[synonyms] tubeimu (bencaozheng), Xiangbei (Guangji), Zhebei, Xiangbei (baicaojing), dabeimu (bencazhengyi).
[source] it is bulb of family.
[plant morphology] Fritillaria thunbergii
Perennial herbs. Bulb hemispherical, 1.5-6 cm in diameter, with 2-3 fleshy scales. Stem simple, erect, cylindrical, 50-80 cm high. The leaves of the lower part of the stem are opposite, rarely alternate, narrowly lanceolate to linear, 6-17 cm in length and 6-15 mm in width; the leaves of the middle and upper parts are usually 3-5 whorls, rarely alternate, with short leaves and tendril like apex. Flowers solitary in stem apex or leaf axils, pedicel 1-1.5 cm long; flowers bell shaped, drooping; perianth 6 pieces, 2-whorled, long elliptic, apex short pointed or obtuse, pale yellow or yellowish green, with fine parallel veins, inner surface with pale purple checkered markings, base with glands; stamen 6, anther base attached, outward; pistil 1, ovary 3-locular, each locule with many ovules, stigma 3-divergent. The fruit is ovoid, about 2.5 cm in diameter, with six broad longitudinal wings, and dehiscent at maturity. Seeds flat, nearly semicircular, margin winged. The flowering period is from March to April. The fruit period is from April to May.
It grows on wet ridges, hillsides, ditches and grass in villages. It is distributed in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Anhui and Hunan.
[collection] from May to June, the soil was collected and cleaned, and the size of the soil was separated. The heart buds of the big ones were removed and divided into two pieces, which were in the shape of Yuanbao, called Yuanbao, and the small ones were called Zhubei. Put them in the cleaning cage respectively, wipe off the skin, mix them well, after one night, make the lime infiltrate, dry or dry.
It is a single scale in the outer layer of bulb. The petal is 1.7-4 cm long and 7-17 mm thick. The surface is white or light yellow, covered with white powder, hard and brittle, easy to break, uneven section, white or light yellow, rich in powder. The taste is bitter.
② Pearl oyster
It is a complete bulb, oblate, 1-1.7 cm high and 2-3.5 cm in diameter. The surface is white, the outer two scaly leaves are thick and slightly kidney shaped, the center is 2-3 shrunken small scaly leaves and residual stems, and the inner surface is yellowish white. The texture and smell are the same as Yuanbao.
The results showed that the best of the two herbs were thick scale leaves, white surface and cross section, and enough powder. The smaller one with gray white surface and brownish red in the center of the cross section is the secondary one. Yuanbaobei is better than Zhubei.
It is mainly produced in Zhejiang, Anhui and Jiangsu.
Fritillaria thunbergii, a wild species of Fritillaria thunbergii, is produced in Jiangsu Province. Its bulb is 2-3.5cm in diameter and 1-1.5cm in height. The medicinal material is similar to pearl oyster.
[chemical constituents] the bulb contains thunbergium thunbergii alkaloid, dehydro thunbergium thunbergii alkaloid and Fritillaria alcohol. In addition, there are four alkaloids with very little content: peimubutine, bewufenine, peimuxinine and peimutidine. The glucoside of Fritillaria thunbergii alkaloid was also isolated from the bulb of Fritillaria thunbergii produced in Japan.
[pharmacological action] ① action on smooth muscle and gland
In the isolated bronchopulmonary perfusion of cats and rabbits, Fritillaria thunbergii alkaloid had significant dilation effect on bronchial smooth muscle at low concentration, but significant contraction at high concentration. The former is similar to atropine, while the latter may directly excite bronchial smooth muscle. The antitussive effects of thunbergium thunbergii alkaloid and dehydrogenated thunbergium thunbergii alkaloid were not confirmed.
Fritillaria thunbergii alkaloid can excite rabbit uterus in vitro, pregnant uterus is more sensitive than non pregnant uterus, and it can also excite rat uterus. Atropine could not eliminate its exciting effect on the uterus. After pretreatment with dibenzylamine or reserpine, its exciting effect on the uterus was weakened or disappeared. The results showed that the eye drops of Zhebei alkaloid solution could dilate the pupil of dogs, cats and rabbits, and make them lose the reaction to light. Intravenous injection of Zhebei alkaloid solution could temporarily stop the salivary secretion of anesthetized dogs, but its inhibitory effect was weaker than that of atropine. The alkaloids of Fritillaria thunbergii could strengthen the contraction of isolated small intestine.
② Effects on circulatory system and respiration
Large dose of alkaloids from Fritillaria thunbergii could reduce blood pressure moderately and inhibit respiration in dogs, cats and rabbits. Small dose of alkaloids could slightly increase blood pressure in rabbits. Perfusion of isolated frog heart or rabbit heart could immediately stop heart beat.
[toxicity] the minimum lethal dose of thunbergium thunbergii alkaloid and dehydro thunbergium thunbergii alkaloid for intravenous injection in mice was about 0.9 mg / kg. In the early years, it was reported that the minimum lethal dose of another alkaloid was 10-12 mg / kg (IV) in rabbits and 8-10 mg / kg (IV) in cats. The poisoning symptoms were respiratory depression, mydriasis, tremor, convulsion and defecation. The cause of death is respiratory failure, which may also be related to the formation of denatured hemoglobin. The alcohol extract of Fritillaria verticillata can also increase blood glucose.
