Yan'an, Yan'an City for short, is a prefecture level city in Shaanxi Province. It is located in the north of Shaanxi Province, in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, in the middle and south of the Loess Plateau, 371km north of Xi'an, the provincial capital. Yulin in the north, Xianyang, Tongchuan and Weinan in Guanzhong in the south, Linfen and Luliang in Shanxi across the Yellow River in the East, Qingyang in Gansu Province in the West. With a total area of 37037 square kilometers, it is known as "the key of Sanqin and the throat of five roads".
Yan'an, known as Fushi and Yanzhou in ancient times, is an important birthplace of the Chinese nation. Huang Di, the cultural ancestor, once lived in this area. It is the first mausoleum in the world, the mausoleum of Huang Di, the ancestor of the Chinese nation. In October 1935, the CPC Central Committee and the central red army arrived at Wuqi town successfully. Yan'an became the foothold and starting point of the Chinese revolution. It was the largest, most numerous and most complete city in the national revolutionary base cities. The Party Central Committee, Chairman Mao and other revolutionaries of the older generation lived and fought here for 13 years, led the Anti Japanese War and the war of liberation, and cultivated the Yan'an spirit. They are the three major education bases of patriotism, revolutionary tradition and Yan'an spirit. Yan'an is the birthplace of "double support movement", an excellent tourist city in China, and has the reputation of "Chinese revolutionary museum city". There are 8545 cultural relics sites in the territory, including 445 revolutionary sites.
In 2019, Yan'an City has two municipal districts, 10 counties and one county-level city under its jurisdiction, with a permanent resident population of 2.2557 million, realizing a GDP of 166.389 billion yuan, of which the added value of the primary industry is 14.933 billion yuan, the added value of the secondary industry is 99.985 billion yuan, and the added value of the tertiary industry is 51.471 billion yuan. According to the resident population, the annual per capita GDP is 73703 yuan. In October 2020, it was rated as the national model city (county) of double support.
The origin of place names
The names of Yanzhou and Yan'an were first found in Sui Shu. According to the geography annals, "Yan'an Prefecture was set up in the later Wei Dynasty as Dongxia Prefecture, and in the Western Wei Dynasty as Yanzhou Prefecture, it was set up as the general manager's office. In kaihuangzhong, the government abolished and unified eleven counties, with 53939 households. In the third year of Daye (607), Yan'an county was established in Fushi. "
History of construction
Pre Qin Period
According to archaeological findings, about 30000 years ago, the late Homo sapiens "huanglongren" lived in Yan'an.
In Xia Dynasty, Yan'an area belongs to Yongzhou.
Shang is a kind of Gui Fang.
In the Western Zhou Dynasty, it was the territory of Hourong and Yuyu.
In the spring and Autumn period, Yan'an was the place where the Baidi tribe lived. Chong'er, the son of Jin, lived in Yan'an for 12 years.
During the Warring States period, most of Yan'an belonged to the state of Wei. In the eighth year of emperor Huiwen of the Qin Dynasty (330), the west part of the Wei Na river was given to the Qin Dynasty; in the tenth year (328), the 15 counties in the upper County of Wei Na (now Yichuan and Yan'an in Northern Shaanxi) were given to the Qin Dynasty. Yan'an belongs to Qin Dynasty.
Qin and Han Dynasties
In the Qin and Han Dynasties, Yan'an belonged to Shangjun (Fushi, now the south of Yulin). In the period of King Zhao of Qin Dynasty, gaonu county was set up in Yan'an area, and the county government was located in Yinjiagou in the east of Yan'an City. This is the beginning of the construction of Yan'an City, and its walls still exist today. After Qin unified the six states, general Meng Tian sent 300000 troops to attack Xiongnu in the north, and then supervised the construction of the great wall and Qin Zhidao. During the reign of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, there were a large number of immigrants and garrison troops, which made the agricultural economy of Northern Shaanxi develop unprecedentedly and was known as "the middle of the new Qin Dynasty" (meaning rich as Guanzhong).
