(notes on materia medica)
[synonyms] DUOGU (materia medica Collection), kekou (Ben Jing Feng Yuan), baikou (Ben Cao Jing Jie).
[source] it is the fruit of cardamom fragrans.
[plant morphology] cardamom
Perennial herbs. Rhizome prostrate, thick nodose, subwoody. Stem erect, terete, 2-3 m high. Leaves 2-row, petiolate, linear lanceolate, lanceolate or oblanceolate, 23 cm long, 7.5 cm wide, rarely 10 cm long, apex narrowly acuminate, base narrow, margin subundulate, both surfaces smooth, ligule 7 mm long, apex 2-lobed, hirsute. Spikes on rhizomes, pedicels 8 cm long; scales ovate, apex acute, base covered with short dense sericeous hairs; bracts ovate, apex acute, ciliated, gray, 3 cm long; bracts tubular, 3-toothed, slightly sericeous, 15 mm long; calyx tubular, 3-lobed, villous, lobes brush shaped; corolla transparent yellow, tube narrow, 2 cm long M, throat puberulent. Lobes obtuse, ca. 1 cm long, labellum obovate, 1.6 cm long, apex slightly 3-lobed, middle thick, puberulent, yellow or reddish striped; lateral staminodes subulate, 3 mm long; filaments broad and furrowed, 5 mm long, anthers 3 mm long, connective appendages 3-lobed, 3-lobes equal, oblong reflexed; nectaries 2, semicircular columnar, 2 mm long; ovary inferior, sericeous Hairs, 3-locular, ovules numerous. Capsule oblate, ca. 1. 5 cm in diam., grayish white, 3-valved.
Cultivated in tropical areas. It is distributed in Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Guatemala and South America. It is also cultivated in Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan.
The flower (cardamom flower) and fruit shell (cardamom shell) of woody plants are also used for medicine. Please refer to the special section for details.
[collection] from October to December, when the fruit is yellow green but not cracked, harvest it, remove the residual fruit stalk and dry it in the sun.
[medicinal material] dried fruit, the commodity is called "cardamom". Slightly globose, with inconspicuous obtuse, about 1.2-1.7 cm in diameter. The outer skin is yellowish white, smooth, with 25-32 raised longitudinal lines, one end with a small protuberance and one end with a fruit stalk mark. The pericarp is light and crisp, and easy to crack vertically. It contains 20-30 seeds, which are gathered into clusters, and is commonly known as "cardamom ball". Cardamom is divided into three petals with white septum. Each petal has 7-10 seeds. It is commonly known as "white cardamom kernel" or "cardamom". It is an irregular polyhedron with a diameter of 3-4 mm. Its surface is dark brown or grayish brown, with fine ripples and round pits at one end. It is hard, white and oily. The air is fragrant and the taste is pungent and cool. It is better to have a full individual, thin and complete peel and strong smell.
It is mainly produced in Vietnam, Thailand and other places.
There is another kind of cardamom, which is the dried fruit of Zingiberaceae plant. It is long oval, pointed at both ends, with 3 blunt edges, 1-1.5 cm long, about 1 cm in diameter, and its surface is milky white to yellowish brown. The seed group is 3-petaled, 5-9 seeds per petal. Each seed is long ovate or 3-4-faceted, with light orange to dark reddish brown surface. The section is white. It is fragrant, spicy and slightly bitter.
Produced in Vietnam, Sri Lanka, India and other places. This kind of Cardamom is also used as cardamom in the market, but its quality is poor.
[chemical constituents] the fruit contains volatile oil, including D-borneol, D -,? Caylene and its epoxide, 1,8-element, α - and δ - piperene, α - and β - pinene, caryophyllene, myrcene, aldehyde, puerarin, terpinene-4-ol, sabinene, etc.
[processing] picking up impurities, sifting off dandruff, breaking, or peeling off the shell, taking kernel to break.
"Compendium": "cardamom used as medicine, peeled and fried. "
[flavor] pungent, warm.
① Kaibao materia medica: "it is pungent, warm and nontoxic. "
② Qiyuan of Medicine: "Qi heat, taste Daxin. "
[meridian tropism] entering lung and spleen meridians.
① Tangye materia medica: "start with Taiyin classic. "
② "Lei Gong processed medicine solution": "into the lung, spleen, stomach three channels. "
③ "Ben Cao Zai Xin": "enter the heart, liver and spleen channels. "
Functions and indications: promoting Qi, warming the stomach, eliminating food and relaxing the middle. Treatment of qi stagnation, food stagnation, chest tightness, abdominal distension, eerie gas, choking diaphragm, vomiting, nausea, malaria.
