Chinese Name: Magnolia officinalis
Another name: houpi (Wupu materia medica), chongpi (Guangya), Chipu (bielu), Liepu (rihuazi materia medica).
[source] bark or root bark of Magnoliaceae Plant Magnolia officinalis.
[plant morphology] 1. Magnolia officinalis
Deciduous tree, 5-15m high. The bark is purple brown. Branchlets hairy when young, glabrous when old, winter buds thick, conical, bud scales densely covered with yellowish brown villi. Leaves alternate, elliptic obovate, 35-45 cm long, 12-20 cm wide, apex rounded with short sharp tip, sparse obtuse, base gradually narrowed into cuneiform, sometimes round, entire, yellowish green above, glabrous, young leaves with dense gray hairs below, or leaves with white powder, dense long hairs on lateral veins; petiole 3-4 cm long. Flowers and leaves open at the same time, single branch top, cup-shaped, white, fragrant, diameter 15 cm; pedicel thick and short, 2-3.5 cm long, dense filamentous white hair; sepals and petals 9-12, or more, fleshy, several equal length; sepals oblong obovate, light green white, often purplish red; petals spoon shaped, white; stamens many, spiral arrangement; pistil carpels many, separated, pistil The room is oblong. The aggregate fruit is oval oval, 9-12 cm long and 5-6.5 cm in diameter. The carpels are closely arranged. It is woody at maturity and has a curved tip at the top. Seeds triangular obovate, exotesta red. The flowering period is from April to May. The fruit period is from September to October.
It is distributed in Zhejiang, Guangxi, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, etc.
② Magnolia officinalis, also known as: Lushan Magnolia officinalis.
The main difference from the above species is that the apex of leaf blade is concave into 2 blunt round lobes with a depth of 2-3.5 cm.
Distributed in Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Anhui, Guangxi and other places.
The flower buds (Magnolia officinalis), fruits or seeds (Magnolia officinalis) of the above two plants are also used for medicine.
[collection] from the beginning of summer to the end of summer, the dry skin or root skin of the plants that have been growing for more than 20 years should be peeled off (the rough skin should be scraped off first) and dried in the shade. Then, they should be piled up in the soil pit to make them sweat under certain temperature and humidity. Then they should be taken out to dry in the sun, steamed to make them soft, rolled into tube shape and dried in the shade. Small root bark, just remove the soil, cut off properly, and dry in the shade.
[medicinal materials] there are many kinds of commodities due to the different parts, processing and shapes of the skin, mainly including Tongpu, shojiaopu, genpu and Zhipu.
It is the dry skin of the main stem, which is rolled into a double drum shape after processing, and is similar to "Ruyi", so it is also known as "Ruyi Juan Houpu" or "Ruyi Pu". It is 15-45 cm long and 2-5 mm thick. The surface is light brown to dark brown, with thin skin, few surface cracks, longitudinal lines and round longitudinal cracks; for thicker skin, the surface is rough, cork scale and easy to peel off. The inner surface is purplish brown, smooth, with fine vertical texture, and the nail marks show oil lines. The outer side of the cross section is gray brown fibrous, and the inner side is purple brown granular, oily. It is fragrant, slightly pungent and chewy.
② Boot horn
It is a dry skin close to the root. After processing, it looks like a boot, so it is named. The total length is about 30-40 cm and the thickness is about 3-10 mm. The skin is rough, grayish brown or grayish brown, and the embolus is easy to peel off. The upper end is in the shape of a single drum, the base is in the shape of a trumpet mouth, with longitudinal cracks and transverse wrinkles in the shape of a concave groove. Due to uneven thickness and the formation of purple brown and grayish yellow alternate patterns, and knife scratches. The inner surface is dark purple or crimson, with straight stripes, and the lower part has concave transverse groove, which is opposite to the transverse wrinkles of the outer skin. Oil lines can be seen in the nail. It is moist and slightly firm, but easy to break. The section is purple brown and granular. It has no pungent residue, no bitter taste.
The root bark is processed and rolled into single or double rolls. It is often split and shaped like chicken intestines, so it is also called "Chicken Intestines". It is 15-45 cm in length, 0.5-2 cm in diameter and 1-3 mm in thickness. The surface is rough, grayish brown, with transverse cracks and longitudinal wrinkles. There are fibrous substances exposed at the cleavage. The inner surface is dark purple brown, with significant longitudinal lines and branch root marks. It is tough, hard to break, fibrous and oily. The smell is the same as that of dry skin, but there are more residues left after chewing.
It is a single roll of bark, 10-20 cm long and 1-2 mm thick. The surface is slightly rough, grayish brown, with longitudinal wrinkles and spots, and sometimes large holes can be seen. The inner surface is dark purple brown, smooth, with deep straight stripes, brittle and easy to break. The section is fibrous. The smell is the same as that of dry skin, and there are more residues after chewing.
All kinds of Magnolia officinalis above have point like crystal in cross section. It is better to have thick skin and fine meat, deep purple inner color, high oil, strong fragrance, bitter, pungent and slightly sweet taste, and no residue in chewing.
It is mainly produced in Sichuan, Hubei, Zhejiang, Guizhou and Hunan. The quality of Magnolia officinalis produced in Sichuan and Hubei is the best, and the quality of Magnolia officinalis produced in Zhejiang is also good. In addition, it is also produced in Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Gansu, Shaanxi and other places.
[chemical constituents] the bark of Magnolia officinalis contains magnolol, tetrahydro magnolol, isomagnolol, honokiol and volatile oil, and Magnolia curculine.
The bark of Magnolia officinalis contains about 1% volatile oil. The oil contains β - eucalyptol, magnolol, tetrahydro magnolol and isomagnolol. In addition, it contains about 0.07% alkaloids and 0.45% saponins.