Yu Xu of the Eastern Han Dynasty described "the water and grass are rich and beautiful, it is suitable to produce animal husbandry, the cattle and horses hold the tail, and the sheep block the road".
Three Kingdoms, Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties
In the Three Kingdoms, Yan'an was occupied by qianghu.
In the third year of Yixi (407) of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, the Xiongnu tiefubu Helian established the state of Daxia. It built Fenglin city in the east of Yan'an City (now Zhoujiawan village, lijiaqu Town, Baota District). Shen Kuo once inspected the city in Song Dynasty. He said that it was as strong as stone, and the city was not very thick, but the horse face was very long and dense, which was conducive to war and defense. He praised that "the city of Helian is deeply legal.".
In the Western Wei Dynasty, Dongxia Prefecture was set up, which led to Biancheng County, Shuofang County, dingyang county and Shangjun County; Beihua Prefecture was set up, which led to Zhongzhong county and Fucheng county.
Tang and Song Dynasties
In 618, the first year of Wude in Tang Dynasty, Yan'an county was changed into the governor's office of Yanzhou, with three counties of lingfushi, Fenglin and Yanchuan, and three counties of guannanping, Beiwu and Dongxia; Shangjun was changed into Fuzhou, with six counties of lingluojiao, Luochuan, Sanchuan, Fulu, Zhongzhong and Fucheng.
In Song Dynasty, it belonged to Yongxing military road, with Yanzhou, Fuzhou, Danzhou and Fangzhou. During this period, there were frequent wars between Song Dynasty and Xixia, and famous officials Pang Ji, fan Yong, Han Qi and Fan Zhongyan of Song Dynasty fought against the enemy here. In 1089, Yanzhou was promoted to Yan'an Prefecture.
Jin and Xia Dynasties
Jin set Zhangwu military department in charge of the government. Jin and Xia exchanged markets in the Baoan Army (jinzhidan).
Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties
At the end of Ming Dynasty, the peasant uprising broke out in Northern Shaanxi, and the peasant leaders such as Gao Yingxiang, Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong crossed the north and south of Yan'an.
Yan'an Prefecture was still set up in the Qing Dynasty. During the reign of Shunzhi, it led three prefectures (Fuzhou, suidezhou and Jiazhou) and 16 counties (Fushi, Ansai, Ganquan, Anding, Baoan, Yichuan, Yanchuan, Yanchang, Qingjian, Luochuan, Zhongzhong, Yijun, Mizhi, Wubao, Shenmu and Fugu). During the reign of Yongzheng, the three prefectures were returned to Zhili and eight counties (Fushi, Ansai, Ganquan, Anding, Baoan, Yichuan, Yanchuan, Yanchang) were under the leadership of the government. During the reign of Emperor Qianlong, Dingbian and Jingbian were added. During the period of Tongzhi, Zhang Zongyu, the Hui uprising army of Shaanxi and Gansu and the Western Nien army, fought against the Qing Dynasty in Yan'an, and Zuo Zongtang led the Xiang army into the country to suppress the Qing Dynasty. Yuan Dakui, the last armed force of the Nien army, was suppressed in Yongning mountain, and the Nien army movement finally failed in China.
In late Qing Dynasty, the Qing government set up an extension of the oil official factory and was drilled into the first oil well in the Chinese mainland in Yanchang county.
Republic of China
In 1913, Yan'an belonged to Yulin road. In 1928, all counties were directly under the provincial government. In September 1935, the counties of Yan'an belonged to the third and second administrative supervision districts of Shaanxi Province. In 1944, the office of the third administrative inspector of Shaanxi Province was stationed in Luochuan. It initially led Luochuan County, Ganquan County, Yichuan County, Fuxian County, Zhongzhong county and Yijun County, and later led Luochuan County, Huangling County (renamed from Zhongzhong County in 1944) and Huanglong Administrative Bureau. From March to April in 1948, the PLA successively liberated the counties under the jurisdiction of the third administrative supervision area.
