Zhao Tuo (about 240 BC - 137 BC), who was born in Zhending County, Hengshan County (now Zhengding County, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province), was the founder of Nanyue state. He was a general of the Qin Dynasty and went south with Ren Xiao to attack Baiyue. During the chaos in the late Qin Dynasty, Zhao Tuo ruled Lingnan and established Nanyue state. At the beginning of the establishment of Nanyue state, Zhao Tuo implemented the policy of "He Ji Bai Yue", introduced the farming technology and advanced culture of the Central Plains, and introduced foreign culture and marine culture into Lingnan at the same time, which made Lingnan enter the era of farming civilization from the backward slash and burn farming. Han Gaozu three years (204 BC) to Jianyuan four years (137 BC) in office.
After Qin Shihuang unified the six states, he began to move forward to Baiyue in Lingnan. In 206 B.C., the first year of emperor Gaozu of Han Dynasty, Ren Xiao died of illness. Zhao Tuo immediately conveyed the command of defending against danger to the troops at all the passes of Nanling, and took the opportunity to kill the officials in Nanhai County of Qin Dynasty and replace them with his own cronies. After the fall of the Qin Dynasty, Zhao Tuo set up troops to annex Guilin county and Xiang County in the third year of emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty (204 BC), and established the Nanyue kingdom in Lingnan, known as the "king of Nanyue". In the summer of 196 B.C., Liu Bang sent a doctor Lu Jia to Nanyue to persuade Zhao Tuo to return to the Han Dynasty. Under the persuasion of Lu Jia, Zhao Tuo accepted the seal of Nanyue King from emperor Gaozu of Han Dynasty and became a vassal state of Han Dynasty.
Zhao Tuo, king of Nanyue, died in 137 BC in the fourth year of Jianyuan reign of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty. He was over 100 years old and was buried in Panyu (now Guangzhou). After Zhao Tuo's death, his descendants continued to serve as the king of Nanyue for four generations. Until 111 BC, Nanyue was destroyed by the Han Dynasty. Zhao Tuo ruled Lingnan for 81 years from the 28th year of the first emperor (219 BC) as the deputy commander of the 500000 troops of the first emperor of Qin attacking Nanyue to his death in the fourth year of Jianyuan (137 BC).
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Life of the characters
After Qin Shihuang unified the six states, he began to pacify Baiyue in Lingnan. In the 28th year of the first emperor (219 BC), Qin Shihuang sent Tu Sui as the chief General and Zhao Tuo as the deputy general to lead 500000 troops to pacify the south of the five ridges. "One army blocked the mountain of Tan City (today's Yuecheng mountain area), one army guarded the fortress of Jiuyi (today's Jiuyi mountain area), one army was located in the capital of Panyu (today's Guangzhou), one army guarded the border of Nanye (today's southwest of the river), and one army was the water of Yugan (today's Jiangxi Province) County Area) The five hundred thousand Qin troops are divided into five routes, with an average of one hundred thousand. Among them, the "water from the surplus of one army" has nothing to do with Lingnan area. It can be seen that only four hundred thousand Qin troops are used in Lingnan Yue area.
At the beginning of the southern expedition, the Qin people occupied the Guangdong area around Panyu and stayed in the army. Another 300000 Qin troops went west to Guangxi to fight with the local Yue people. Although they killed the chieftain of the Xi'ou tribe, Yixu song, they failed in the three-year campaign. Even the chief General Tu Sui was killed in the war. There are few historical records about the war between Qin and Baiyue, only a few records in Huainanzi, because Nanyue blocked the contact with the Central Plains after the end of Qin Dynasty.
Then the Qin Dynasty set up Nanhai Prefecture in Panyu (now Guangzhou), with Renxiao as the prefect to govern the politics, military affairs and supervision of the county. It had jurisdiction over Panyu, Longchuan, BOLUO and Sihui counties. The geographical location and military value of Longchuan were extremely important, so Zhao Tuo was appointed as the magistrate of Longchuan. Zhao Tuo built a city in Longchuan and created a place for him. Zhao Tuo not only tried his best to prevent the resistance of the Yue people, but also tried his best to appease the local people. He urged the soldiers to raise their children in the local area, and promoted the assimilation of the people from the Central Plains (Henan in the narrow sense; the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River in the broad sense) with the Lingnan people. He also wrote to the emperor to send the people from the Central Plains to move to Nanyue to spread the culture of the Central Plains.
A separatist Empire
After the death of Qin Shihuang, Qin II succeeded to the throne. Because of his tyranny, the uprising of Chen Sheng and Wu Guang in the first year of Qin II (209 BC) was aroused to resist the tyrannical rule of Qin II. The four princes and heroes competed with each other, and the Central Plains fell into war. Then there was the four-year "Chu Han rivalry" between Liu Bang and Xiang Yu, and the Central Plains fell into a state of chaos.
