(Zheng Lei Ben Cao)
[synonym] neem bark (doumenfang), neem root bark (Gangmu), double white bark (Nanjing folk herbs).
[source] root bark or dry bark of Melia azedarach or toosendan.
[plant morphology] 1. Melia azedarach (Zheng Lei Ben Cao), meaning emerald tree, purple flower tree, Melia jujube tree, Huo? Tree, Huaxin tree, Kula tree, yanghuasen.
Deciduous tree, 15-20m high. The bark is dark brown, the young branches have stellate hairs, which immediately fall off, and the old branches are purple with fine punctate lenticels. 2-pinnate compound leaves, alternate, 20-80 cm long; leaflets ovate to elliptic, 3-7 cm long, 2-3 cm wide, base broadly cuneate or rounded, apex long pointed, margin toothed, dark green above, light green below, stellate hairs when young, and later glabrous except for white hairs on veins. Panicles axillary; Flowers Lavender, ca. 1 cm long; calyx 5-lobed, lobes lanceolate, both sides hairy; petals 5, spreading or recurved, oblanceolate; stamen tube usually dark purple, ca. 7 mm long. Drupe oval or subglobose, 3 cm long, pale yellow, 4-5-locular, with 1 seed per locule. The flowering period is from April to May. The fruit period is from October to November.
Most of them grow on roadsides, at the foot of slopes, or beside houses or fences. North to Hebei, South to Yunnan, Guangxi, West to Sichuan, are distributed.
② Sichuan Melia toosendan, see "" for details.
The leaves (neem leaves) and flowers (neem flowers) of the above two plants are also used for medicine. Please refer to the special section for details.
[collection] it can be collected at four o'clock, but it is suitable at the end of spring and the beginning of summer. Cut down the trunk or dig out the root, peel the root skin or dry skin, wash and dry.
It is irregular in shape of strip, sheet or groove, varying in length and width, and about 3-6 mm thick. The outer surface is grayish brown or grayish brown, with large and obvious pores, irregular longitudinal cracks and deep grooves. The cork layer is often scaly, and the old cork often peels off. The inner surface is light yellow with fine longitudinal lines. It is tough and not easy to break. Cross section fiber layer, layer by layer peel off, peel off the sheet, there is a very fine mesh. The breath is weak and the taste is bitter. It is better to be dry, thick skin, large strip, no groove and remove embolus.
② Dried skin
It is in the shape of a trough or a long roll. It is about 30-100 cm long, 3-10 cm wide and 3-7 mm thick. Its outer surface is grayish brown or grayish brown, relatively flat, with many longitudinal cracks and transverse extended lenticels. The inner surface is white or light yellow. It is hard and brittle, easy to break, and its section is fibrous and lamellar. The smell is the same as the root bark. The outer epidermis is smooth and not easy to peel off, and the young bark with many pores is better.
It is mainly produced in Sichuan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, Henan, Guizhou and other places. In addition, it is also produced in Shaanxi, Shandong, Yunnan, Gansu and other places.
[chemical constituents] Melia azedarach contains a variety of bitter triterpenoids.
The main bitter components in root bark and dry bark are melittin, that is toosendanin and another trace component which has not been completely determined. It also contains other bitter components: Azadirachtin a, Azadirachtin B, pirone, gardonin, kuridone, kurrolactone, kurrolactone, and melilotriol.
There are n-triacontane, β - sitosterol, glucose and other trace components in the dried skin.
From the phloem of Melia azedarach from Japan, a compound with insecticidal activity similar to that of yamadaonian was obtained. Vanillic acid and DL essence were also isolated. The former can repel Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis brevis. Two flavonoids, rutin and phenol-3-l-rhamnose-d-glucoside, were isolated from the leaves of Melia azedarach var. azedarach.
The bitter components in fruits are Melia azedarach ketone and Melia azedarach alcohol. And 4,4,8-trimethyl-3 β, 7 α, 23-trihydroxy-cholesterin-14,24-dien-21-carboxylic acid-21,23-lactone.
From the fruit and pericarp of Melia azedarach, in addition to azedarach, Azadirachtin acetate and deacetylated Azadirachtin were obtained.
Seed oil contains many kinds of fatty acids, of which unsaturated acid accounts for about 35%, the main components are linoleic acid (45-50%), oleic acid (32-40%). Fruit oil contains < U > < / u > acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, oleic acid and palmitoleic acid.
[pharmacological action] the root bark or dry skin of toosendan and Melia azedarach (the inner white skin with the outer brown thick skin removed) contains Melia azedarach, which can drive Ascaris lumbricoides. In early years, it has been proved that the alcohol extract of Melia azedarach peel has a paralytic effect on Ascaris lumbricoides, especially on its head in vitro. After extracting the effective component of Melia azedarach, the effect is far stronger than that of alcohol extract, but it is slow and lasting compared with that of shandaonian. There are two ways to explain the mechanism of action: the observation of the action of higher concentration (1:1000 or more) of azadirachtin on Ascaris lumbricoides shows that it can paralyze Ascaris lumbricoides, especially the ganglion of its head; the observation of the action of lower concentration (1:5000-9000) of azadirachtin on Ascaris lumbricoides and its segments (head and middle) shows that it has obvious excitatory effect, showing enhanced spontaneous activity and intermittent abnormal activity Strong contraction destroys the regularity of movement (the alternation of activity enhancement and activity weakening), and can last for a long time (10-24 hours). This kind of excitatory effect is that melitracen directly acts on Ascaris lumbricoides muscle through the epidermis of Ascaris lumbricoides, disturbs its energy metabolism, causes contractile fatigue and spasm, and finally makes the Ascaris lumbricoides unable to adhere to the intestinal wall and be expelled from the body. The so-called paralytic effect may be a seemingly static state of intermittent spasm and contraction after long-term drug treatment. In clinical practice, the excretion time of azadirachtin is relatively late (24-48 hours), and most of the excreted worms are still active, which can be explained.
