Deng Xiaoping (August 22, 1904 - February 19, 1997), formerly known as Deng Xiansheng, scientific name Deng Xixian, from Guang'an, Sichuan. In his early years, he went to Europe for work study program. After returning home, he devoted himself to the revolutionary struggle for national independence and people's Liberation led by the party. From the agrarian revolution, the war of resistance against Japan to the war of liberation, he successively held many important leading positions in the party and the army, made great contributions to the implementation of a series of major strategic decisions of the Party Central Committee, the victory of the new democratic revolution and the birth of new China, and became the founding fathers of the people's Republic of China.
Deng Xiaoping is recognized by the whole party, the whole army and the people of all ethnic groups as an outstanding leader with high prestige, a great Marxist, a great proletarian revolutionist, politician, militarist and diplomat, a tested communist soldier, the chief designer of China's socialist reform, opening up and modernization, and the pioneer of the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics, The main founder of Deng Xiaoping theory.
The policy concepts of "reform and opening up" and "one country, two systems" advocated by him changed China in the late 20th century and also affected the world. Therefore, he was elected the "man of the year" of time magazine twice in 1978 and 1985.
Deng Xiaoping Wiki:
|Chinese name||Deng Xiaoping|
|alias||Deng Xiansheng (original name); Deng Xixian (scientific name)|
|date of birth||August 22, 1904|
|Date of death||February 19, 1997|
|University one is graduated from||Moscow Sun Yat sen University|
|occupation||Revolutionaries, politicians, militarists and diplomats|
|Major achievements||Promoting the process of reform and opening up in modern China and putting forward the political concept of "one country, two systems", he is the main founder of Deng Xiaoping theory|
|birthplace||Paifang village, Xiexing Township, Guang'an County, Sichuan Province|
Chinese PinYin : Deng Xiao Ping
On August 22, 1904, he was born in Paifang village, Xiexing Township, Guang'an County, Sichuan Province, named Deng Xiansheng.
In 1909, he went to a private school and studied under the scientific name of Deng Xixian.
In 1910, he joined Xiexing Township Primary School.
In 1915, he studied in Guang'an County primary school.
In 1918, he studied in Guang'an County middle school.
On May 4, 1919, the student mass anti imperialist Patriotic Movement broke out in Beijing.
In the autumn of 1919, he was admitted to Chongqing work study preparatory school for studying in France.
In October 1920, he arrived in France and soon entered Baye men's middle school in Normandy.
In April 1921, he worked as a steel rolling worker at Schneider iron and Steel General Factory in kruso. At the end of the month, he resigned his job and went to Paris. In late July, the Communist Party of China was founded. In October, he worked in Jinxiang Brown factory and was dismissed two weeks later.
In February 1922, he worked in Hutchinson rubber factory. In the summer of 1922, he joined the Chinese Youth Communist Party in Europe (renamed the Chinese Communist Youth League in Europe the next year, also known as the European branch of the Chinese Socialist Youth League in Europe).
Photo of Comrade Deng Xiaoping during his work study program in France
Photo of Comrade Deng Xiaoping during his work study program in France
In the summer of 1923, he joined the Communist Youth League branch in Europe and began his career as a professional revolutionary.
In 1924, he participated in the editing of the official journal of the Communist Youth League in Europe, red light. In July, he was elected as a member of the Executive Committee of the Communist Youth League in Europe and became a member of the Communist Party of China.
In the spring of 1925, he served as the special commissioner of the Lyon region of the European branch of the Communist Party of China. From June to September, he participated in organizing large-scale demonstrations and rallies held by Chinese in France to support the May 30 anti imperialist movement in China. In November, he worked as a fitter in Renault automobile factory.
On January 17, 1926, Deng Xiaoping set foot on the territory of Russia for the first time and reported to Moscow Oriental University under the leadership of the representatives of the Moscow branch of the Communist Party of China. After only 12 days at the Communist University of Oriental workers, Deng Xiaoping transferred to Zhongshan University in Moscow and was assigned to the seventh study group.
In the spring of 1927, he returned from the Soviet Union and was sent by the Communist Party of China to work at Xi'an Zhongshan military school affiliated to Feng Yuxiang's national coalition army. He served as director of the political department and Secretary of the CPC Organization of the school.
After the breakdown of the first Kuomintang communist cooperation, he changed his name to Deng Xiaoping and attended the emergency meeting of the CPC Central Committee in Wuhan on August 7. Moved to Shanghai with the central authorities at the end of the year.
He served as Secretary General of the CPC Central Committee from 1928 to 1929.
In early 1928, he married Zhang Xiyuan.
From 1929 to 1930, Deng Xiaoping, together with Zhang Yunyi, Wei Baqun and other revolutionaries of the older generation, opened up the Zuojiang revolutionary base.