[processing] remove impurities, soak them in clean water, take them out, moisten them thoroughly, cut thick slices and dry them in the sun.
[natural flavor] Ben Cao Zheng: "it tastes bitter and cold. "
[Guijing] Ben Cao Zheng: "start with Taiyin, Shaoyang, Foot Yangming, Jueyin. "
Functions and indications: clearing heat and resolving phlegm, dispersing knots and detoxifying. Treatment of wind heat cough, lung carbuncle, throat obstruction, rash, sore swelling poison.
① "Ben Cao Zheng" says: "it can treat lung carbuncle, lung wilt, cough and asthma, hematemesis, bleeding, reduce phlegm, be good at opening stasis, stop pain, distension, clear liver fire, clear ears and eyes, eliminate seasonal heat, jaundice, strangulation, bloody stool and drowning blood; it can relieve heat toxin, kill insects, treat laryngopharynx, rash, mastitis, back, all carbuncle, swelling toxin, damp heat, hemorrhoids, golden sore bleeding, fire sore pain It's a lot of work. "
② Ben Cao Cong Xin: "when you go away, you feel wind and phlegm. "
③ "Gangmu Shiyi" said: "detoxification and phlegm, open lung qi, all lung home clip wind fire phlegm should be this. "
④ "Shandong Chinese herbal medicine manual": "clearing lung, resolving phlegm, making acid, detoxifying. Treatment of cold, cough, stomach pain, vomiting acid, carbuncle poison swelling pain. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoction, 1.5-3 yuan; or into pills, powder. External use: withdraw at the end of research.
[prescription selection] 1. Treatment of cold and cough: Fritillaria thunbergii, semen thunbergii, semen armeniacae, three coins each, two coins each, decocted in water
② Treatment of carbuncle poison swelling and pain: Fritillaria thunbergii, each three money, six money, eight money, decoction. (Shandong Handbook of Chinese herbal medicine)
③ Treat throat; big black jujube each to core, put (to insect, grind) one, elephant shell (to heart, grind) one. Wrap it in mud, simmer it for storage, grind it into very fine powder, add a little thin powder, and store it in a porcelain bottle. Blow the affected area and let it spit. (chuihou powder in experience Collection)
④ Treatment of the mouth: as Fritillaria grind the end of the application. (Yang Chunya's experience prescription)
In Ben Cao Zheng Yi, a famous scholar's treatise, it is said that "the bitter cold of Fritillaria can be released, and the knot can be broken. Ben Jing mainly deals with typhoid fever, disturbs heat and drips evil Qi; BIE Lu relieves vexation, heat, thirst and perspiration, all of which relieve and remove heat. Herniorrhea is characterized by heat accumulation and heat release, so it can be treated. Throat obstruction is the result of heat. The milk of difficult milk, that is, the milk of breeding milk, refers to the difficult production, Fritillaria decline, and can disperse knot, so the birth and treatment of difficult production. According to Zhen Quan's theory of medicinal properties, Fritillaria can be taken as the final wine, which is difficult to cure the birth and can't produce the cytoplasm. In order to give birth to the elixir of protecting the production, there is Fritillaria in the prescription of Baosheng Wuyou powder. Cheng Zhongling explains that Fritillaria is smooth, which is the basic meaning. However, those who annotate "Ben Jing" only think that it's not the real intention. It can be taken orally or mixed externally. Later generations used xiangbeitong to treat carbuncle and ulcer of Yang Syndrome, which has a special effect of reducing swelling and fever. The main wind spasm, bitter cold clearing heat, catharsis and calming wind, the "bielu" treatment of abdominal solid, heart full, all refers to the evil heat suffocation of the card, bitter catharsis and Sanjie, can be the main. If you wash the person who is evil of wind cold, wind cold will attack the skin and the lungs. If you wash the person who is evil of wind cold, wind cold will attack the skin and the lungs. Dizziness is superior to liver Yang, and Xiang Zhi is exogenous to wind evil. It is suitable to treat it. Cough on the gas, and phlegm heat invasion of the lung, bitter catharsis and the function of reducing adverse. "Like Fritillaria, it tastes bitter and has a cold nature. However, it contains the bitter and dispersive Qi. Therefore, it can remove heat, release blood and disperse knots. Today's people treat wind heat, warm heat and seasonal heat evil by means of general treatment, so cold can overcome heat and Xin can disperse evil. The main stagnation Qi phlegm nuclear syndrome, then Xin scattered bitter discharge, open knot scattered depression also. The birth of the next milk, but also the release of its meaning. As for the treatment of jaundice, choice, clearing throat, vomiting, phlegm and cough, and defecation, all kinds of skills are just four words of clearing away heat and reducing constipation, which are comprehensive enough, and all of them are like the functions of scallops. However, Sichuan scallops, which are popular in the market, are indifferent. "
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