Radix Paeoniae Rubra
(notes to the classic of Materia Medica)
[synonyms] Mu Shaoyao (Cui Bao's ancient and modern notes), Hong Shaoyao (Shengji Zonglu), Chi Shao (medicinal Huayi), and Chou Mudan root (Qinghai medicinal materials).
[source] it is the root of Paeonia lactiflora (wild species), Herba Paeoniae lactiflora and Radix Paeoniae Rubra.
[plant morphology] 1. Peony (the book of songs), see "white peony" for details.
② Herbaceous peony (Cui Bao's ancient and modern notes), also known as: Mountain peony, egg leaf peony, ginseng mask, Wild Peony.
Perennial herbs, 40-70 cm high. Root hypertrophy, cylindrical or spindle shaped, with branches, skin brownish red. Stem erect, smooth, glabrous. The terminal leaflets are the largest, obovate or broadly ovate, apex acute, base cuneate, 13.5 cm long and 4.6-4.8 cm wide, lateral leaflets slightly smaller, elliptic obovate or ovate, base cuneate, broadly cuneate or oblique, petiole 14 cm long. Flowers solitary at the top of stem; sepals 3-5, pale green or reddish; petals usually 6-8, obovate, apex obtuse, pink; stamens numerous, anthers yellow; carpels 3-5, usually 3, free, glabrous. Follicles oblong, rough surface, dehiscent at maturity. Seeds subglobose, bluish black. The flowering period is from May to June. The fruit period is from August to October.
It grows under broad-leaved forest and in gully. Distributed in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Anhui and other places.
③ Sichuan Red Peony, also known as: Maoguo red peony.
Perennial herbs, 50-80 cm high. Roots cylindrical, simple or divergent, outer skin grayish brown. Stem cylindrical, sometimes purplish, smooth, glabrous, longitudinally ribbed. 2-3-pinnate compound leaves, alternate; petiolate; leaflets 2-4-lobed, deep lobes split into small lobes, rare undivided, final lobes oblong or lanceolate, apex acute or acute, 6-18 mm wide, green above. Flowers terminal, usually 2-3 per stem, sometimes only one flower developed, 6-9 cm in diameter, red; sepals 5, green, ovate; petals usually 7, broadly obovate, edge irregular, apex often concave; stamens many, filaments yellowish or reddish, anther yellow. Fruit 2-5, densely yellow tomentose. The flowering period is from June to July. The fruit period is from July to September.
It grows under the forest and on the grass slope. It is distributed in Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Shanxi, Gansu, Xinjiang, Qinghai and other places.
[collection] in autumn, the rhizome, fibrous root and branch root are removed, the soil is washed, when the soil is half dry, the bundles are tied according to the size, and then the soil is dried to the foot. In Sichuan, there are also people who scrape off the rough skin and then dry it.
[medicinal material] the dry root is cylindrical, the thickness of both ends is nearly equal, slightly curved, 10-36 cm long, 6-19 mm in diameter. The surface is dark brown or dark brown, rough, with transverse raised pores and root marks, with thick and deep longitudinal wrinkles. When rubbed by hand, the outer skin is easy to fall off, showing white or light brown cortex. Hard and brittle, easy to break. The section is flat, pink or yellowish white, the cortex is narrow, pinkish, the central pith is small, the ray of xylem is obvious, sometimes with cracks. The gas is slightly fragrant and the taste is slightly bitter. It is better to have long and thick roots, easy peeling skin, thick and deep wrinkles, white cross-section and big powder.
It is mainly produced in Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Liaoning, Heilongjiang and Jilin. It is also produced in Shaanxi, Shanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Hubei, Sichuan, Guizhou and Yunnan. The root of Paeonia lactiflora produced in Northeast, North and northwest of China is mainly Paeonia lactiflora, and part of it is herbaceous Paeonia lactiflora. The root of Radix Paeoniae Rubra produced in Southwest China is mainly from Sichuan. Among the above commodities, Duolun in Inner Mongolia has the best quality, especially known as "Duolun red peony".
The roots of Paeonia lactiflora var. variabilis from Shaanxi and Gansu are still mixed, and most of them are spindle shaped. In addition to the use of Radix Paeoniae Rubra in Sichuan, some areas also use the roots of Paeoniae Rubra and Paeonia lactiflora var. pubescens. There are two kinds of products in Sichuan Province, namely, Paeonia lactiflora Pall. And Paeonia lactiflora Pall. The former is cylindrical, with light purplish red or white flesh on the surface, straight wrinkles on the surface, light purple on the periphery of the cross section and light yellow rays on the heart. The original skin of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. Is not peeled. It has similar shape, but has forked branches. It has thick skin and is brownish red or brown. In addition to the above-mentioned herbaceous peony, the root tuber peony produced in Xinjiang is also used, and its root tuber is spindle shaped.
[chemical constituents] the root of Paeonia lactiflora contains paeoniflorin.
The root of Herba Paeoniae lactiflora contains volatile oil, fatty oil, resin, tannin, sugar, starch, mucilage and protein. The content of benzoic acid is about 0.92%.
The content of paeoniflorin in root is 1.8-7.3%, all in root bark and 1-1.1% in leaf. See "white peony".
