(a textual research on the names and facts of plants)
[synonyms] Buddha's nails (a textual research on the names and facts of plants), beaver's beans (botanical Dictionary), Campanula and Lilium lancifolium (Leguminosae), shanyouma, yezhima and Zhima Lingling (Zhejiang folk herbal medicine), nongjili (selected from the whole exhibition? Tumor).
[source] it is the whole grass of Lilium indicum.
[plant morphology] Lilium indicum
Annual erect herb, 20-100 cm high, covered with slightly coarse hairs. Single leaf, linear or lanceolate, leaf size varies greatly, 2.5-8 cm long, 0.5-1 cm wide, both ends narrow, apex usually with fascicular hairs, slightly hairy or few hairy above, with silky hairs below; few petioles; stipules very small, bristly. Raceme, terminal or axillary, with 2-20 flowers, dense together. Bracts and bracteoles very similar, linear; bracteoles attached to the upper part of the pedicel, are slightly rough long hair; pedicel very short, drooping when bearing fruit: calyx 10-15 mm long, densely covered with brown yellow long hair, calyx teeth apex sharp; corolla butterfly shaped, purple blue or light blue, about as long as calyx, flag petal round, wing petal shorter than flag petal, obovate rectangular round, keel petal as long as wing petal, curved , beaked; stamen 10, monosomic, anther 2-type; ovary sessile, style slender. Pods glabrous, oblong, about as long as calyx; seeds 10-15. The flowering period is September.
It grows in weeds in wasteland. It is distributed in Northeast, East China, South China and southwest China.
This product is used as Bell grass in Sichuan. See "bell grass".
[collection] summer and autumn.
[chemical constituents] there are seven kinds of alkaloids, among which the most abundant are agrilin B, agrilin C and agrilin a (monocrotaline). The content of a was about 0.02% in the whole grass and 0.4% in the seeds.
(1) anticancer effect
Monocrotaline could inhibit sarcoma-180 in mice, L615 in leukemia, and Walker's carcinoma-256 in rats to a certain extent (the treatment started 24 hours after inoculation), among which the effect on Walker's carcinoma-256 was the most significant. The inhibition rate of S37 was 54-75%. If oxygen atoms were introduced into the N atom of mother nucleus of monocrotaline, the toxicity would be reduced, but the inhibition rate of sarcoma180 would also be reduced. It has good curative effect on skin cancer, uterine cancer and leukemia. This alkaloid is a kind of pyrrolidine, and its anticancer effect is similar to that of alkylating agent.
② In vivo process
Monocrotaline and its metabolites can be detected in 72 hours after a single administration, indicating that it has obvious accumulation, mainly in liver, lung and kidney. The main excretion route was urine. The excretion amount in urine was 8.34-17.01% in 72 hours, but not in feces. During the course of medication or 22-90 days after discontinuation, the cancer patients still excreted in urine. Diuretics can promote its excretion.
③ Other functions
Monocrotaline has a long-term and significant effect on reducing blood pressure in anesthetized dogs. It can inhibit isolated rabbit heart and excite smooth muscle (ileum of rabbit and guinea pig, uterus of rat and guinea pig, trachea chain of dog). These effects are not weakened by atropine.
[toxicity] monocrotaline was extremely toxic. The median lethal dose (LD50) of monocrotaline was 134 ± 11.6 mg / kg subcutaneously injected into rats. All animals showed systemic hemorrhage, obvious turbid swelling and congestion of liver. The subacute toxicity test of rats (30 mg / kg / 7 days) and dogs (18 mg / kg / 10 days) showed that there was no significant effect on liver and kidney function, and the white blood cells and platelets decreased slightly. High dose (62.5 mg / kg, changed to 122.5 mg / kg after 7 days) reduced the total number of white blood cells and platelets, and seriously damaged the liver and lung. In high dose (80 mg / kg / D) subacute toxicity test, transaminase increased progressively, albumin binding capacity decreased, copper storage capacity in liver increased, portal vein pressure in ascites rats increased, mitosis of hepatocytes was inhibited, and giant cells appeared in liver. Sodium dimercaptosuccinate and L-cysteine hydrochloride had protective effects on monocrotaline induced toxicity in rats, but their anticancer effects were also slightly weakened. The toxicity of Lilium Formosa varies greatly with animal species.
Functions and indications: clearing away heat, removing dampness and detoxifying. For infantile dysentery and furuncle. Recent trials are used to treat cancer.
① Textual research on the names and facts of plants: "treating lung wind. "
② "Fuzhou herbal medicine": treating dysentery. "
③ Zhejiang folk commonly used herbs: "clearing away heat and toxin, removing dampness and accumulation. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoction, 0.5-1 Liang. External use: tamping.
[selection] 1. To treat furuncle: mash the whole grass of wild lily with sugar, or dry it in the sun and apply it externally; or decoct it with water and wash it externally. Can also match Viola, honeysuckle each five money, water fried service.
② Treatment of infantile jaundice, malnutrition: wild lily whole grass one or two, decoction.
③ Treatment of snakebite: wild lily fresh whole grass mashed external application. (selected out "Zhejiang folk commonly used herbs")
[clinical application] 1
The preparations, methods and clinical effects used in different places are not the same.