① Kaibao materia medica: "it mainly accumulates cold air, stops vomiting, reverses the stomach, and dispels the lower valley Qi. "
② The book of materia medica: "the main stomach is cold. "
③ "Medical Qiyuan": "it is said in the main treatment secrets that the lung is golden, which can disperse stagnant Qi in the chest, feel cold and abdominal pain, warm the spleen and stomach, break out red eyes, and have white eyes. "
④ Yang Shiying: "it can cure spleen deficiency, malaria, vomiting, cold and heat, eliminate energy and grind, and spread Sanjiao. "
⑤ Wang Haogu: "invigorating lung qi, benefiting spleen and stomach, regulating vital energy, collecting and removing Qi. "
⑥ "Compendium": "treat choking diaphragm, eliminate malaria, cold and heat, and detoxify alcohol. "
⑦ "The preparation of materia medica:" in addition to the cold and dry dampness, the food is wide and expansive. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: Decoction (not suitable for long time), 0.5 ~ 2 yuan; or into pills, powder.
[should avoid] those with Yin deficiency, blood dryness and no cold dampness should not take it.
① "The classic of materia medica:" where the fire rise nausea, because of hot abdominal pain, law salt taboo. "
② According to Ben Cao Hui Yan, "anyone who has cough and vomiting is not due to cold but due to fire; malaria is not due to miasma but due to deficiency of both yin and Yang; red veins and white clouds in the eyes are not due to severe cold and wind, but due to blood deficiency and blood heat in the eyes for a long time. "
③ "Ben Cao Bei Yao": "lung and stomach fire and Qi deficiency are forbidden. "
④ In the book of Ben Jing Feng Yuan: "don't see fire. "
[prescription selection] ① for the treatment of cold appetite, vomiting and pain: Bai Dou Kou Ren San Qian. For the end, the wine is sent down. (baisukou powder in Chishui xuanzhu)
② For the treatment of cold stomach qi, if you want to vomit after eating: three pieces of white nutmeg, mashed, sieved, more refined, one good wine, slightly warm, and drink three or two. (carry on emergency prescription)
③ To cure disharmony of spleen and stomach qi, to stop diarrhea of spleen: white Cardamom (with kernel, half raw and half cooked), half Jin (to pulp, boiled soft with milk, stir fried with bran to make fragrant), two Liang (peeled), orange peel two Liang (to pulp, stir fried, chopped), two Liang (to core, half raw and half cooked), two Liang (washed). On the six flavors, pestle for the end, each service - money, water in a cup. Decoct the ginger and jujube together until seven minutes. Take it gently. If you want a pill, use a good jujube, boil it in serous water, remove the skin and core, and grind it carefully to make a pill as big as Tung Tzu. Break with ginger, stir fry until black, add water to fry soup, and take 15 pills. (baidoukou powder in Boji Fang)
④ Treat Qi and block the spleen and stomach, do not eat: white beans, nutmeg kernel, shrinkage sand each two, Chen Mi one liter (washing, slightly Yan Guo, Yao Nei fried), half a Liang (no fire). On the fine powder, jujube meat for the ball, such as small red bean big. Take 50 or 70 pills to 100 pills each time and drink rice. (Taicang pill in the collection of Wei's family prescriptions)
⑤ Treatment of pregnancy vomiting: white cardamom one money, three money, three, fresh ginger one money. Mash the juice, fry the first three herbs in a teacup (about 50-60 ml) and filter, then take the ginger juice. (Wuhan medicine and health (3): 2881959)
⑥ Treatment of children vomiting milk stomach cold: white beans, nutmeg 14, shrink 14, two money, fried licorice two money, for the end, often mixed into the mouth of children. (Shi Yi De Xiao Fang)
⑦ Treatment of vomiting: cardamom, ginger. Take it in water. (Bai Doukou Tang in Shen's Zunsheng Shu)
⑧ Treatment of postpartum hiccup: cardamom, clove each half two. Once you take the soup, you can study it carefully. (business in heaven and earth)
Chinese PinYin : Bai Dou Kou
Sharp storage. Rui Xu
Fritillaria thunbergii. Chuan Bei Mu Tai Bai Bei Mu
Bamboo shoots. Ci Zhu Qi Sun
New Chrysanthemum. Da Xin Ju
Poison fish vine. Du Yu Teng
Fox tail. Hu Li Wei
amber. Hu Po
Akebia root. Mu Tong Gen
Millet grass. Xiao Mi Cao
White skin of zhebou. Zhe Mu Bai Pi
spider. Zhi Zhu
Bamboo rat tooth. Zhu Shu Zi Ya