Another name is Ophiopogon japonicus.
[source] it is the tuberous root of Liliaceae.
[plant morphology] yanjiecao (Jiangxi Tongzhi), also known as YANGJIU, majiu, Yangmao, aijiu, Yujiu, renling, undead, Bulei, suizhi (Wupu materia medica), Yangqi, Yujia (bielu), jieqiancao (compendium), shudaicao, xiuduncao (qunfangpu), mazongcao, jiabiancao, jiuyemaidong.
Perennial herbs, 15-40 cm high. There are long and thin stolons under the ground, membranous bracts on the nodes: fibrous roots often expand into fleshy tuberous roots. Leaves tufted, narrowly linear, 15-40 cm long, 1-4 mm wide, apex obtuse or acute, base narrow, petiole sheathlike, both sides membranous. 5-14 cm long; raceme terminal; bracts membranous, axillary 1-3 flowers per bract; flowers lilac, occasionally white, small, slightly drooping; perianth 6, spreading, ovoid; stamen 6, filaments not obvious, shorter than anther, anther apex pointed; ovary half inferior, 3-locular. Berries globose, dark green or dark blue when mature, 5-7 mm in diameter. The flowering period is July. The fruiting period is November.
It grows on the Bank of stream or under the forest on the hillside. It is distributed or cultivated in most parts of China.
[collection] most of the commodities are cultivated products. In Zhejiang, it was dug at the beginning of summer in the third year after cultivation, which is called "hangmaidong"; in Sichuan, it was dug after Qingming in the second year of cultivation, which is called "chuanmaidong". Wild Ophiopogon japonicus is usually dug up after the Qingming Festival, which is commonly known as "earth Ophiopogon japonicus". After the Ophiopogon japonicus is dug up, cut off the root, wash the soil, and expose to the sun for 3-4 days. Pile it in a ventilated place to make it damp and evaporate water vapor. After about 3 days, spread it out and then expose it to the sun for 2-3 times. After drying, remove the impurities of fibrous roots.
[medicinal materials] 1
Also known as Ophiopogon japonicus, Ophiopogon japonicus. The dry root tubers are spindle shaped, blunt at both ends, full of fat in the middle, slightly curved, about 2 cm long, some up to 4 cm, and 4-6 mm in diameter in the middle. The surface is yellowish white, translucent, with irregular longitudinal wrinkles. When it is not completely dry, it is flexible and hard after drying. The broken face is yellowish white and horny. There are fine xylem in the center of cross section. The air is slightly fragrant and the taste is slightly sweet.
② The shape of Ophiopogon japonicus is similar to that of Ophiopogon japonicus. The surface is milky white and glossy. The quality is hard, the aroma is small, the taste is light and less sticky.
③ Ophiopogon japonicus
The surface is rough and wrinkled, yellow black, thin and small, with strong fiber.
The above-mentioned people with yellowish white surface, hypertrophy, soft texture, fragrance, sweet taste and sticky chew are preferred. Thin and small, brown and yellow, chewy and sticky were the second.
It is mainly produced in Zhejiang and Sichuan. In addition, it is also produced in Jiangsu, Guizhou, Yunnan, Guangxi, Anhui, Hubei and Hunan, but it is mostly wild and rarely cultivated.
In addition, Ophiopogon japonicus used in Tibet is the tuberous root of centipede seven.
There are also tuberous roots of several species of Ophiopogon in different places.
① Ophiopogon japonicus is a large plant with 15-30 cm long leaves and 3-7 mm wide leaves. It has sparse flowers, 6 perianths, filaments slightly as long as anthers, blunt anthers and superior ovaries. It is distributed in North China, central China, East China and South China.
② Liriope latifolia is similar to the former species in shape, with 7-13 mm wide leaves and dense flowers. It is distributed in East China and central China.
③ Ophiopogon japonicus is a small plant, 12-25 cm high and 2-3 mm wide. It is distributed in Jiangsu and Zhejiang.
④ Ophiopogon kansuensis has leaves 1.5 mm wide, flowers 1-2 in clusters and filaments about twice as long as anthers. It is distributed in Gansu Province.
[chemical constituents] the tuberous root of Ophiopogon japonicus contains many kinds of steroidal saponins, and its aglycone is roscogenin. It also contains β - sitosterol, stigmasterol and β - sitosterol - β - D-glucoside. The fruit contains Ophiopogon, which is kaempferol-3-glucogalactoside.