In the summer of 1929, as the representative of the Central Committee, he went to Guangxi to lead the uprising, alias Deng bin. In December, he launched Baise uprising with Zhang Yunyi and Wei Baqun, founded the seventh army of the Chinese workers' and peasants' Red Army, and served as political member and former Secretary of the seventh army.
In February 1930, he launched the Longzhou uprising with Li Mingrui and Yu Zuoyu, established the Eighth Army of the Chinese workers' and peasants' Red Army, and concurrently served as the political commissar of the Eighth Army. In the Zuojiang and Youjiang Revolutionary Base areas, he served as political member of the seventh and eighth armies of the Red Army and Secretary of the former enemy Committee.
In February 1931, Li Mingrui led the seventh Red Army to Chongyi, Jiangxi Province. According to the decision of the front Committee, he went to Shanghai to report to the CPC Central Committee. In April, he wrote the work report of the seventh army in Shanghai, detailing the combat history of the seventh and eighth armies of the Red Army. In August, he arrived at the central revolutionary base in Jiangxi and served as secretary of the Ruijin County CPC Committee.
In July 1932, he served as secretary of the CPC Huichang central county Party committee, supported Mao Zedong to break the Kuomintang's military "encirclement and suppression" strategy and tactics and correct land policy, and opposed the "left" line.
In the spring of 1933, he served as the propaganda minister of the CPC Jiangxi Provincial Committee. In May, he was attacked by the "left" line, was dismissed from his post, was punished by the "last serious warning" of the party, and worked as an inspector in Nan village, Le'an county. Soon, he was transferred to the Secretary General of the General Political Department of the Red Army. In August, he edited the Red Star newspaper hosted by the General Political Department of the Red Army.
In October 1934, the Red Army followed the Central Long March. At the end of the year, he was appointed Secretary General of the CPC Central Committee.
In January 1935, he participated in the enlarged meeting of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee held in Zunyi, Guizhou. The meeting established the correct leadership of the new Central Committee represented by Mao Zedong. In June, he was transferred to the propaganda director of the Political Department of the first Red Army Corps. In October, the Central Red Army's Long March reached northern Shaanxi.
In May 1936, he served as deputy director of the Political Department of the first Red Army Corps and later as director.
After the outbreak of the Anti Japanese War, he served as deputy director of the Political Department of the Eighth Route Army of the national revolutionary army.
In January 1938, he served as the political commissar of the 129th division of the Eighth Route Army. Together with the division commander Liu Bocheng, he opened an anti Japanese base in the Shanxi Hebei Henan border region in the Taihang Mountains. From September to November, he participated in the Sixth Plenary Session of the expanded sixth CPC Central Committee held in Yan'an. The plenary session decided to constantly consolidate and expand the Anti Japanese national united front and reaffirmed the party's policy of independently organizing the people's armed struggle against Japan. Make a report on local work at the meeting.
On July 3, 1939, he participated in the enlarged meeting of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee held in Yan'an. In September, she married Zhuo Lin and returned to Taihang mountain together.
From August to December 1940, he participated in the command of the hundred regiments war. The hundred regiments war was the largest strategic offensive campaign against the Japanese army launched by the Eighth Route Army in North China.
On April 15, 1941, he published the article "the party and the Anti Japanese democratic regime", which expounded the basic theory and policy of the Communist Party of China on establishing the Anti Japanese democratic regime.
In September 1942, he was appointed secretary of the Taihang branch of the northern Bureau of the CPC Central Committee.
On October 6, 1943, the northern Bureau of the CPC Central Committee merged with the Taihang branch, acting as the Secretary of the northern Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, presided over the work of the Eighth Route Army headquarters, and undertook the overall work of leading the party, government and army in the Anti Japanese base area behind the enemy lines in North China under difficult conditions.
In 1945, he was elected as a member of the Central Committee at the Seventh National Congress of the Communist Party of China. In August, Japan announced its surrender. At this time, the Anti Japanese base areas led by Liu Bocheng had been expanded into four regions: Taihang, Taiyue, Hebei, Shandong, Henan and Southern Hebei. The CPC Central Committee decided to establish the Shanxi Hebei Shandong Henan Central Bureau and the Shanxi Hebei Shandong Henan military region, serving as secretary of the Central Bureau and political member of the military region.
During the war of liberation, he served as the political member of the Shanxi Hebei Shandong Henan field army, the Central Plains field army and the second field army of the Chinese people's Liberation Army, the Secretary of the Central Bureau of Shanxi Hebei Shandong Henan, and the first Secretary of the Central Plains Bureau and East China Bureau.
From September to November 1945, he led the Shangdang campaign and Handan campaign together with Liu Bocheng.
