(primordial materia medica)
[synonym] shuamoren, shuamomi ("theory of medicinal properties"), shuamoshi ("Haiyao Materia Medica").
[source] it is the mature fruit or seed of Zingiberaceae.
[plant morphology] 1. Yangchunsha (notes of South Vietnam)
Herbs perennial, up to 1.5 m tall. Rhizome cylindrical, transverse, small node, node with tubular membranous scales, brown. Stem erect. Leaves 2-row, sessile; leaf blade narrow oblong or linear lanceolate, 14-40 cm long, 2-5 cm wide, apex acuminate, caudate or acute, base acuminate, entire, smooth above, hairy or abscission below; leaf sheath open, amplexicaul; ligule short, light brown. The flower stem is extracted from the rhizome, pubescent, with scaly leaves, light brown; spike is spherical, vegetable pine; bracts are long elliptic, smooth membranous; bracteoles are tubular, apically 2-lobed, gelatinous; calyx is campanulate, about 1.6 cm long, apex 3-lobed, lobes nearly triangular; corolla tube is thin, about 1.8 cm long, 3-lobed, lobes oblong, white, apex cucullate; labellum obovate to oval Pistil 1, anther smooth, connective appendage 3-lobed, bilateral lobes small, central lobes wide and involute, filaments flat and short; ovary hypogynous, spherical, hairy, 3-locular, ovules numerous in each locule, style slender, base 2-locular 3 nectaries, stigma subglobose. Capsule, subglobose, indehiscent, ca. 1. 5 cm in diam., spinose, brownish red when ripe. The seeds are numerous and fragrant. The flowering period is from March to June. The fruit period is from June to September.
It grows in valley forest, shade wetland, or cultivated. Distributed in Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan and other places.
The flower, peduncle and fruit shell of this plant are also used for medicine. Please refer to the special section for details.
② Shrinkage sand
Herbs perennial, up to 3 m tall. Rhizomes transverse, sometimes thickened. Stem erect. Leaf linear lanceolate, 15.3-35 cm long, 4-7 cm wide, apex acute or acuminate, caudate, base gradually narrowed, entire, glabrous on both sides: leaf sheath leathery, smooth; ligule 4 mm long, leathery. Inflorescence: sepals oblong, ca. 2.8 cm; corolla oblong, ca. 2.8 cm; perianth oblong, ca. 1.8 cm long; carpels oblong, ca. 1-3 cm long; carpels oblong, ca. 1-3 cm long; perianth lobed It is smooth, about 5.5 mm long. The appendages at the top of the septum are semilunar and auricular on both sides. Capsule hard, oblong or globose triangular, ca. 2 cm in diam., spinose, brown.
Cultivated or wild. It is distributed in Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Indonesia, etc.
The shell of this plant (Amomum villosum) is also used for medicine. See special section for details.
[collection] when the fruit is ripe, it is harvested, dried in the sun or baked gently, that is, shell sand (a sand fruit); peel the fruit and dry the seed mass, that is, Amomum villosum.
[medicinal materials] 1. Amomum villosum (notes of Nanyue)
Also known as: Amomum villosum, Amomum villosum (ancient and modern medicine alias Research), soil dense sand (add false medicine debate), for the dry fruit of plant Amomum villosum. Oval or ovoid, slightly triangular, 1.5-2 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter. The surface is brown, densely spiny, with small protuberances at one end and fruit stalk marks at one end. The pericarp is thin, light and crisp, with many seeds. The seed mass is spherical or oblong, with obtuse Sparganium, divided into three petals, and each petal has 6-15 seeds. The seed is irregular polyhedron, about 2 mm in diameter, with brown red or dark brown surface and fine wrinkles. After breaking, the interior is gray and greasy. It is fragrant, pungent and slightly bitter.
