dynasty, and was one of the masters of Ci Poetry in the early Qing Dynasty.
He has 47 volumes of Ding Shan Tang Ji, including 43 volumes of Shi Ji and 4 volumes of Shi Yu. It was first carved in 1673, the 42nd year of Kangxi. In Yongzheng period, Qian Qianyi's writing was banned. Because of Qian's preface in front of the book and the obstruction in Gong's poems and essays, all the tablets were handed over to the vassal, and there were few biographies. In the ninth year of Guangxu (1883), Gong kaoxu, the 14th grandson of Gong's family, published the collection again.
Characteristics of poetry
Gong Dingzi was well-known in the early Qing Dynasty. He was known as the "three masters of Jiangzuo" in the poetic world with Qian Qianyi and Wu Weiye. All of them are from the same source, and they are all characters in the biography of the two ministers. However, in the evaluation of their poems, both the contemporaries and the posterity have a low opinion of Gong. Looking at Gong's poems comprehensively, it is true that there are many works of reciprocation and harmony. In the 43 volumes of dingshantang collection, more than one third of these works are marked with the words of "send", "gift", "harmony" and "sub rhyme". However, it can not be concluded that these works are all works of empty content. The author thinks that in fact, it is in these works that Gong Zhilu naturally reveals his thoughts of his country and his feelings of life experience, and expresses his sincere feeling of no forerunner's management.
A large part of Gong Dingzi's poems express his remorse and remorse for the official Qing Dynasty, that is, the sorrow of losing his way. The word "lost road" is most frequently used in Gong's poems, and its frequency is rarely seen in his contemporaries. Another example is the famous "feelings of returning to the nest for the first time": "the lost people are sad for the autumn of their homeland, and they dare not hang their nests when they are wandering. Because the book enters Luo to spread yellow ear, black for sad change white head. The moon is pitiful, but the flowers are not near the tall buildings. There are singing bells in Taicheng, and there are thousands of worries in Nanyun. "
In Gong Dingzi's poems of seeing off, cherishing people and giving answers, the image of "lost way" is widely used. All kinds of complex feelings such as confession, remorse, vicissitudes and shame are expressed in this image. For example, in the Fu of old friend Yan Gugu '. Looking at my trace, I only shed tears. At that time, the sand road was desolate for a long time. When a strong man loses his way, his wife has his own home. An de calls Han Zhao generation more, short Qiu turbid wine talks about xingcang. " Yan Gu Gu, or Yan Er Mei, is an old friend of Gong. After the death of Ming Dynasty, Yan was arrested for resisting the Qing Dynasty. They had not seen each other for many years. After the reunion, Gong is about to end the case for Yan, so he is ashamed and happy to make friends. He wants other friends such as Han Shengqiu and Zhao Youyi to share the joy of reunion. This poem shows Gong's joy, shame and charm when facing his old friends. In the face of old friends and old friends, Gong Dingzi did not hide his guilt, remorse and shame for his "lost way".
In Gong Dingzi's poetry anthology, besides the theme of the pain of losing his way, the thought of homeland is another important theme. In the poem "Ru Nong will return to Zhenzhou to see Yi He Da in a poem", Gong expressed his strong yearning for his homeland: "once the name of Changhe fell, flies attached to dry prison, grass sad. The beacon fire suddenly becomes a branch road passenger, and the frost turns and envies when it passes through the city. The flowers are lost in the country, and it's hard to worry about it. Sui Yuan Liu disabled people go, LU Hong no solution
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