In June 1946, Chiang Kai Shek attacked the liberated areas of the Central Plains on a large scale and launched an all-round civil war. From August to January of the following year, he and Liu Bocheng successively organized and commanded the campaigns of Longhai, Dingtao, juancheng, Huaxian, Juye, Jintai and Yuxiang.
In May 1947, he was appointed secretary of the Central Plains Bureau of the CPC Central Committee. On June 30, Liu Bocheng led the main force of the Shanxi Hebei Shandong Henan field army to forcibly cross the Yellow River and launch the Southwest Shandong campaign, which opened the prelude to the national strategic attack of the people's Liberation Army. In August, he led the main force of the field army with Liu Bocheng and leaped thousands of miles into the Dabie Mountain area. In the heavy siege of the Kuomintang army, we adhered to the Dabie Mountain struggle, pushed the front to the North Bank of the Yangtze River and gained a firm foothold in the Central Plains.
On May 9, 1948, he served as the first Secretary of the Central Plains Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and the political member of the Central Plains military region and the Central Plains field army. In May, he launched the Wandong campaign with Liu Bocheng. In July, he launched the Xiangfan campaign with Liu Bocheng. From September to January of the following year, the people's Liberation Army conducted the Liaoshen campaign, the Huaihai Campaign and the Pingjin campaign, destroying the main military forces on which Chiang Kai Shek maintained his reactionary rule. On November 16, the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China decided to form a general Front Committee composed of Liu Bocheng, Chen Yi, Deng Xiaoping, Su Yu and Tan Zhenlin, with Deng Xiaoping as secretary to command the Huaihai Campaign. A total of 550000 Kuomintang troops were wiped out in the Huaihai Campaign.
On February 5, 1949, the Central Plains field army was reorganized into the second field army and served as a political commissar. In March, he participated in the second plenary session of the seventh CPC Central Committee and later served as the first Secretary of the East China Bureau of the CPC Central Committee. On March 31, he drafted the outline for the implementation of the Beijing Shanghai Hangzhou campaign for the General Front Committee. From April to may, he commanded the river crossing campaign with Liu Bocheng and Chen Yi to liberate Nanjing, Shanghai and the vast areas of Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian and other provinces.
On September 30, 1949, he was elected as a member of the Central People's government at the first plenary session of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference. On October 1, he attended the founding ceremony of the people's Republic of China. On October 19, he was appointed as a member of the Chinese people's Revolutionary Military Commission at the third meeting of the Central People's Government Committee. From October to December, led by Liu Bocheng and others, they marched into the southwest and liberated Sichuan, Kang, Yunnan, Guizhou and other provinces. On November 23, he served as the first Secretary of the Southwest Bureau of the CPC Central Committee. On December 2, he served as vice chairman of the Southwest Military and political Commission.
On February 22, 1950, he served as the political commissar of the Southwest Military Region. This year, he led the land reform, bandit suppression, political power construction, restoration and development of production in the southwest region.
In 1951, he led the army to work in Tibet. Peaceful liberation of Tibet.
In July 1952, he was transferred to the central government and served as Vice Premier and deputy director of the financial and Economic Committee of the administrative yuan of the Central People's Government (changed to the State Council in 1954). Later, he also served as director of the Transportation Office of the administrative yuan and Minister of Finance.
In April 1954, he was appointed Secretary General of the CPC Central Committee and director of the organization department. In September, he served as vice premier of the State Council, vice chairman of the National Defense Commission and member of the Military Commission of the CPC Central Committee.
In March 1955, at the National Congress of the Communist Party of China, he made a report on the anti party alliance of Gao Gang and Rao Shushi on behalf of the Central Committee. In April, he was co elected as a member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee at the Fifth Plenary Session of the seventh CPC Central Committee.
In September 1956, he made a report on Revising the party constitution at the Eighth National Congress of the Communist Party of China. At the first plenary session of the Eighth CPC Central Committee, he was elected as the standing member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and the general secretary of the Central Committee, and became an important member of the first generation leading collective of the Communist Party of China with Mao Zedong as the core.
In November 1957, the Chinese party and government delegation led by Mao Zedong visited the Soviet Union to participate in the celebration of the 40th anniversary of the October Revolution and the meeting of representatives of the Communist Party and the workers' Party of various countries.
In August 1958, he attended the enlarged meeting held by the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee in Beidaihe. The meeting adopted the resolution on the establishment of people's communes in rural areas. From September to November, he visited Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan and other places. From November to December, he attended the Sixth Plenary Session of the Eighth CPC Central Committee held in Wuchang and explained the resolutions on several issues of the people's commune.
In September 1959, he served as the standing member of the Military Commission of the CPC Central Committee.
From November to December 1960, he and Liu Shaoqi led a Chinese party and government delegation to attend the celebration of the 43rd anniversary of the October Revolution and the meeting of representatives of the Communist Party and the workers' Party of 81 countries in Moscow, the Soviet Union.