② Imported Amomum villosum
Also known as: Amomum villosum. It is the dry fruit of plants. Oval or ovoid, slightly triangular, 1.5-2 cm long, 0.8-1.5 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish brown or grayish brown with dense spiny protuberances. The shape of seed mass is round, and the surface is gray brown or brown. The outer layer of Amomum villosum after shelling is often covered with white frost due to special processing. The smell is slightly lighter than that of Amomum villosum. It is better to be big, firm, full of kernel and strong smell. The quality of Amomum villosum is the best.
Yangchun Amomum villosum is mainly produced in Guangdong, Guangxi and other places. Imported Amomum villosum is mainly produced in Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Indonesia and other places.
[chemical constituents] the volatile oil content of the seeds is 1.7-3%. The main components are d-camphor, a terpene (limonene like but not limonene), D-borneol, bornyl acetate, linalool and nerolidol.
The volatile oil of leaves is similar to that of seeds, and contains borneol, bornyl acetate, camphor, limonene, etc. The content of saponin was 0.69%.
The seed of cardamom fragrans contains 4-6% volatile oil of Amomum villosum.
[processing] Amomum villosum: remove impurities and shell, mash. Salt Amomum villosum: soak Amomum villosum in salt water, stir fry until slightly dry, take out and let cool. (for each 100 Jin of Amomum villosum, use 2 Jin and 8 liang of salt, add appropriate amount of boiling water to dissolve and clarify)
[flavor] pungent, warm.
① "On medicinal properties": "bitter and pungent in taste. "
② "Haiyao Materia Medica": "it tastes pungent, flat and salty. "
③ Kaibao materia medica: "it is pungent, warm and non-toxic. "
④ "Compendium": "pungent, warm, astringent, non-toxic. "
[channel tropism] entering spleen and stomach channels.
① Tangye materia medica: "start with, foot Taiyin, Yangming, Taiyang, foot Shaoyin. "
② "Into foot Taiyin, Yangming, Jueyin, hand Taiyin, Yangming, Jueyin" in the classic of Materia Medica. "
③ In Bencao Zaixin: "entering the heart and spleen meridians. "
Functions and indications: Regulating Qi, harmonizing stomach and invigorating spleen. It can treat abdominal pain, distension, stagnation of stomach and food, choking and vomiting, cold diarrhea and dysentery, pregnancy and fetal movement.
① "Theory of medicinal properties": "it can control abdominal pain of cold air, stop dysentery, strain, digest water and grain, and warm the spleen and stomach. "
② Materia medica notes: "the main Qi coughs, runs the dolphin, startles the epileptic evil Qi. "
③ "Rihuazi Materia Medica": "treat all Qi, cholera, heart and abdominal pain. "
④ Zhang Yuanyuan: "treat the stagnation of spleen and stomach qi. "
⑤ Yang Shiying: "in harmony, qi circulation, pain relief and tocolysis. "
⑥ "Materia medica Mengluo": "stop nausea, but abdominal pain. "
⑦ The compendium of Medical Sciences: "invigorate the lung and invigorate the spleen, nourish the stomach and kidney, regulate vital energy, dredge stagnant Qi, disperse cold, distension and distension, choke and vomit, stop women's collapse, remove the floating heat of throat and mouth, and transform copper and iron bone choking. "
⑧ Yilin zuanyao: "moisten kidney, invigorate liver, invigorate life gate, harmonize spleen and stomach, open stasis. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: Decoction (not suitable for long time), 0.5 ~ 2 yuan; or into pills, powder.
[should avoid] it should not be taken when Yin deficiency is hot.