Shandong mainly used 30% jiuti nongjili injection, 10 ml intramuscular injection per day, and oral nongjili decoction, three times a day, 80 ml each time. In some cases, another 40 ml intravenous injection of 30% jiuti injection was added per day (the maximum daily dose of these cases was 39 g of nongjili hay). For skin cancer and cervical cancer, local injection or nongjili fresh straw paste was used. The treatment time was 2-8 months, generally 6 months. A total of 250 cases were observed, including 53 cases of cervical cancer, 2 cases were clinically cured, 4 cases markedly effective, 30 cases improved, 20 cases of breast cancer, 1 case markedly effective, 12 cases improved; 60 cases of gastric cancer, 1 case markedly effective, 33 cases improved; 13 cases of liver cancer, 4 cases improved; 35 cases of lung cancer, 16 cases improved; 10 cases of esophageal cancer, 7 cases improved; 12 cases of skin cancer, 3 cases clinically cured, 7 cases improved; 13 cases of rectal cancer, 8 cases improved; 6 cases of penile cancer 6 cases were improved, 28 cases were other cancers, 1 case was markedly effective, 18 cases were improved. The total effective rate was 60.5%. In addition, 115 cases were observed, mainly using 100% water tinongli injection, intramuscular injection or local injection 4ml daily. Skin cancer was treated with fresh straw pulp or iontophoresis 120 times. Other tumors were treated with nongjili tablets or syrup, twice a day, equivalent to 2-5g of hay. The treatment time was the same as before. Results in 16 cases of gastric cancer, 3 cases were markedly effective and 3 cases were improved; in 14 cases of esophageal cancer, 4 cases were markedly effective and 8 cases were improved; in 19 cases of cervical cancer, 1 case was clinically cured, 1 case was markedly effective and 12 cases were improved; in 9 cases of breast cancer, 3 cases were improved; in 6 cases of lung cancer, 4 cases were improved; in 6 cases of liver cancer, 3 cases were improved; in 6 cases of penile cancer, 1 case was clinically cured (combined with surgical resection), 2 cases were improved; in 6 cases of rectal cancer, 1 case was markedly effective and 4 cases were improved; in 6 cases of skin cancer, 1 case was improved Among 19 cases of carcinoma, 5 cases were clinically cured (2 cases with surgical resection, 3 cases with agrilirion), 2 cases were markedly effective, 3 cases were improved; 1 case with oral mucosa carcinoma, 1 case was clinically cured (with surgery); 14 cases with other carcinoma, 4 cases were clinically cured (3 cases with surgery, 1 case with radiotherapy). The total effective rate was 61.7%. From the above two groups of treatment results, there seems to be no significant difference between the curative effect of wine extract and water extract; the side effects of the drug are not obvious, the patients taking tablets have mild stomach discomfort, and the patients injecting water extract have mild local pain.
According to nongjili's report on 30 cases of cervical cancer, suppositories and injections were used. Suppositories each contained 6 grams of crude drugs, muscle injections each contained 2 or 3 grams of crude drugs, and intravenous injections each contained 0.5 grams, 0.7 grams or 1.0 grams of crude drugs. Treatment: intramuscular injection 2 times a day, 4 ml each time; or intravenous injection 20-40 ml plus 10 ml normal saline, once a day. One suppository was placed in the vagina daily to make it in direct contact with the tumor tissue; at the same time, 10 ml of intramuscular injection was injected into the tumor, once a day or every other day. After continuous treatment for 1 month, the invalid patients were treated with radiotherapy, and the effective patients were treated continuously for more than 5 months. Results 6 cases were markedly effective and 14 cases were effective. The effective standard is that the subjective symptoms disappear, the cervix is smooth or the mass shrinks more than half, most of the periuterine infiltration subsides, the cervical living and exfoliative cytology examination is negative or a few residual cancer cells, continuous observation for 3 months, the condition is not repeated; the effective standard is that the subjective symptoms improve, the tumor shrinks less than 1 / 2 or the lesion is stable, the periuterine infiltration control does not develop, continuous observation for more than 1 month It's a good idea. Among them, early cervical cancer, cauliflower type or rotten type, the effective rate is higher. In the course of treatment, the blood picture, liver and kidney function were checked regularly, and there was no abnormality or gastrointestinal reaction.
22 cases of malignant tumors were treated with nongjilin a, which was isolated from nongjili seed or whole grass. Among them, 12 cases were cervical cancer, 3 cases were skin cancer, 2 cases were breast cancer, 2 cases were esophageal cancer, 1 case was rectal cancer, 1 case was cardiac cancer, 1 case was penile cancer. Cervical cancer is mainly treated by local injection of 100 mg every other day; skin cancer is treated by local injection and external application; other cancers are treated by intramuscular injection of 50 mg or intravenous drip of 50-100 mg every day. The course of treatment was 10 days, 20 days or 30 days (depending on the dosage of each time), and the second course of treatment was carried out at an interval of 10 days. The time of administration ranged from 30 to 97 days, and the total amount was mostly between 1500 and 4500 mg. Treatment outcome: tumor
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