There are many kinds of steroidal saponins in the tubers of L. japonicum var. japonicum, which are called L. japonicum saponins a, B, C, D, etc. The aglycones of a, B and D are roscogenin. It also contains β - sitosterol, stigmasterol, β - sitosterol - β - l-glucoside, and the fruit contains Ophiopogon.
The root tubers of Ophiopogon japonicus contain β - sitosterol, amino acids, vitamin A, glucose and steroidal saponins.
[pharmacological action] ① effect on blood glucose
50% Ophiopogon japonicus Decoction (1 ml / kg) was injected intramuscularly in rabbits, which could increase blood glucose. In addition, it is said that the water and alcohol extracts of Ophiopogon japonicus (0.2 g / kg) have hypoglycemic effect in normal rabbits; in alloxan diabetic rabbits, 0.5 g / kg / day for 4 consecutive days also have hypoglycemic effect, and promote the recovery of islet cells, and the liver glycogen has an increasing trend compared with the control group.
② Antibacterial action
Ophiopogon japonicus powder has some antibacterial effects on Staphylococcus albicans and Escherichia coli in vitro. (the varieties of Ophiopogon japonicus have not been identified.)
[processing] Ophiopogon japonicus: pick up the impurities, soak them in water, take them out, remove the heart after moistening, and then wash and dry them. Ophiopogon japonicus: take Ophiopogon japonicus, put it in the basin, spray a little water, moisten it slightly, add fine vermilion powder, spread it evenly, turn it over at any time until it is evenly covered with vermilion outside, and then leave it to dry. (10 jin of Ophiopogon japonicus, 3 liang of cinnabar)
① Tao Hongjing: "it's better for (Maimendong) to be fat. It's boring to use tangze to remove the heart. "
② The compendium of Medical Sciences: "if you put in the decoction, moisten it with boiling water, remove the heart, or bake it with tile, and remove the heart with heat; if you put in the pill powder, you need to bake it with tile, that is, blow it cold in the wind. If you do this three or four times, it will be easy to dry, and it will not damage the power of the medicine. You can also soak the tamping ointment and medicine with the soup, or you can soak the tonic medicine with wine. "
[flavor] sweet, slightly bitter, cold.
① Ben Jing: "it tastes sweet and flat. "
② Bielu: "slightly cold, non-toxic. "
③ "Qi is cold, taste slightly bitter. "
④ Yilin zuanyao: "sweet, light, slightly bitter, slightly cold. "
[channel tropism] entering lung, stomach and heart channels.
① Tangye materia medica: "start with Taiyin classic. "
② According to the book of Materia Medica Mengluo, "we should start with Taiyin and Shaoyin. "
③ According to the classic of Materia Medica, "when you enter Yangming, you should start Shaoyin and Taiyin at the same time. "
Functions and indications: Nourishing Yin and moistening lung, clearing heart and removing trouble, benefiting stomach and generating fluid. Treatment of lung dry cough, hematemesis, hemoptysis, lung flaccidity, lung carbuncle, asthenia, fatigue, heat, thirst, fever, body injury, dry throat, dry mouth, constipation.
① "Ben Jing" says: "master the heart and abdomen to accumulate Qi, injure the heart and abdomen to be full, stomach collaterals to be exhausted, lean and short of Qi. "
② Bielu: "the treatment focuses on the yellow eyes, the fullness of the lower branches of the heart, the deficiency of heat, the dryness of the mouth, the thirst, the vomiting, the more impotence, the stronger the Yin and the essence, the elimination of the grain, the regulation of the middle, the protection of the spirit, the calming of the lung qi, and the tranquilization of the five zang organs, which makes people fat and healthy. "
③ "Treatise on medicinal properties": "it can cure heat and poison, stop thirst, control swelling of eyes and limbs, and enter the water. Treatment of lung flaccidity, vomiting and purulent, main ejaculation. "
④ "Materia medica collection": "treat cold and heat, physical fatigue, phlegm. "
⑤ "Rihuazi materia medica:" it can cure five kinds of fatigue and seven kinds of injuries, calm the mind and calm the soul. It can relieve fever, headache and cough. "
⑥ Ben Cao Yan Yi: "treating heart lung deficiency heat. "
⑦ "Zhenzhubao": it can cure the fire in the lung, generate the pulse and protect the spirit. "
⑧ "Medical Qiyuan": "according to the secret of indications, it is impossible to cure the dry milk of the meridians. "
⑨ "Heart method of medication": "the deficiency of heart qi and the treatment of blood rash. "
⑩ "Nanjing folk herbs"): treating women's dampness. "
(11) Fujian folk herbal medicine: "it can clear the heart and benefit the liver, diuretic and antipyretic, treat urinary retention and infantile liver heat. "
(12) Anhui herbal medicine: "for sore throat. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoction, 2-4 Qian; or into the pill, powder.
