The name of Brucea javanica
[synonym] laoyadan (preparation of raw herbal medicine), Yadan, kubangzi (Jiyun Lvchao), kushenzi (compendium of Chinese materia medica), Yadan (Research on plant names and facts), Yadan (medical Zhongshen Xilu), Yadan (records of traditional Chinese Medicine), jiekuazadirachta (records of Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medicine), xiaokuazadirachta (Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medicine).
[source] it is the fruit of Brucea Javanica.
Evergreen shrubs or small trees, up to 3 meters high, the whole plant are yellow pilose. It has 5-11 opposite leaflets, long ovate lanceolate, 5-10 cm long and 2-4 cm wide, apex acuminate, base cuneate or both sides asymmetric oblique circle, edge with triangular coarse teeth, green above and light green below. Panicle cyme axillary, dioecious, male inflorescence 10-30 cm long, female inflorescence 4-18 cm long; flowers very small, red yellow; male sepals 4, lanceolate, petals 4, linear lanceolate, stamen 4, inserted below the disk, disk 4-lobed; female sepals 4, triangular, petals 4, oblong lanceolate, ovary composed of 4 carpels, most of them free, the lower part surrounded by disk, Style recurved, stigma long pointed. Drupe long ovate, apex slightly curved outwards, black at maturity, reticulate with protuberance. The flowering period is from March to August. The fruit period is from April to September (Hainan Island, Guangxi).
It grows in grass, Bush and sunny place beside the road. Distributed in Fujian, Guangxi, Yunnan, Taiwan, Guangdong and other places.
The root and leaf of this plant are also used for medicine. Please refer to the special section for details.
[collection] harvest in autumn when the fruit is ripe. Remove the impurities of branches and leaves and dry them in the sun.
[medicinal material] the dried and mature fruit is oblong or oval, slightly pointed at both ends, 6-10 mm long and 3-7 mm in diameter. The surface is grayish black, with irregular polygonal reticulation and concave fruit stalk mark at the bottom. The outer shell is hard and brittle. It is grayish red or grayish yellow, smooth and greasy. There are yellow white seeds, oval, 4-7 mm long, 3-5 mm in diameter, wrapped with wrinkled film, rich in oil. Odorless, very bitter. It is better to have strong quality, white kernel and sufficient oil.
It is mainly produced in Guangdong and Guangxi. It is also produced in Fujian and Taiwan.
[chemical constituents] Brucea Javanica contains alkaloids (Brucea Javanica alkaloid and yadanning), glucosides (yadanling, Brucea Javanica glucoside, etc.), phenolic components (Brucea Javanica glucoside, etc.) and a hydroxyl carboxylic acid called Brucea Javanica acid, etc.
Brucea Javanica seed contains 56.23% fat oil. The oil contains 1.36% unsaponifiable matter and a little volatile oil, 92.47% saponified matter and 81.87% oleic acid (accounting for% - the same below), 3.37% linoleic acid, 2.65% stearic acid and 6.62% palmitic acid, etc., and 4.59% Silk crystal with melting point of 152 ℃.
There are many kinds of bitter components in seeds, such as Brucea javanica, Brucea Javanica a, B, C, D, e, F, G, h and so on.
[pharmacological action] ① anti amoeba effect
Brucea Javanica and its active ingredients have no inhibitory effect on Shigella dysentery, typhoid bacillus and Vibrio cholerae, but have killing effect on protozoa such as amoeba, Paramecium and even Plasmodium. The results showed that the 1:1000 diluted neutral solution could kill two of the three kinds of amoeba after contacting with the culture medium for 48 hours. Therefore, the efficacy of killing amoeba in vitro was not enough to explain the clinical efficacy. The crude crystalline glucoside extracted from Brucea Javanica has stronger effect in test tube, but its effect decreases after further refining, so its active ingredient has not been solved yet. Glycoside a, a crystalline component isolated from Brucea javanica, can kill amoeba in 4 hours in 1:10000 water solution on glass slide, while glycoside B is weak and needs 1:1000 concentration to have effect. It has been proved that Brucea Javanica and its effective components have anti amebic effect on the artificially or naturally infected amoebic dysentery in animals (cats, dogs and monkeys). Most or all of the symptoms can disappear, and 1 / 3-1 / 2 of the symptoms can be cured. In the literature of experimental treatment on animals in the past, the mortality is often high, which affects the treatment rate.
④ Antimalarial effect
Since it was found that Brucea Javanica seed or its aqueous extract was effective against chicken malaria in 1950, it was further proved that its antimalarial effect was greater than that of Changshan and similar to that of quinine, but the crystalline component extracted from it was not satisfactory. Brucea Javanica warm extract or alcohol water extract has significant inhibitory effect on the reproduction of Plasmodium gallinarum, but the dose must be close to the median lethal dose. After treatment, the weight of chickens decreased significantly, even died. All chickens that did not die after treatment relapsed and died after drug withdrawal. For vivax malaria patients, although Brucea Javanica water extract has certain curative effect, the reaction (mainly nausea and vomiting) is serious.
③ Repellent effect on intestinal worms
It was found that when Brucea Javanica was used to treat amoebic dysentery, intestinal parasites such as Trichuris, Ascaris lumbricoides and taeniasis were also expelled. Therefore, Brucea Javanica may also be toxic to the above parasites. The bitter glycosides in Brucea Javanica can kill paragonimiasis adults at high concentration, but it has no effect in the experimental treatment of canine paragonimiasis. It seems to have no effect on hookworm.