(1) antispasmodic effect
In the study of relieving abdominal spasm with Paeonia lactiflora, the experimental results are different due to the different dosage forms, ingredients and animal species. At present, paeoniflorin has better antispasmodic effect. In early years, it was reported that the extract had inhibitory effect on the isolated intestine of rabbits, but high concentration of extract first excited and then inhibited. In the later experiment, it often excites the isolated or in situ intestine of rabbits, and high concentration can inhibit or relieve spasm. The results showed that paeoniflorin inhibited the motility of isolated intestine and stomach in guinea pigs and rats, as well as the smooth muscle of uterus in rats, and antagonized oxytocin induced contraction; fm100, a methanol extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., showed synergistic effect with paeoniflorin.
② Effect on circulatory system
Paeoniflorin can decrease the blood pressure of guinea pigs, the degree of which is related to the dosage. It has little effect on the isolated heart of guinea pigs, but it can increase the coronary blood flow of dogs, the potency of which is 1 / 20 of papaverine and 1 / 250 of nitroglycerin. It can also increase the hind limb blood flow of dogs, the potency of which is 1 / 100 of papaverine and 1 / 4500 of nitroglycerin The pharmacological action of benzoic acid disappeared immediately. The glycoside had no obvious antagonism to arrhythmia induced by strobiloside g in guinea pigs. Herbaceous peony decoction had inhibitory effect on isolated frog heart and rabbit heart, and slightly dilated the blood vessels of toad viscera and isolated rabbit ear.
③ Analgesic, sedative and anticonvulsant effects
The analgesic effect of paeoniflorin and fm100 (intraperitoneal injection of both) was not significant by pressing the tail of mice to determine the pain threshold. If they were combined with each other, they would have synergistic effect, but if they were given orally, they would not have analgesic effect either alone or in combination. When acetic acid was injected into the abdominal cavity of mice, the writhing movement was taken as the index of pain, paeoniflorin and fm100 (intraperitoneal injection) or in combination had significant analgesic effect The analgesic effect is remarkable. Paeoniflorin has sedative effect. It can prolong the sleep time of mice with sodium pentobarbital when combined with fml00. It has no antagonistic effect on electric convulsion, but has weak antagonistic effect on convulsion induced by pentamethenyltetrazole. Peony extract can antagonize convulsion caused by strychnine.
④ Anti inflammatory and anti ulcer effects
Paeoniflorin has a weak anti-inflammatory effect. It can inhibit the edema of rat hind paw caused by carrageenan and dextran, which is synergistic with fm100. However, it has a very weak inhibitory effect on the dye exudation of mouse abdominal cavity. Paeoniflorin and fml00 have synergistic effect on inhibiting gastric secretion in rats with pylorus ligation. However, the extract of Paeonia lactiflora root can slightly increase the secretion of gastric juice acidity and improve appetite.
⑤ Antibacterial and antipyretic effects
In addition, it can inhibit Staphylococcus, and tincture can inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In vitro, Paeonia lactiflora Decoction (1:40) inhibited Jingke 68-1 virus and herpesvirus, and Paeonia lactiflora extract (1:40) also inhibited some pathogenic fungi. Paeoniflorin has cooling effect on normal body temperature of mice and antipyretic effect on mice with artificial fever.
⑥ Other functions
After oral administration of herbaceous peony decoction, the blood glucose of rabbits increased temporarily, peaked at 0.5-1 hour, then decreased immediately, and returned to normal after 5-6 hours. Paeoniflorin had no antitussive effect on cough induced by tracheotomy and mechanical stimulation of trachea mucosa in guinea pigs, but had no effect on urine secretion in mice, while fm100 had significant antidiuretic effect. Paeonia lactiflora extract can excite the isolated uterus of mice at low concentration, but inhibit it at high concentration, and can resist the contraction induced by acetylcholine and histamine. From the pharmacological effect of paeoniflorin, it is basically consistent with the clinical therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine, so it is considered that paeoniflorin is the main effective component of paeoniflorin.
[processing] Radix Paeoniae Rubra: remove the impurities, separate the large and small strips, wash them with water, soak them about 70% or 80% thoroughly, take them out, dry them in the sun, moisten them until the internal and external humidity is even, slice them and dry them in the sun. Stir fry red peony: take red peony tablets and stir fry them in the pot until there is a little focus. Take them out and cool them thoroughly.
[flavor] sour, bitter and cool.
① Ben Jing: "it tastes bitter and flat. "
② Wupu materia medica: "Tongjun: sweet, non-toxic. Qibo: salty. Li: Xiao Han. Lei Gong: acid. "
③ Bielu: "sour, mild cold, little poison. "
④ Ben Cao Yan Yi: "taste astringent and bitter. "
[Guijing] into the liver and spleen meridian.
① "Zhenzhubao": the spleen meridian of foot Taiyin. "
② "Tang Ye Ben Cao": "enter the hand foot Taiyin meridian. "
③ "Materia medica meridians": "hand foot Taiyin meridian medicine, into the liver, spleen blood points. "
④ "Drug Huayi": entering liver and small intestine. "
⑤ "Into the heart and small intestine. "
Functions and indications: promoting blood stasis, relieving pain, cooling blood and reducing swelling. It is used to treat blood stasis, amenorrhea, hernia accumulation, abdominal pain, hypochondriac pain, bleeding, blood dysentery, blood under intestinal wind, red eyes and carbuncle swelling.
① "Ben Jing" says: "it is mainly used for the treatment of abdominal pain due to evil Qi, eliminating blood obstruction, breaking hard accumulation, cold and heat hernia, relieving pain and urinating,
Chinese PinYin : Chi Shao Yao
Radix Paeoniae Rubra
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Zhuhuang 1. Zhu Huang