From August to September 1961, he attended the working meeting held by the CPC Central Committee in Lushan.
On February 6, 1962, he made a speech at the enlarged central working conference (also known as the "7000 people's Congress"), emphasizing the need to carry forward the party's revolutionary tradition and strengthen democratic centralism.
In July 1963, he led a delegation of the Communist Party of China to Moscow to hold talks with the delegation of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, firmly safeguarding the principle of independence and autonomy of the Communist Party of China.
In March 1965, in response to Jiang Qing's wrong criticism of literary and artistic circles and literary and artistic works, he put forward severe criticism at the meeting of the Central Secretariat chaired by Jiang Qing.
During his 10 years as general secretary, he assisted the chairman and vice chairman of the Central Committee in presiding over the daily work of the Central Committee and carried out fruitful work for the establishment and development of the socialist system and for exploring the road of building socialism suitable for China's national conditions.
In May 1966, the "Cultural Revolution" began. Soon, he was wrongly criticized and struggled and lost all his posts.
From 1969 to 1973, he was transferred to the tractor repair and manufacturing plant in Xinjian County, Jiangxi Province.
On August 3, 1972, he wrote to Mao Zedong, hoping to do more work for the party and the state for several years. Mao Zedong's instructions affirmed Deng Xiaoping's historical achievements.
On March 10, 1973, the CPC Central Committee made the decision on restoring Comrade Deng Xiaoping's Party organizational life and the post of vice premier of the State Council. In August, he was elected as a member of the Central Committee at the 10th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. In December, according to the decision of the CPC Central Committee, he served as a member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and a member of the Central Military Commission.
In April 1974, he attended the sixth special session of the United Nations on behalf of the Chinese government, at which Mao Zedong's thesis on the division of the three worlds was systematically expounded.
In January 1975, he served as vice chairman of the CPC Central Committee, vice premier of the State Council, vice chairman of the Central Military Commission and chief of the general staff of the Chinese people's Liberation Army. After Zhou Enlai became seriously ill, with the support of Mao Zedong, he presided over the daily work of the party, the state and the army, comprehensively rectified the chaos caused by the "Cultural Revolution", won the heartfelt support of the people all over the country, and achieved remarkable results.
In April 1976, a "Tiananmen Square incident" occurred in Beijing to mourn Premier Zhou Enlai, support Deng Xiaoping and oppose the gang of four, and all posts were removed.
In October 1976, the gang of four was smashed and the "Cultural Revolution" ended.
On April 10, 1977, he wrote to the CPC Central Committee, proposing that accurate and complete Mao Zedong thought must be used to guide the whole party, the whole army and the people of the whole country from generation to generation. The CPC Central Committee approved and forwarded this letter, affirming Deng Xiaoping's views. On May 24, when talking with two relevant central leaders, he pointed out that "the two whatevers" (that is, "we firmly uphold all the decisions made by Chairman Mao and unswervingly follow Chairman Mao's instructions") are not in line with Marxism; We must create an atmosphere within the party and respect knowledge and talents.
In July 1977, the Third Plenary Session of the 10th CPC Central Committee restored Deng Xiaoping's former leadership of the party, government and army. Deng Xiaoping pointed out in his speech at the meeting that we should fully and accurately understand Mao Zedong Thought; The mass line and seeking truth from facts are the most fundamental things in the style advocated by Mao Zedong.
At the 11th National Congress of the CPC held in August 1977, he was elected vice chairman of the CPC Central Committee. From August to September, many symposiums were held, emphasizing that there is no hope for the four modernizations without paying attention to science and education. Lead and promote the rectification of chaos on the front of science, technology and education.
In March 1978, he was elected chairman of the Fifth National Committee of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference. First of all, he promoted the ideological line to bring order out of chaos, opposed the wrong policy of "two whatevers", led and supported the discussion on the standard of truth, and proposed that Mao Zedong thought must be understood completely and accurately. He also proposed to shift the focus of the whole Party's work to economic construction as soon as possible.
The Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China held in December 1978 opened up a new period of China's reform and opening up and concentrated efforts on socialist modernization. At this meeting, he played a decisive role in the historical transformation of the policies of the Communist Party of China. At the central working conference in preparation for this plenary session, he delivered a speech entitled "emancipating the mind, seeking truth from facts, and looking ahead in unity". After this plenary session, the second generation of leading collective of the Communist Party of China with him as the core was formed.
From January 28 to February 6, 1979, China and the United States visited the United States after the formal establishment of diplomatic relations. It was the first visit to the United States by a new Chinese leader.
In September 1980, he resigned as vice premier of the State Council.