High concentration of Melia azedarach solution (25-50%) also had paralytic effect on pinworm in vitro. The alcohol extract of Melia azedarach seed has obvious inhibitory effect on some common pathogenic fungi in vitro; hot water extract also has antifungal effect; but the effect of water extract, especially decoction, is weaker than that of alcohol extract. Therefore, when Melia azedarach seed is used to treat tinea capitis and other fungal infections, alcohol preparation is expected to improve the curative effect. Melia azedarach can excite rabbit intestinal muscle in situ and in vitro, and increase tension and contractility. Therefore, when it is used to expel insects, there is no need to add cathartic, and it has no obvious effect on hemogram, blood pressure, respiration, uterus, etc.
[processing] wash, soak, moisten, shred and dry.
Bitter, cold and poisonous.
① Bielu: "slightly cold. "
② Rihuazi materia medica: "bitter, slightly toxic. "
⑧ Yilin Jiyao: "great pain, great cold. "
Functions and indications: clearing heat, drying dampness and killing insects. For Ascaris lumbricoides, pinworm, rubella and scabies.
① Bielu: "it can cure Ascaris lumbricoides and benefit large intestine. "
② Tao Hongjing: "root: rub scabies with bitter wine; boil juice to make surimi, and eat it to get rid of Ascaris lumbricoides. "
③ "Rihuazi Materia Medica" says: "it is used to treat wind heat toxin, rubella, scabies and scabies, children's strong heat, and to soak in decoction. "
④ "Diannan Materia Medica": "the root bark kills the child cunbaichong. "
⑤ Yilin zuanyao: "kill chancre, cure gangrene. "
⑥ Modern practical Chinese medicine: "root bark is effective on tapeworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and pinworm. "
⑦ "Treating chilblain. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoction, 2 ~ 3 yuan (fresh 1 ~ 2 liang): or into pills, powder. External use: decocting, washing or dressing.
[should avoid] do not take it if you are weak or cold due to deficiency of spleen and stomach.
[prescription selection] 1. To treat Ascaris lumbricoides in children: first, peel the skin of shangcang and drink it with water. This is a small poison. (Qian Jin Fang) two camphor root white skin, to coarse, two Jin, cut. A bucket of water, boil three liters, casserole (boil) into paste, five early warm wine, take a spoonful, to worm for degree. (simple formula)
② Treatment of children insect pain can not Ninja: neem root white skin two liang, white half Liang. For the end, each take a money, water - small, fry half a cup, put cold, ready to serve, the size of the increase and decrease, no time. (DI Sheng San, general micro prescription for children's health)
③ Kill pinworm: neem root bark two money, two money, one money, Gleditsia sinensis five. A total of the end, refined into honey pills, such as jujube, into the anus or vagina. (Yao Yao Tu Kao, Jianpi Shachong pill)
④ Treatment of hookworm disease: 10 jin of neem bark (remove coarse bark), 50 Jin of water, boil to 10 jin; another 8 Liang, 5 jin of water, boil to 2 jin, mix two kinds of medicine, adults take one or two each time. (Hunan medical records)
⑤ Cure addiction rash: neem skin thick decoct bath. (doumenfang)
⑥ Cure scabies wind insect: neem root skin, Gleditsia angle (to skin) etc. For the end, pig fat transfer coating. (wonderful recipe)
⑦ Cure stubborn wet tinea: neem root skin, wash, dry, burn ash, adjust tea, smear the affected area, wash off every other day, so three or four times. (Fujian traditional Chinese medicine (2): 431959)
⑧ Cure fistula sore: neem white skin, rat meat, each two liang, three Liang, yellow five Liang, La Yue pig fat three liters. It's made of decocting paste. Apply it to the hole to make raw meat. (Liu Juanzi's ghost prescription sitting meat cream)
⑨ To cure children's alopecia and various evil sores, Xingfu sores: burn ash of neem branch skin, and apply it with pig ointment. (Qian Jin Fang)
⑩ Neem bark Decoction for toothache. (Hunan medical records)
(11) treatment of snake bite: four taels of Melia azedarach bark and four taels of leeks, half a jin of rice wine and four taels of leeks, stewed and cooled. First expand the wound, wipe it from top to bottom with medicinal wine, apply the dregs externally, and take a little medicinal wine orally. (selected Chinese herbal medicine prescriptions, Guangdong)
[clinical application] Melia azedarach bark
Chinese PinYin : Ku Lian Pi
Melia azedarach bark
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