Chinese Name: gentian
[synonym] Lingyou (Ben Jing), caohongdan (Ben Cao Tu Jing), longdancao (Lu? Yan Ben Cao), kulongdancao, didancao (Dian Nan Ben Cao), Dancao (Yao Hua Yi), shanlongdan (Zhejiang traditional Chinese medicine manual), siyedan (Guangxi Traditional Chinese veterinary medicine plant), shuilongdan (Jiangsu Zhi Yao Zhi).
[source] it is the root and rhizome of Gentianaceae.
[plant morphology] 1. Gentiana scabra, also known as Gentiana scabra.
Perennial herbs, 35-60 cm high. Rhizome short, clustered, most slender roots, roots up to 25 cm long, light brown yellow. Stem erect, stout, usually unbranched, coarse, internodes often shorter than leaves. Leaves opposite, sessile, 2-3 pairs of basal leaves, very small, scaly; middle and upper leaves ovate, ovate lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, about 3-8 cm long and 0.4-4 cm wide, apex acuminate or acute, base connected to nodes, leaf margin and veins rough, 3 main veins basal. Flowers sessile, several in bundles, clustered at the top of stem and upper leaf axils; bracts lanceolate; calyx green, bell shaped, membranous, ca. 2.5 cm long, apex 5-lobed, lobes lanceolate to linear; corolla dark blue to blue, bell shaped, ca. 5 cm long, apex 5-lobed, lobes ovate, apex acute, lobes with 5-fold triangular corona, entire or occasionally 2-toothed; stamen 5, inserted on flowers Ovary oblong, 1-locular, style short, stigma 2-lobed. Capsule oblong, short stalked, 2-valved when heated. Seeds small, linear and flat, brown, winged. The flowering period is from September to October. The fruiting period is October.
It grows in grass, shrub and forest edge on hillside. Distributed in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou, Sichuan, Guangdong, Guangxi and other places.
② Gentiana trifoliata
Perennial herbs, 30-80 cm high. Rhizome short, clustered with several slender roots. Stem erect, unbranched, smooth, glabrous. Leaf blade linear lanceolate, 5-1 cm long, 0.5-1.2 cm wide, apex acuminate, margin slightly retrovolved, smooth glabrous, 1 main vein, distinct. Flowers sessile, 1-3, rare 5, fasciculated at the top of stem and upper leaf axils; bracts lanceolate to linear lanceolate; calyx 2-2.5cm long, apex 5-lobed, lobes 5-15mm long; corolla dark blue, bell shaped, about 3.5-4.5cm long, apex 5-lobed, lobes ovate, apex obtuse or nearly obtuse; corolla 5-lobed, very short. The flowering period is from August to September. The fruit period is from September to October.
It is found in shrubs, forest clearing or meadow. Distribution heilongqian, Jilin, Liaoning and other places.
[collection] it can be harvested in spring and autumn, and the harvest quality in autumn is the best. After digging, remove the stems and leaves, wash them and dry them in the sun.
[medicinal material] the dried rhizome is irregular block, about 0.5-3cm long, about 0.5-1cm in diameter; the surface is dark gray brown or dark brown, wrinkled, cross striated, with stem mark or residual stem base at the upper end, tough; hard to break; the section is slightly flat, yellowish brown. The root cluster grows on the rhizome, about 8-20 cm in length, 0.2-0.4 cm in diameter at the upper part, and thin at the lower part; the surface is yellow or yellowish brown, with longitudinal wrinkles and branches wrapped, brittle and easy to break; the section is slightly flat, yellowish brown, and the wood is very small and almost white. The breath is weak and the taste is bitter. It is better to have long and thick roots, yellow or yellowish brown, no broken roots; it is better to have short and thin roots, few roots, red and yellow roots.