In June 1981, the Sixth Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China adopted the resolution on some historical issues of the party since the founding of the people's Republic of China drafted under the auspices of Deng Xiaoping. The resolution completely denied the "Cultural Revolution", comprehensively evaluated Mao Zedong's historical status, and proposed that Mao Zedong thought must be upheld and developed. The meeting elected Deng Xiaoping as chairman of the Central Military Commission.
In September 1982, the 12th National Congress of the Communist Party of China was held. In his opening speech, he put forward: "combine the universal truth of Marxism with China's specific practice, follow our own path and build socialism with Chinese characteristics."
From September 12 to 13, 1982, the first plenary session of the 12th CPC Central Committee was held. Deng Xiaoping was elected as the standing member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and decided to be chairman of the Central Military Commission. On September 13, he was elected as the director of the Central Advisory Committee at the first plenary meeting of the Advisory Committee of the CPC Central Committee. On September 24, he met with British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and expounded China's basic position on the Hong Kong issue, setting the tone for future negotiations between the Chinese and British governments.
In June 1983, he was elected chairman of the Central Military Commission of the people's Republic of China at the first session of the Sixth National People's Congress.
On October 1, 1984, he reviewed the troops and made a speech at the celebration ceremony of the 35th anniversary of the founding of the people's Republic of China. On December 19, he attended the signing ceremony of the joint statement on Hong Kong between the Chinese and British governments.
On June 4, 1985, at the enlarged meeting of the Central Military Commission, it was announced that the Chinese government decided to reduce the number of military personnel by 1 million, and expounded two important changes in the judgment of the international situation and foreign policy after the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.
On March 5, 1986, the following instructions were given to the suggestions put forward by four scientists on tracking the development of high technology in the world: "this suggestion is very important and can not be delayed". In November, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council approved the outline of the high tech research and development plan, referred to as the 863 plan.
From January to March 1987, in response to the riots caused by a small number of students in some colleges and universities at the end of 1986, they pointed out many times that we should strengthen the education of the four basic principles and take a clear-cut stand against bourgeois liberalization; We should lead socialist construction in an orderly manner. On April 13, he attended the signing ceremony of the joint statement of the Chinese and Portuguese Governments on the Macao issue. In November, he was appointed chairman of the Central Military Commission in accordance with the decision of the first plenary session of the 13th CPC Central Committee.
In April 1989, in response to the unrest in Beijing, he issued two statements expressing his full agreement and support for the decision of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee to quell the unrest and stabilize the situation. He advocated taking a clear stand against unrest. On May 16, he met with Gorbachev, chairman of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet Union and general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, and announced the normalization of Sino Soviet relations. On June 9, he met with cadres at or above the military level of the martial law forces in the capital and delivered an important speech, pointing out that the outbreak of the incident prompted calm consideration of the past and future. There was nothing wrong with the party's basic line of "one center and two basic points" and a series of principles and policies formulated since the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee, including the development strategic objectives of reform and opening up and the "trilogy". In the future, we should continue to work unswervingly. In June, the Fourth Plenary Session of the 13th CPC Central Committee elected Jiang Zemin as general secretary of the Central Committee.
In November 1989, at the Fifth Plenary Session of the 13th CPC Central Committee, he resigned as the last chairman of the Central Military Commission.
In March 1990, the third session of the Seventh National People's Congress accepted Deng Xiaoping's resignation as chairman of the Central Military Commission of the people's Republic of China.
From January to February 1991, he inspected Shanghai. When talking with the person in charge of Shanghai, he proposed that we should pay close attention to the development of Pudong and do not waver until it is completed; I hope the people of Shanghai will be more emancipated, bolder and faster.
From January to February 1992, he visited Wuchang, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shanghai and other places, made important speeches, analyzed the international and domestic situation, summarized the party's basic practice and basic experience since the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee, and clearly answered many important cognitive problems that often perplex and restrict people's thoughts. In October, the Communist Party of China held its 14th National Congress. The meeting determined that the goal of economic system reform is to establish a socialist market economic system and put forward the strategic task of arming the whole party with Deng Xiaoping's theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. Marked by this talk and the 14th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, China's reform, opening up and modernization have entered a new stage.
On November 2, 1993, the third volume of selected works of Deng Xiaoping was published. The CPC Central Committee held a report meeting to study the third volume of "selected works of Deng Xiaoping", and Jiang Zemin delivered an important speech.
On November 2, 1994, the revised and supplemented "selected works of Deng Xiaoping (1938-1965)" and "selected works of Deng Xiaoping (1975-1982)" were renamed "selected works of Deng Xiaoping", and volumes I and II were published.
The 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China held in 1997 summarized the theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics as Deng Xiaoping theory, pointed out that this theory is Marxism in contemporary China and a new stage of the development of Marxism in China, and clearly stipulated in the party constitution that the Communist Party of China takes Marxism Leninism, Mao Zedong thought Deng Xiaoping theory as their guide to action.