① "Haiyao Materia Medica": "get chebula chebula, turtle shell, cardamom, white Wu catkin, etc. "
② The classic of materia medica: "all abdominal pain belongs to fire, summer heat due to diarrhea, fetal movement due to blood heat, pharyngeal pain due to inflammation, infantile anal prolapse due to Qi deficiency, swelling due to damp heat, upper Qi cough due to fire rushing to the lung but not due to cold and hearing injury, all need to be carefully identified and difficult to generalize. "
③ "The meaning of medicine" says: "it is forbidden to have fire in the lung. "
④ "To match the materia medica": "Qi deficiency lung full forbidden. "
[prescription selection] ① harmonizing stomach qi, eliminating persistent food, regulating abdominal pain, quickening diaphragm, regulating spleen: one or two pieces of aloes, two pieces of Amomum villosum, two pieces of Wuyao, four pieces of jingxiangfu, one or two pieces of licorice (fried). In addition to eaglewood not over fire, the remaining four flavor file baked, still with eaglewood ground into fine powder. Take one money each time. Take warm salt soup all the time, or hollow salt soup. Perilla and jujube soup are especially wonderful. (Shousha drink in huoyouxinshu)
② Xiaoshi he, Xiaqi Zhixin abdominal pain: stir fry Amomum villosum, soak wine in bag, boil and drink. (Shousha wine in the compendium)
③ Treatment of phlegm and diaphragmatic distension: mash Amomum villosum, soak in radish juice, and bake at the end. Take one or two yuan for each, eat far away, and take boiling soup. (simple formula)
④ For the treatment of qi deficiency and swelling, phlegm accumulation, disharmony between spleen and stomach, and various diseases: ginseng, Atractylodes macrocephala, Poria cocos, licorice, tangerine peel, pinellia, Amomum villosum, Aucklandia and ginger. Take it in water. Xiangsha Liujunzi Decoction
⑤ Treatment of stomach deficiency and Qi inversion in pregnancy, vomiting without food: shrink Amomum no matter how much. The upper part is fine. Take 2 yuan per serving, add a little ginger juice and boil the soup at any time. (jishengfang shuoshan powder)
⑥ Treatment of cold sliding diarrhea can not help but, empty Lei: shrink Amomum villosum, fried aconite (end), dried ginger, Magnolia officinalis, tangerine peel, etc. It's a pill. On the second day, take 40 pills. (on medicinal properties)
⑦ In the treatment of women's pregnancy, sometimes because of the touch, or fall high injury hit, causing fetal restlessness, abdominal pain can not be tolerated: shrink sand regardless of how much. Stir fry slowly to make it hot through, peel with kernel, mash for the end. Take two yuan for each, and adjust it with hot wine. In a moment, you feel that the fetal movement in your abdomen is extremely hot, and the fetus is safe. (Sun Yonghe)
⑧ Treat all over the body swelling, Yin is also swollen: shrink Amomum, a dog, equal. Research, and old wine clothing. (ren Zhai Zhi Zhi Fang)
⑨ Treatment of children sliding discharge, anal prolapse: shrink sand one or two. Peeled for the end, each with a dollar, to pig kidney a batch open, including the end of medicine, cotton, rice hogwash cooked, and children's food, the second service alum pills. (shuosha powder, general micro prescription for children's health)
⑩ Tooth pain: shrink sand, often chew it. (ren Zhai Zhi Zhi Fang)
(11) cure all food poisons: shrink the powder of Amomum villosum, take one or two coins with water. (Shi Lin Guang I2)
[discussion by famous experts] 1. Tangye materia medica: "shuosha, together with sandalwood and cardamom, enters the lung; ginseng and Yizhi, enter the spleen; Cortex Phellodendri and poria cocos, enter the kidney; and Yiyi and baishizhi, enter the kidney
Chinese PinYin : Sha Ren
Peony root. He Bao Mu Dan Gen
Juglans mandshurica. He Tao Qiu Guo
Patrinia villosa. Bai Jiang
Four tiles on the opposite leaf. Dui Ye Si Kuai Wa
Root of Liquidambar formosana. Feng Xiang Shu Gen
Cattle Spleen. Niu Pi
Grass knot of cattle and sheep. Niu Yang Cao Jie
Rhizoma Dioscoreae. Shan Ma Gan
Radix Pseudostellariae. Tai Zi Can
watermelon rind. Xi Gua Pi
Shrimp whisker bean. Xia Xu Dou
Protosilkworm moth. Yuan Can E