Mainly produced in Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Jilin, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and other places. Northeast China has the largest output, which is known as "guanlongdan". "
In addition, in Northeast China and Shandong Province, Gentiana is still used as medicine. The leaves are linear lanceolate to lanceolate, 9-10 cm long and 1.2-2 cm wide. Calyx lobes unequal, corolla lobes triangular acute.
The root and rhizome of Gentiana yunnanensis are also used as medicine. The stem of Gentiana yunnanensis has one or two or three branches. Leaves obovate oblong, 3-6 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, apex rounded or obtuse, 3 main veins basal. Corolla purplish red, ca. 2 cm long. Its medicinal materials: rhizome is very short, root length is 6-15 cm, upper diameter is 1-2 mm; appearance is light yellow to yellowish brown, epidermis is easy to fall off; quality is hard and brittle, slightly horny, xylem is yellow.
Gentiana used in Tibet is the whole plant of Gentianaceae.
[chemical constituents] it contains gentiopicrin, swertiamarin, Gentiobiose, gentisin and gentianic acid.
[processing] remove impurities, remove residual stems, wash, moisten, cut into sections and dry in the sun.
① Lei Gong Paozhi Lun: "if you want to use Longdan, you should cut off the mustache with a copper knife, file it, and soak it in licorice Soup for one night until it dries suddenly in the morning. "
② According to the book of materia medica: "take a fine file, soak it in ginger juice for one night, remove the commonness, bake and pound it. "
③ "Ben Jing Feng Yuan": "go to Lu, or stir fry with wine. "
① Ben Jing: "it tastes bitter and astringent. "
② Bielu: "cold, nontoxic. "
③ "Qi is cold and tastes bitter. The secret of indications says: cold in nature, bitter and pungent in taste. "
④ "The taste is bitter and slightly sour, and the nature is cold. "
[Guijing] into the liver and gallbladder channels.
① "Lei Gong's treatment of medicinal properties" says: "into the liver, gallbladder, kidney, bladder four channels. "
② "The three meridians of foot Jueyin, Shaoyin and Yangming" in the classic of Materia Medica. "
Functions and indications: purging the liver and gallbladder with excess fire, removing dampness and heat of Xiajiao. Treatment of liver heat, convulsion, manic, encephalitis B, headache, red eyes, sore throat, jaundice, dysentery, carbuncle, sore, scrotal swelling and pain, pudendal wet itching. It is used for damp heat, jaundice, Yin swelling, Yin itching, leucorrhea, eczema, pruritus, deafness, flank pain, bitter mouth, convulsion and convulsion.
① "Ben Jing" and "the main bone between cold and heat, scared lame evil, continue to cut off injuries, set five internal organs, kill poison.". "
② Bielu: "in addition to the stomach latent heat, the Qi is warm and hot, the heat can be released quickly, the intestinal worms can be removed, the liver can be invigorated, the courage and Qi can be relieved, and the fear can be relieved. "
③ "Theory of medicinal properties": "it is mainly used to treat children's convulsion and epilepsy into the heart, strong heat, bone heat, carbuncle swelling; it is used to treat disease heat yellow, mouth sores. "
④ "Rihuazi Materia Medica" says: "it can cure the disobedience of the guest, Nourish Qi, fever, rave, scabies, improve eyesight and stop trouble. "
⑤ "This sketch path": "ancient prescriptions are often used to treat jaundice. "
⑥ "Lvyan materia medica:" it is used to treat wine poisoning, hematochezia and intestinal wind. "
⑦ "Medical Qiyuan": "it can cure yellow eyes, red swelling, eye swelling, high blood stasis, and unbearable pain. "Indications" cloud: treatment of lower rheumatism and damp heat, umbilicus to foot swelling and pain, cold and wet beriberi. "
⑧ "Diannan Materia Medica": "treat sore throat, wash scabies, poison and swelling. "
⑨ "Introduction to medicine": "treating heart pain caused by stroke, heart pain caused by insect attack, and limb pain. "
⑩ "Compendium": "treatment of sore throat, wind heat night sweats. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoction, 1-3 yuan; or into pills, powder. External use: grind and tamp.