On February 19, 1997, he died in Beijing at the age of 93.
After smashing the gang of four and ending the "Cultural Revolution", after Deng Xiaoping resumed work again, he began to correct the ideological line, put order out of chaos, stressed that seeking truth from facts is the essence of Mao Zedong thought, unequivocally opposed the wrong view of "two whatevers", and supported and led the discussion on the standard of truth. The Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, held in December 1978, re established the ideological line of emancipating the mind and seeking truth from facts, determined to shift the focus of the party and the state's work to socialist modernization, and made a major decision to implement reform and opening up. This plenary session has achieved a great turning point of far-reaching significance in the history of the party and opened up a new historical period of reform and opening up and concentrating efforts on socialist modernization.
Deng Xiaoping made a report on "emancipating the mind, seeking truth from facts and looking forward in unity", emphasizing that emancipating the mind is a major political issue. We should break Lin Biao's and the gang of four's taboos and prohibitions, create a rigid state of superstition, and liberate people's minds from the imprisonment of false Marxism.
He clearly put forward the view that "in order to protect people's democracy, we must strengthen the legal system, institutionalize and legalize democracy, so that the system and law will not change due to the change of leaders and the change of leaders' views and attention", and proposed to allow some regions, some enterprises, some workers and farmers to get rich first, so as to drive other regions The view that other enterprises and other people can make the people of the whole country richer relatively quickly.
Under the guidance of Deng Xiaoping, the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee abandoned the wrong line of "taking class struggle as the key link", determined the political line that the focus of the work of the whole Party and the attention of the people of the whole country should be shifted to socialist modernization, seriously reformed the economic management system and management methods, and seriously solved the phenomenon of no distinction between the party, the government and enterprises, replacing the government with the government and replacing the enterprise with the government, Implement hierarchical division of labor and individual responsibility, etc.
After the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, he insisted on emancipating the mind and seeking truth from facts, and founded and developed the theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. This theory scientifically expounds the essence of socialism and systematically answers a series of basic questions on how to build socialism and how to consolidate and develop socialism in a country with backward economy and culture such as China for the first time. He believes that China is in the primary stage of socialism, and all plans should be formulated based on this reality. According to his thought, the 13th CPC National Congress formulated the party's basic line of taking economic construction as the center, adhering to the four cardinal principles and adhering to reform and opening up in the primary stage of socialism. He pointed out that the fundamental task of socialism is to develop the productive forces. The whole party should devote itself to the modernization drive. The key to modernization is the modernization of science and technology. Science and technology are the primary productive forces. Education is the most fundamental cause of a nation. He designed the development strategic goal of basically realizing modernization in three steps from the 1980s to the middle of the next century. It also puts forward that everything should be based on whether it is conducive to the development of the productive forces of socialist society, whether it is conducive to the enhancement of the comprehensive national strength of socialist countries, and whether it is conducive to the improvement of people's living standards. He strongly supported and promoted rural reform, promoted comprehensive urban centered reform, and pointed out that "reform is China's second revolution". His exposition that socialism can also engage in market economy has laid a theoretical foundation for the CPC to determine the reform goal of establishing the system of socialist market economy. He proposed setting up special economic zones, opening up 14 coastal cities, developing and opening up the Pudong New Area of Shanghai, and promoting the formation of China's comprehensive opening-up pattern. He actively promoted the reform of the political system, emphasized the development of socialist democracy, improved the socialist legal system, and attached great importance to the construction of spiritual civilization while building material civilization.
He devoted a lot of efforts to solving the problems of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and realizing the peaceful reunification of the motherland. Starting from reality, he creatively put forward the concept of "one China, two systems". Under his auspices, China has established diplomatic relations with the United States, concluded a Sino Japanese Treaty of peace and friendship with Japan, restored relations between the two parties and two countries of China and the Soviet Union, and developed friendly relations with neighboring countries and third world countries. He made unremitting efforts to open up a new situation in China's diplomacy, strive for a favorable international environment for modernization and maintain world peace.
In November 1989, at the Fifth Plenary Session of the 13th CPC Central Committee, he resigned as the last chairman of the Central Military Commission. He played a key role in the smooth transition from the second generation of central collective leadership with him as the core to the third generation of central collective leadership with Jiang Zemin as the core and maintaining the stability of the party and the country.
After retirement, he still cares about the cause of the party and the state. Zhuhai has basically answered some important questions about the reform and opening-up of China since 1992.
The 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China held in 1997 summarized the theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics as Deng Xiaoping theory, pointed out that Deng Xiaoping theory is Marxism in contemporary China and a new stage of the development of Marxism in China, and clearly stipulated in the party constitution that the Communist Party of China takes Marxism Leninism, Mao Zedong thought Deng Xiaoping theory as a guide to action.