In 1926, Li Xiangjiu and Xie Zichang founded the first and second special branches of the Yichuan army of the Communist Party of China; in spring and summer, the fourth middle school of Shaanxi Province (Yan'an) established the Yan'an special branch of the Communist Party of China, which was the earliest local organization of the Communist Party of China in Yan'an. In the 1930s, Liu Zhidan, Xie Zichang and others carried out armed struggle in Yan'an and established two revolutionary bases in Shaanxi Gansu border and Northern Shaanxi. In November 1935, it was called Shaanxi Gansu Province and Northern Shaanxi Province. In October 1935, the central red army arrived at Wuqi town during the long march. In September 1937, the Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia border region was established. In October, the Yan'an municipal government was established, which was directly under the border region government. In 1942, Wuqi County was established as a trilateral district. In November of the same year, Yan'an district was set up. In January, the office of the Commissioner of administrative supervision was established, which governed Yan'an City and 10 counties (cities) including Yan'an, Fuxian, Ganquan, Zhidan, Ansai, Zichang, Yanchuan, Yanchang and Gulin. In January 1948, the Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia border region set up Huanglong District, which governs 10 counties, including Luochuan, Huangling, Yijun, Yichuan and Huanglong. In February 1949, Fuxian county was added to its jurisdiction. In May, Yanchang was removed from its sub district, and the Northern Shaanxi administrative region was established. The Weibei administrative office was stationed in Yan'an, with jurisdiction over Yulin, sanbian, Suide and Huanglong, and seven counties directly under the jurisdiction of Yan'an, Yanchang, Yanchuan, Zichang, Ansai, Zhidan and Ganquan.
After the founding of new China
In May 1950, the Northern Shaanxi administrative office was abolished and the office of administrative inspector of Yan'an District of Shaanxi Province was established. In October of the same year, it was renamed Yan'an Office of the Shaanxi Provincial People's government.
In May 1955, it was also renamed the Yan'an Office of Shaanxi Province.
On August 18, 1968, the Revolutionary Committee of Yan'an special region was established.
In September 1969, Yan'an area was renamed Yan'an area.
In 1978, the Yan'an regional Revolutionary Committee was abolished and the Yan'an regional administrative office was established.
On November 5, 1996, the State Council approved the abolition of Yan'an district and the establishment of prefecture level Yan'an City.
In May 1950, Yan'an district administrative inspector office was established, which has jurisdiction over 12 counties of Yan'an, Yanchang, Ansai, Zhidan, Wuqi, Ganquan, Fuxian, Luochuan, Yichuan, Huangling, Yijun and Huanglong.
In October 1956, Yanchuan and Zichang were assigned to Yan'an district.
In 1964, Fu County was renamed Fu County.
In 1970, Yan'an county was divided into Yan'an City (county level), and in 1972, Yan'an City was renamed Yan'an City. The district has jurisdiction over one city and 14 counties. In August 1975, Yan'an county was incorporated into Yan'an City.
On September 9, 1983, the State Council approved Yijun County as Tongchuan City.
On November 5, 1996, the State Council approved the abolition of Yan'an Prefecture and the establishment of a prefecture level Yan'an City.
On October 17, 2005, Ministry of Civil Affairs min Han No. 278 approved that Wuqi County of Yan'an City was renamed Wuqi County.
In June 2016, the State Council approved the adjustment of some administrative divisions of Yan'an City in Shaanxi Province (Guo Han  No. 104): it agreed to abolish Ansai County and establish Ansai District of Yan'an City.
In July 2019, with the approval of the State Council, Zichang County was abolished and Zichang city at county level was established.
Current situation of regionalization
In 2019, Yan'an City has jurisdiction over 2 municipal districts, 10 counties, and other cities
Chinese PinYin : Shan Xi Sheng Yan An Shi
Yan'an City, Shaanxi Province
Release Time:2022-01-27 04:23:05
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