④ Treatment of verruca and papilloma
Brucea Javanica seed or oil has stimulating effect on normal skin or mucous membrane. It is a kind of cytotoxicity. It is effective in treating verruca or papilloma clinically. For experimental papilloma in mice, Brucea Javanica seed or water (the effect of oil is poor) can make the tumor cells degenerate and necrotic; when it acts on normal skin tissue and cancer tissue, it also has a similar effect.
⑤ Other functions
A small amount of Brucea Javanica seed powder extract and various crude active ingredients were injected intravenously, which could make the blood pressure of mammals decrease temporarily, and cut off the two vagus nerves without affecting the original antihypertensive effect. In addition, Brucea Javanica glucoside can inhibit the beating of heart in vivo and in vitro, and dilate the blood vessels of hind limbs; on the contrary, it can contract the blood vessels of frog, but the purified Brucea Javanica glucoside has no antihypertensive effect; the larger dose does not affect the electrocardiogram and liver function of monkey. Brucea Javanica seed extract can excite the isolated uterus and small intestine in vitro and in vivo, but Brucea Javanica glycoside has no effect, but a small dose of Brucea Javanica seed extract can make the small intestine in vivo contract strongly. Glucoside a from Brucea Javanica has a short-term inhibitory effect on isolated rabbit heart, can cause the blood pressure of rabbit to drop, has a contractile effect on isolated rabbit ear or frog lower limb blood vessels, and has no obvious effect on isolated rabbit uterus; glucoside B also has a short-term inhibitory effect on rabbit and frog heart; phenolic compounds can cause isolated rabbit and frog heart to contract incompletely. In addition, the cold extract of Brucea javanica (5-10%) can kill mosquito larvae, and the stem and leaf of Brucea Javanica can also be put into the water tank.
[toxicity] the volatile oil of Brucea Javanica is irritant. The toxic components are water-soluble and bitter. Large dose of Brucea Javanica seed or effective ingredients can significantly dilate the visceral blood vessels of animals, even cause bleeding; it has a general inhibition on the central nervous system; the number of leukocytes and the ratio of multinucleated cells increase. The common clinical symptoms are nausea, vomiting and sometimes blood pressure decrease. The minimum lethal dose of defatted Brucea Javanica was 0.1 g / kg. The toxicity of phenolic components in Brucea Javanica is the strongest, followed by glucoside A and glucoside B. the median lethal dose of them to mice by subcutaneous injection is 0.65 mg / kg, 10 mg / kg and 74 mg / kg respectively. General depression and quadriplegia were observed before death.
[processing] winnow the impurities, wash, dry, peel off the shell and take the whole kernel.
Bitter, cold and poisonous.
① "The taste is extremely bitter and the nature is cool. "
② "Materia medica justice": "great pain, great cold. "
③ "Guangxi Traditional Chinese medicine annals": "extremely bitter taste, cold nature, toxic. "
Functions and indications: clearing heat, drying dampness, killing insects and detoxifying. For dysentery, diarrhea, malaria, hemorrhoids, poison, warts, corns.
① "Preparation of raw herbal medicine nature": "cool the blood, remove the sores in the spleen, and treat Dieda. "
② "Gangmu Shiyi": "treatment of dysentery, hemorrhoids. "
③ "Lingnan caiyao Lu" says: "it can cure cold diarrhea for a long time. It can also kill insects. "
④ "Zhongshen Xilu of medicine": "it is good at cooling blood and detoxifying, and it is good at treating febrile dysentery. "For syphilis and willow poison drenching. Mash vinegar and apply poison. Good at treating warts. "
⑤ "Scientific folk herbs": to stop malaria and treat amoebic dysentery. Made of oil, it can treat external auditory canal papilloma, papilloma and condyloma acuminatum. "
⑥ "Guangxi Traditional Chinese medicine annals": "treat chancre. Topical (oil) treatment of skin tumors. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: wrap with longan meat or capsule, swallow after meal, 5-20 capsules each time, 3 times a day. External use: tamping.
[should avoid] if the spleen and stomach are weak and vomit, it should not be taken.
Guangxi Chinese herbal medicine: "pregnant women and children should use it with caution. "
[prescription selection] 1. To treat the internal emergency and the aftereffect: remove the shell of crow gall and keep the meat, wrap longan meat, one grain per year, under the water. (Jiyun travel notes)
② For the treatment of dysentery due to heat, and the second stool bleeding due to heat: remove the skin of Brucea javanica, take 25 tablets each time, up to 50 tablets at most, and take it with white sugar water. Swallow it whole. If the skin is peeled and the kernel is broken, don't take it. Take it for fear of vomiting. (Zhongshen Xilu of Medicine)
③ Treatment of malaria: take ten pieces of Brucea Javanica nuts into the flesh of Cinnamomum cassia, three times a day, half of the amount after the third day, even for five days. (Guangxi Chinese herbal medicine)
④ Treatment of early schistosomiasis: Ten Brucea Javanica nuts, twice a day, for four or five days. (Guangxi Chinese herbal medicine)
⑤ Treatment of hemorrhoids: seven pieces of Brucea javanica, round eye meat, swallow. (collection of compendium)
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