Deng Xiaoping theory is the product of the combination of the basic principles of Marxism Leninism with contemporary Chinese practice and the characteristics of the times. It is the inheritance and development of Mao Zedong Thought under the new historical conditions, a new stage of the development of Marxism in China, Marxism in contemporary China and the crystallization of the collective wisdom of the Communist Party of China, Guiding the continuous progress of China's socialist modernization. Focusing on the basic theoretical issues of what socialism is and how to build socialism, Deng Xiaoping theory has formed a series of interrelated basic viewpoints on major issues such as the socialist development path, development stage, fundamental tasks, development driving force, external conditions, political guarantee, strategic steps, leadership and reliance, and the realization of the reunification of the motherland, For the first time, it has systematically answered a series of basic questions on how to build socialism and how to consolidate and develop socialism in a country with relatively backward economy and culture such as China
Selected works of Deng Xiaoping
Selected works of Deng Xiaoping is an anthology of Deng Xiaoping's works and speeches, edited by the document editing Committee of the CPC Central Committee and published by the people's publishing house. By 1993, three volumes had been published.
Deng Xiaoping on Education
The first and second editions of Deng Xiaoping's theory on education were edited and published in 1990 and 1995. They contain 38 speeches, conversations and inscriptions on education by Comrade Deng Xiaoping from 1951 to 1989, respectively. The publication of Deng Xiaoping on education has played an important role in understanding and mastering Comrade Deng Xiaoping's educational thought and promoting the reform and development of China's education.
In December 2009, the annals of Deng Xiaoping (1904-1974) was edited by the literature research office of the CPC Central Committee and published by the Central Literature Publishing House. Based on a large number of documents and archives, the book comprehensively reflects the life experience and ideological course of Deng Xiaoping, a great man of a generation.
On August 19, 2014, with the approval of the Central Committee, Deng Xiaoping's Anthology (1949-1974) edited by the literature research office of the CPC Central Committee and Deng Xiaoping's biography (1904-1974) written by the literature research office of the CPC Central Committee were published by the people's Publishing House and the Central Literature Publishing house respectively and distributed throughout the country.
The three volume anthology has 406 manuscripts with more than 800000 words, most of which are published for the first time. Some manuscripts of Deng Xiaoping during the "Cultural Revolution" were disclosed to the public for the first time.
1. "Reform is China's second revolution. It is a very important thing to do, although it is risky."
2. "Whether white or black, a good cat is one who can catch mice."
3. "Reform is the only way for China to develop productive forces."
4. "Reform and opening up should be bolder and dare to experiment. We should not be like a woman with small feet. If we see it right, we should try and break through it boldly."
5. "Reform should include the reform of the political system."
6. "We should emancipate our minds and reform faster."
1. "Development is the last word!"
2. "Science and technology are the primary productive forces."
3. "To master new technologies, we should be good at learning and innovation."
4. "Emancipate the mind, use your brain and seek truth from facts."
5. "Respect knowledge and talents."
6. "We should create an environment in which top-notch talents can stand out."
7. "Some areas have the conditions to develop first, some areas develop slowly, and the first developed areas drive the later developed areas, so as to finally achieve common prosperity."
8. "Greening the motherland and benefiting all generations."
1. "What is leadership? Leadership is service."
2. "China's problems still lie within the Communist Party."
3. "We should oppose corruption throughout the process of reform and opening up."
4. "We should serve the people wholeheartedly and go deep into the masses to listen to their voices; we should dare to tell the truth, oppose lying, do more practical things without false reputation; we should distinguish between public and private, and do not exchange principles for human feelings; we should appoint people on merit and oppose favoritism."
5. "The basic line should be managed for a hundred years and should not be shaken."
6. "Realize the four modernizations and never seek hegemony."
7. "One country, two systems."
8. "There is a boundary and standard for Hong Kong people to govern Hong Kong, that is, Hong Kong people with patriots as the main body must govern Hong Kong." "We do not require them to agree with China's socialist system, but to love the motherland and Hong Kong."
9. "National reunification is the wish of the nation."
1. "In the affairs of all countries, we must respect the parties and people of all countries. They should find their own way, explore and solve problems. Other parties should not act as Laozi's party and give orders. We oppose others giving orders to us, and we must not give orders to others. This should become an important principle."
2. "China is a permanent member of the UN Security Council, and China understands its responsibilities. There are two things we can trust. One is to adhere to principles and the other is to keep our words count. We do not engage in political games or language games."
3. "China's foreign policy is consistent. There are three sentences. The first sentence is to oppose hegemonism, the second sentence is to maintain world peace, and the third sentence is to strengthen unity and cooperation with the third world."
4. "Frankly speaking, the issue of sovereignty is not an issue that can be discussed."
Mao Zedong: Deng Xiaoping is a good hand in both politics and military.
