[synonym] Jieli (Ben Jing), Zai Jun Xing (Ben cao meng Yao), Shi Jie (Gang Mu).
[source] the roots of Stephania tetrandra, Stephania tetrandra and Aristolochiaceae plants.
[plant morphology] 1. Fangji, also known as shibufo gargarizans, shanwugui, hanfangji, daodigong, jinsidiaobi and baimuxiang.
Perennial twining vines. The root is cylindrical, sometimes massive, and the outer skin is light brown or tan. Stem flexible, cylindrical, sometimes slightly twisted, 2.5-4 m long, with fine stripes, smooth branches glabrous, base tip with red. Leaves alternate, thin and soft, petiole shield shaped, length equal to leaf blade; leaf shape nearly round, 3-5-angled, 4-6 cm long, 4.5-6 cm wide, apex acute, base truncate or slightly cordate, entire, both sides pubescent, green above, gray green below. The male flower has 4 calyx, fleshy, triangular, base cuneate, outer hairy, petals 4, slightly semicircular, margin slightly inward curved, clawed, stamens 4, anthers nearly round; the female flower has the same number of calyx and petals as the male flower, without staminodes, carpel 1, style 3. Drupe globose, red at maturity, 3-5 mm in diameter. The flowering period is from April to May. The fruit period is from May to June.
It grows on the edge of hills, grass or low forest. Distributed in Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and other places.
② Guangfangji, also known as: Fangji Aristolochia.
They are perennial, 3-4 meters long. The root is thick, cylindrical, and the embolus is well developed. Stem slender, less branched, grayish brown or brownish black, densely brown tomentose. The leaf is oblong or oval oblong, 3-17 cm long, 2-6 cm wide, apex acuminate or obtuse, base heart-shaped or round, entire, both sides covered with gray white villi when young, then gradually falling off, slightly thick when old, 3 main veins, basal exfoliation. Flowers solitary in leaf axils, pedicel about 1-2 cm long, covered with short brown hairs, perianth tubular, about 5 cm long, purple, with small yellow spots, not split at the side, spreading, contracted into a tube in the middle, slightly curved, outside covered with hairs; stamens 6, attached to the outside of stigma lobes, forming a syncytial style, filaments few or very short; stigma 3-lobed. Capsule, many seeds. The flowering period is from May to June. The fruit period is from July to August.
It grows in the hillside shrub or sparse forest of barren mountain. Distributed in Guangdong, Guangxi and other places.
③ Mufangji, also known as: Sinomenium (Yangchun county annals), small Sinomenium, Baishan sweet potato, Green Sandalwood, Sinomenium, small kudzu.
Twining deciduous Liana. The root is cylindrical. Stem lignified, about 3 meters long, branchlets densely covered with gray white pubescence. Leaves alternate; petiole 1-3 cm long; leaf blade broadly ovate, sometimes 3-lobed, 3-14 cm long, 2-9 cm wide, apex acute to obtuse, with short tip, entire or microwave-shaped, base microcordate to subtruncate; both sides with grayish brown pilose. Flowers small, yellow white, dioecious, cymose panicles axillary; male sepals 6, 2-whorled, ovate to broadly ovate; petals 6, ovate lanceolate, apex 2-lobed, both sides of base auricular; stamens 6, anthers short, subglobose; female sepals and petals are similar to male flowers, with retrograde stamens 6, carpels 6, separated. Drupe subglobose, 5-8 mm in diameter, blue black when ripe, covered with white powder, with a horseshoe seed inside. The flowering period is from July to August. From September to October in gose.
Born on hillside, lowland, hilly land and roadside. It is distributed in Hebei, Henan, Shaanxi, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Hubei, Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangdong and Fujian.
The stems and leaves of this plant (Pterocarpus tatarinowii) are also used for medicine. Please refer to the special section for details.
④ Aristolochia heterophylla, also known as: Hanzhong Fangji.
Climbing subshrub with dense yellowish brown pubescence. Leaves alternate, broadly ovate, 4-20 cm long, 3-12 cm wide, base heart-shaped, entire, young leaves pubescent on both sides, hairy along veins after old; petiole 2-10 cm long, covered with yellowish brown hairs. The flower is single leaf axil; the pedicel is 2-6 cm long, with a round bract near the middle, pubescent; the perianth is 4-6 cm long, densely pubescent, the tube is U-shaped curved, the tip is 3-lobed, the lobes are round triangle, with purple on the top; stamen is 6, anthers are attached around the style; ovary is inferior, 6-locular. Capsule black brown, long elliptic, 3-7 cm long, 6-valved from base, with many seeds.
It grows in the shrub on the hillside. It is distributed in southwest, Shaanxi, Gansu, Hunan, Hubei and other places.
[collection] in autumn, the embolus was cleaned or scraped off, the long segments were cut, the thick roots were longitudinally cut into 2-4 segments, and dried in the sun. The roots of Aristolochia heterophylla were harvested in spring and autumn.