[pharmacological action] 1
In vitro, Magnolia officinalis decoction has antibacterial effect on pneumococcus, diphtheria, hemolytic streptococcus, Bacillus subtilis, Shigella, Shigella Shigella and Staphylococcus aureus, and its effect is 5-10 times lower than that of Coptis powder. However, it has also been reported that its effect on Staphylococcus aureus in vitro is greater than that of Coptis; it has some antibacterial effect on Bacillus anthracis in guinea pigs; it has some antibacterial effect on some skin diseases The results showed that dermatophytes had inhibitory effect in vitro and could improve the liver parenchymal lesions in experimental viral hepatitis. Its alcohol extract (1:3000-1:300) also had some inhibitory effects on Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro.
② Other functions
The small dose of Magnolia officinalis decoction can excite the isolated intestine of mice and guinea pigs, while the large dose can inhibit it. It can also excite the bronchial smooth muscle of guinea pigs. Intravenous injection (0.05 g / kg) can cause a temporary decrease of blood pressure in rabbits and cats and inhibit the isolated toad heart. In addition, it may also have the effect of curare like. When animals die, they show drooping head and quadriplegia. The paralysis can be antagonized by strychnine. The median lethal dose of the decoction to mice was 6.12 ± 0.038 g / kg by intraperitoneal injection and 51 g / kg by subcutaneous injection; the minimum lethal dose to cats was 4.25 ± 1.5 g / kg by intravenous injection, and the toxicity was very small when taken orally. It indicates incomplete absorption of gastrointestinal tract.
[processing] Magnolia officinalis: soak in water, take out, moisten thoroughly, scrape off the rough skin, wash, shred and dry. Ginger Magnolia officinalis: take ginger slices and decoct the soup, add pure Magnolia officinalis, cook thoroughly with ginger soup, take out the soup, slice it in time and dry it. (100kg Magnolia officinalis and 10kg ginger)
"Lei Gong Paozhi Lun" says: "if you want to use Magnolia officinalis, it's better to use purple and spicy. Or pill powder, then to coarse skin, fried with crisp. For each kilo, use four taels of crispy cake to fry the fine file; if the soup is used in drinking, use eight taels of natural ginger juice to fry, one liter is degree. "
Bitter, pungent and warm.
① Ben Jing: "it tastes bitter and warm. "
② Bielu: "big temperature, non-toxic. "
③ "On medicinal properties": "bitter and pungent taste, too hot. "
[channel tropism] into the spleen, stomach and large intestine.
① "Lei Gong processed medicine solution": into the spleen, stomach two channels. "
② In the book of Materia Medica, it is said that "entering the foot Taiyin, hand and Foot Yangming.". "
③ "Into the foot Jueyin liver meridian, hand Shaoyin heart meridian. "
Functions and indications: warming the middle, lowering Qi, drying dampness and eliminating phlegm. It is used to treat chest and abdomen fullness, pain, nausea, vomiting, persistent food, phlegm, cough, cold dampness and diarrhea.
① "Ben Jing": "main stroke, typhoid, headache, cold and heat palpitation, Qi and blood Bi, dead muscle, to three insects. "
② Bielu: "Wenzhong Yiqi, Xiaotan Xiaqi. Treatment of cholera and abdominal pain fullness, stomach cold adverse and chest vomiting, diarrhea and dew, in addition to shock, to stay hot, upset full, thick stomach. "
③ "Theory of medicinal properties": "it mainly deals with accumulated cold air, thunder in the abdomen, empty roar, persistent food, eliminating phlegm, removing water, breaking persistent blood, digesting water and grain, and relieving pain. Warm stomach qi, vomit sour water. The patient's heart is full and his urine is white. "
④ Rihuazi materia medica: "invigorating the spleen. The main nausea, cholera tendon, cold and hot gas, diarrhea bladder, five storage all gas, women prenatal and postpartum abdominal storage restlessness. Adjust the joint, kill the visceral insects, clear the ears and eyes. "
⑤ Wang Haogu: "the main lung is full of gas, and it is puffy and coughing. "
⑥ "Materia medica is": "temperature drop, scattered stagnation, in addition to cold and damp diarrhea. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoction, 1-3 yuan; or into pills, powder.
[should not] pregnant women should use it with caution.
① In the collection of notes to the classic of materia medica: "dried ginger is used for it. Alisma orientalis, Hanshuishi, Xiaoshi. "
② "On medicinal properties": "avoid beans, and those who eat them will move Qi. "
③ "Pinhuijingyao": "pregnancy is not acceptable. "
④ According to the classic of Materia Medica, vomiting is not due to cold accumulation of phlegm, but due to stomach deficiency and fire; abdominal pain is due to blood deficiency and spleen yin deficiency, rather than stagnation; diarrhea is due to fire heat injection, rather than cold accumulation and cold injury; abdominal fullness is due to lack of middle Qi, Qi does not return, rather than Qi excess stagnation; apoplexy is due to yin deficiency and fire inflammation, suddenly causing stiff servant, rather than northwest true middle cold evil; typhoid fever and headache, but no ruffian The symptoms are as follows: congestion and fullness; infantile vomiting and diarrhea, milk food, will become slow shock; adult Qi deficiency and blood haggard, see diaphragmatic syndrome; old people's spleen deficiency can't transport, occasionally stop accumulation; pregnant women's evil resistance, water and valley can't enter; pregnant women's fetal rise and dizziness; pregnant women's food and cold; pregnant women's abdominal pain and diarrhea; pregnant women's typhoid; postpartum blood deficiency
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