Jiang Zemin: "without Comrade Deng Xiaoping, the Chinese people would not have a new life today."
Hu Jintao: "Comrade Deng Xiaoping's glorious life of unremitting struggle for the Chinese people, his indelible contributions to promoting the great cause led by the party and creating a new great project of Party construction, fully demonstrated the noble character, broad mind, courage and revolutionary style of a great leader, and set a brilliant example for us."
*** Comrade Deng Xiaoping has won the heartfelt love of the Chinese people and the broad respect of the people of the world.
Time: Deng Xiaoping changed the world and made unprecedented achievements.
Former US President George W. Bush: the great changes that have taken place since China's reform and opening up are largely due to Deng Xiaoping, who plays a very important role in the history of China and the world.
Former French President Jacques Chirac commented on Deng Xiaoping: "for China and the world, he is an important political great man in the 20th century".
Brzezinski, a former national security assistant of the United States, called Deng Xiaoping "a leader with world vision". When recalling his first conversation with Deng Xiaoping in 1978, he said, "I was immediately impressed by Deng's small size and great spirit."
Former British Prime Minister Edward Heath is one of the many foreign friends Deng Xiaoping made. "Deng Xiaoping's greatest contribution to the whole world is that he shows the world how China can manage and develop rapidly, and how China can contribute to the whole world," he said Regarding the successful settlement of the Hong Kong issue by "one country, two systems", he said: "this is the most satisfactory result for China, Britain, Hong Kong itself and the world." Nevertheless, people rarely hear the old man comment on himself. Many of his famous political sayings, such as "poverty is not socialism" and "science and technology is the primary productive force", are familiar to many people, but it is difficult to find his evaluation of himself after searching all the files.
King Sihanouk praised Deng Xiaoping as "a hero of the Chinese people".
Former British Prime Minister Edward Heath: Deng Xiaoping is "an outstanding leader in shaping modern China".
Zeng Xianzi: "without Deng Xiaoping, there would be no progress and prosperity in China today, nor Hong Kong today. My respect and memory for him cannot be described in words."
Deng Xiaoping is a visionary patriot.
"I'm a lively person, not a dead end person. I'm a realist." "I am the son of the Chinese people. I deeply love my motherland and people." (Deng Xiaoping's self-evaluation)
Exhibition hall of Deng Xiaoping's former residence
The exhibition hall of Deng Xiaoping's former residence, with a construction area of 3800 square meters, is composed of a preface hall, three exhibition halls, a film hall, a collection hall, etc. A total of 170 cultural relics, more than 200 archives and documents, 408 pictures and 4 restoration scenes are displayed. The multimedia display system and the most shocking films are used to form a vivid three-dimensional space, vividly, comprehensively and vividly show Deng Xiaoping's great, brilliant and legendary life course, reproduce one major historical scene after another, and reflect the distinct theme The general idea of prominent characteristics, rich content and novel design.
On August 22, 2004, the CPC Central Committee, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, the State Council, the CPPCC National Committee and the Central Military Commission held a grand meeting in the Great Hall of the people to commemorate the 100th birthday of Comrade Deng Xiaoping, a great Marxist, a great proletarian revolutionist, politician, militarist and diplomat, and the chief designer of China's socialist reform, opening up and modernization drive. Hu Jintao, then general secretary of the CPC Central Committee and President of the people's Republic of China, delivered an important speech, deeply cherishing his immortal contributions to national independence, people's liberation, national prosperity and strength and people's happiness, recalling and learning from his noble style of unremitting struggle for the cause of the party and the people, and further encouraging the whole Party and the people of all ethnic groups to push forward the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The commemorative meeting was presided over by Wu Bangguo.
August 22, 2014 marks the 110th anniversary of Deng Xiaoping's birth.
In order to commemorate Deng Xiaoping's centenary birthday, on August 8, 2014, CCTV broadcast a TV series Deng Xiaoping in the turning point of history.
On the morning of August 20, 2014, the CPC Central Committee held a symposium in the Great Hall of the people to commemorate the 110th anniversary of Comrade Deng Xiaoping's birth. *** Li Keqiang, Zhang Dejiang, Yu Zhengsheng, Wang Qishan and Zhang Gaoli attended the symposium, and Liu Yunshan presided over the symposium.
Leng Rong, director of the Central Literature Research Office, Qu Qingshan, director of the Central Party History Research Office, and Wang Dongming, Secretary of the Sichuan provincial Party committee, spoke successively to deeply cherish the great achievements of Comrade Deng Xiaoping.
Sun Liqun. Sun Li Qun
Li Yingchun. Li Ying Chun
Feng Delun. Feng De Lun
Zhang Wu. Zhang Wu
Xia Yuqiao. Xia Yu Qiao
Lu Cai. Lu Cai
Marmoset. Mao Jie