[should avoid] all patients with diarrhea due to deficiency of spleen and stomach, phlegm and dampness in the stomach, and cough due to severe wind and cold should not take it.
① "Rehmannia glutinosa and Plantago asiatica are its envoys. It's a kind of bitter gourd. Fear of Sophora flavescens, green capsule. "
② "On the nature of drugs": evil and bitter. Agaric fear. "
③ "Compendium": "Qi weak stomach cold must not bait. "
[prescription selection] 1. For the treatment of dryness injuring lung and stomach yin, or heat or cough: Radix Glehniae, Radix Ophiopogonis, Rhizoma Polygoni Multiflori, Radix Glycyrrhizae, leaves of winter mulberry, lentils and pollen. Five cups of water, boil two cups, and take them every day. (differentiation of epidemic febrile diseases: Shashen Maidong Decoction)
② For the treatment of hematemesis, the bleeding is not only: raw Ophiopogon juice, raw thistle juice and raw rehmannia juice. Xianghe, slightly warm in the pot, take a small cup for each, and then take it for one money. (shenghuifang, Maimendong Yinzi)
③ Treatment of bleeding more than: Ophiopogon japonicus, raw rehmannia, each take one or two, fried in water. (jishengfang, Maimendong drink)
④ Treatment of dental bleeding into strips: Ginseng eight points, Poria cocos, Ophiopogon japonicus each one money. Warm clothes in water. (Su Shi's Maimendong Decoction)
⑤ Treatment of bone steaming, lung flaccidity, limbs vexed heat, can not eat, thirsty mouth: Maimendong (to the heart, baked), five each. On the two flavor rough mash screen, each service five money dagger. First, take two cups of water and fry the wheat until one and a half cups. Remove the wheat and take it as medicine. Then, decoct one cup and remove the dross. Take it at two different temperatures and eat it on an empty stomach. (Maimendong soup in Shengji Zonglu)
⑥ Treat lung carbuncle, saliva, spit pus, such as porridge: two liang of Ophiopogon japonicus, five liang of Platycodon grandiflorum, three points of licorice. First three ingredients are roughly mashed and sieved. Take three daggers, one cup of water and ten pieces of Artemisia heart leaves. Fry them together until seven minutes. Remove the dross and warm them. Slightly light congee drink down also. (Maimendong soup in Shengji Zonglu)
⑦ It has seven liters of Ophiopogon japonicus, one liter of Pinellia ternata, two liang of ginseng, two liang of licorice, three of Japonica Rice and twelve of jujube. On the six flavors, with a bucket of water two liters, boiling six liters, warm clothing one liter, three nights a service. (Maimendong Decoction in Synopsis of the Golden Chamber)
⑧ Treatment of deficiency heat attack, spleen and lung heat, sore throat: Maimendong one or two, Coptis five money. The last is the honey pill, such as the Wutong seed. Take 30 pills each time, and put down the Ophiopogon Decoction before eating. (PU Ji Fang Mai men Dong Wan)
Chinese PinYin : Mai Men Dong
Cockscomb seedling. Ji Guan Miao
Marigold root. Jin Zhan Cao Gen
Canary root. Jin Que Gen
Cowpea root. Jiang Dou Gen
Half flag. Ban Bian Qi
Walnut root. Hu Tao Gen
Juglans regia. Hu Tao Zhi
Transforming blood and gall. Hua Xue Dan
Smilax glabra 1. Tu Fu Ling
Hedgehog heart and liver. Wei Xin Gan
Roentgenol. Yu Yan Cao
cockroach. Zhang Lang