[should not] the spleen and stomach weak for catharsis and no damp heat solid fire avoid taking.
① "Lei Gong Paozhi Lun:" don't use bait on an empty stomach. It's drowning. "
② The book of Ben Cao Jing Ji Zhu: "Guanzhong is the envoy of it. Rehmannia glutinosa, anti sunflower. "
③ Rihuazi materia medica: "Xiaodou is the envoy. "
Store in a dry place.
[prescription selection] 1. To treat typhoid fever and Madness: take Radix Gentianae as the end, and take two coins in jiziqing and baimihua cold water. (shanghanyunyao)
② Treatment of liver and gallbladder excess fire, dampness and heat, flank pain, deafness, gall overflow, bitter mouth, tendon flaccidity, Yin sweat, Yin swelling, Yin pain, white turbid blood: Gentianaceae (stir fried with wine), Scutellaria (stir fried with wine), gardenia (stir fried with wine), Alisma, Akebia, Plantago, Angelica (washed with wine), Rehmannia (stir fried with wine), bupleurum, licorice , water decoction. (Bureau prescription Longdan Xiegan Decoction)
③ To cure the blind birds, one or two Gentianaceae herbs and one or two Coptis chinensis are not seen at night. Two for the fine powder, after eating with hot sheep liver dipped in medicine powder. (Lu Yan Ben Cao)
④ To cure summer heat and astringent eyes: combine raw gentian (mash juice) and Rhizoma Coptidis (soak juice) with a spoonful. (Shi Yi De Xiao Fang)
⑤ Treatment of eye leakage pus: Gentianaceae, angelica, etc., for the end. Two dollars for each, warm water. (Fei Hong Ji)
⑥ For the treatment of grain jaundice, the head spins after eating, the heart is depressed and the Buddha becomes yellow. It is caused by the loss of hunger and heavy eating, and the stomach qi is flushed and smoked: three taels of Sophora flavescens, one combination of gentian, Niudan pills such as Wuzi, five pills with raw wort, three pills a day. (behind the elbow)
⑦ Treatment of sore throat: a handful of Gentiana, mash juice, gargle it. (Ben Cao Hui Yan)
⑧ Ye blood under the death: a grasp of grass and gentian. Cut into 5 liters of water, boil 2.5 liters, divide into 5 servings, if not more servings. (Yao Seng Tan's collected prescriptions)
⑨ After the treatment of typhoid sweat, night sweats, or all night sweats of women and children, and should take it: gentian is not much, baked, for the fine end, each take a large sum of money, pig bile three Liang, point into a little warm wine, adjust the service, hollow lying. (Longdan Decoction in Yang's family collection)
⑩ It is also called Hydrangea: Gentiana, peach leaf, beehive, Veratrum, thousand pieces of paper. Mix with sesame oil. (materia medica of Southern Yunnan)
[clinical application] in the treatment of epidemic encephalitis B
For mild cases, 20% Gentianaceae syrup was given orally three times a day, 10-15 ml each time; for coma or vomiting, 2:1 Gentianaceae injection was given intramuscularly 3-4 times a day, 2-4 ml each time, until fever subsided for 3 days. Both moderate and severe cases were treated with routine western medicine. 23 cases were observed, including 11 severe cases,
Chinese PinYin : Long Dan
Nitraria Nitraria. Bai Ci Hua Ye
Jineijin. Ji Nei Jin
Two color interior wind elimination. Er Se Nei Feng Xiao
Huihuidou. Hui Hui Dou
Cormorant bone. Lu Ci Gu
Cat's footprints. Mao Jiao Yin
Loquat leaf dew. Pi Pa Ye Lu
Snake gall. Ran She Dan
Hedgehog brain. Wei Nao
Small brown head. Xiao Zong Pi Tou
Yangqing. Yang Qing
Zibaipi. Zi Bai Pi