[medicinal materials] 1. The dry roots of Stephania tetrandra are cylindrical or semi cylindrical or massive, which are more or less curved. There are transverse grooves at the curved part, which are nodular lumps with a length of 10-15 cm and a diameter of 1-3 cm. For those who have not been removed the embolus, the surface is grayish brown, rough and wrinkled, and most of them have obvious transverse protruding pores. For those who have been removed the embolus, the surface is grayish white, smooth, and dark transverse grooves can be seen. The cut surface is light brown white, silty, and the vascular bundle is light brown, showing curved transverse curve or wrinkles. The cross section is flat, with obvious light brown, curved transverse curved lines or wrinkles. It is hard and brittle, and easy to break. No Qi, bitter taste. To remove the cork, dry, uniform thickness, heavy, powdery, less fiber for the official.
It is mainly produced in Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Hubei and other places. It is distributed in Hankou, so it is called hanfangji.
② The dry roots of Stephania kwangtungensis are cylindrical or semicylindrical, slightly curved, with deep transverse grooves, 8-15 cm long and 1.5-4.5 cm in diameter. The results showed that the surface of the patients who did not scrape the embolus was brown, rough and with many longitudinal wrinkles; some patients only scraped off part of the embolus to expose the grayish yellow cortex; those who scraped off all the embolus had a grayish yellow and smooth surface. The cut surface is grayish white or light brownish yellow, lack of powder, visible longitudinal and transverse or curved vascular bundles, along the direction of vascular bundles, easy to peel off in spiny shape. It is hard and not easy to break. The cross section is dense and fine. The gas is slightly fragrant, and the taste is slightly bitter and astringent. It is better to have large block, uniform thickness and heavy quality.
It is produced in Guangxi and Guangdong.
③ The dry roots of Stephania tetrandra are cylindrical and inflexible. It is about 15 cm long and 1-2.5 cm in diameter. The surface is dark brown, with deep and twisted furrows, and horizontal long lenticels and traces of removing branching roots can be seen. It is hard, woody and not easy to break. The section is yellowish white, without powder, the skin is very thin, the wood is almost all lignified, and the radial narrow duct group can be seen passing through. Without Qi, the taste is slightly bitter.
Produced in Henan, Shaanxi and other places. In some areas, it is only used in herbal medicine, see "black skin and green wood fragrance".
④ Fangji in Hanzhong is the root of Aristolochia heterophylla, which is cylindrical and curved. It is 8-15 cm long and 2-3 cm in diameter. Usually, the skin has been removed and it is light brown, and the residual embolus is gray brown and flat. Solid quality, not easy to break. The section is yellowish white, powdery, with thick skin and radial vessel groups in the wood. The vessel groups unite into a bundle in the central direction and bifurcate into 2 or 3 branches to the outside. It is slightly fragrant and bitter.
Produced in Shaanxi, Gansu, Sichuan, Guizhou.
Radix stephaniae tetrandrae is more complex, mainly divided into powder Radix stephaniae and Radix stephaniae. The medicinal materials of Radix stephaniae include Radix stephaniae guangfangji and Radix stephaniae Hanzhong, sometimes including Radix stephaniae. Among them, Hanzhong Fangji is the one who comes out of Hanzhong according to Tang Bencao. In addition, in some areas, the roots of stephaniaceae plants Sinomenium (see "Sinomenium" for reference), Menispermum dauricum (see "Pueraria lobata" for reference), Aristolochiaceae plants Aristolochia (see "huaitong" for reference) and Aristolochia macrophylla (see "cinnabarin" for reference) were used for self control.
[chemical constituents] ① the root of Stephania tetrandra contains about 1.2% alkaloids, including tetrandrine, tetrandrine, a phenolic alkaloid, meniconine, mannidine, and rotamenine.
Tetrandrine was once known as tetrandrine, tetrandrine was known as nortetrandrine, tetrandrine B was also known as tetrandrine, and phenolic alkaloid was known as tetrandrine C. Meniconine, formerly known as tetrandrine a, and menidine, formerly known as tetrandrine B, are isomers of tetrandrine and nortetrandrine, respectively.
The root of Stephania tetrandra contains flavonoid glycosides, phenols, organic acids and volatile oil.
② The roots of Stephania divaricata contain a variety of alkaloids, such as tetrandrine, Isotetrandrine, Magnolia alkaloid, tetrandrine, tetrandrine, methylnisarene, demethylnisarene and so on
[pharmacological action] 1. Tetrandra Fangchi: an analgesic effect
The total alkaloids of tetrandrine, tetrandrine a, tetrandrine B and tetrandrine C have analgesic effects. The effective dose of total alkaloids is 50 mg / kg and the median lethal dose is 241-251 mg / kg. The analgesic effect of tetrandrine C is stronger than that of a and B, but its toxicity is also greater, so it has no practical value. The method of electrical stimulation of mouse tail also proved that a, B, hanfangjiliu extract or Jianjing all had certain analgesic effect. The effect of a was stronger than that of B, and its effective dose was 10-20 times higher than that of morphine. If the analgesic effect of morphine is 100, the total alkaloids of tetrandrine and Corydalis are about 13 and 40 respectively. When the latter two are combined, the analgesic effect will not increase but decrease. Diphenhydramine, an antihistamine, can significantly enhance the analgesic effect of a and B without affecting their toxicity. It has been reported that the analgesic effect of tetrandrine is weakened or even disappeared after a certain dose. This may be due to the fact that a large dose of tetrandrine can excite the central nervous system and weaken the analgesic effect
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