In the second year of Qin II (208 BC), Nanhai Jun Ren Xiao was seriously ill. Before he died, he summoned Zhao Tuo, who was then the magistrate of Longchuan County, to explain to him his plan to build a country by relying on the favorable terrain of Nanhai Jun, which was close to mountains and sea, and had a dangerous basis, so as to resist the invasion of the uprising troops in the Central Plains. He immediately issued an appointment document to Zhao Tuo, and asked Zhao Tuo to take the post of Nanhai Jun, instructing him“ Qin had no way of governing, the central plains were disturbed, Panyu had dangerous mountains and blocked the South China Sea for thousands of miles from the east to the West. Quite a few Chinese people assisted each other, and this was also the head of a state, which could establish a state. " "Wuling north to peak in the ground, Kyushu south to water floating days." In ancient times, the Pearl River was wide, called the sea. Controlling the Wuling mountains in the north and strangling the three rivers in the near is an important offensive and defensive force in Guangzhou. Zhao Tuo knew the main points of Guangzhou's defense. In order to prevent the Northern War from spreading to the South and strengthen the control of Lingnan, he sealed four passes of Wuling, namely Hengpu pass, liangpu pass, Yangshan pass and Huangxi pass. He cut off four new routes, namely, Jiangxi's route to Nanxiong, Hunan's route to Lianzhou, Hunan's route to Hexian and Hunan's route to Jingjiang Lechang Renhua Nanxiong line, Yingde Qingyuan line, Shimen fortress line. If the northern soldiers want to cross Wuling and attack Nanyue, they will not be able to reach Panyu without breaking these three lines of defense.
Soon after Ren Xiao died of illness, Zhao Tuo conveyed to the troops at each pass of Nanling the command of defending according to danger, saying: "steal the troops and come to the end of the road, and gather the troops to defend themselves." In order to prevent the uprising army from invading the Central Plains, he took the opportunity to kill the officials in Nanhai County of the Qin Dynasty and replace them with his cronies.
In the first year of emperor Gaozu of Han Dynasty (206 BC), Zhao Tuo set up troops to annex Guilin county and Xiang county. With the support of the local people, he established the Nanyue kingdom with Panyu as the king's capital and covering an area of thousands of miles. He called himself "Nanyue King Wu", thus laying the foundation for the Nanyue kingdom that had existed for 95 years. The territory of Nanyue is equivalent to that of the three prefectures set up by Qin Dynasty. It borders Changsha, Minyue and Yelang on the north, East and west respectively, and borders the South China Sea on the East and south. It extends to Nanling in the north, Yelang in the west, Nanhai in the South and Minyue in the East. The capital is Panyu, which is now Guangzhou.
Surrender to Gaozu
After many years of war, Liu Bang established the Western Han regime and pacified the other military forces in the Central Plains, including Xiang Yu. At the beginning of the fifth year of emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty (202 BC), Liu Bang established Wu Rui as the king of Changsha. He granted Wu Rui the title of Changsha, Yuzhang and Nanhai, Guilin and Xiangjun, which Zhao Tuo owned. He did not recognize that Nanhai, Guilin and Xiangjun were owned by Zhao Tuo.
In 196b.c., Liu Bang, the emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty, sent Lu Jia, a senior official, to Nanyue to persuade Zhao Tuo to accept the Han Dynasty's conferment and Naturalization of the central government. Under Lu Jia's persuasion, Zhao Tuo accepted the Nanyue King's seal ribbon given by the emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty and submitted to the Han Dynasty, making Nanyue a vassal state of the Han Dynasty and offering tribute to the imperial court. After that, the South Yue Kingdom and the Han Dynasty sent envoys to communicate with each other. Liu Bang succeeded in making Zhao Tuo submissive and did not become a hostile force in the south of the Han Dynasty.
Since then, the iron and other production resources and technologies in the Central Plains have been continuously introduced into the South Vietnam, which started the social and economic progress. He attached great importance to the introduction of Han culture and advanced production technology into the Central Plains, and integrated Yue society, so as to make Lingnan production develop and people live and work in peace and contentment. Starting from Ren Xiao and Zhao Tuo, Lingnan had the symbol of human civilization castle and characters, developed iron smelting industry, and entered a new historical period of social and economic development. Many poems praising Zhao Tuo in Chinese history show the people's respect and nostalgia for him.
He also expanded the Panyu city built by Ren Xiao, with a circumference of ten li, known as "Tuo city", which became the central area of Guangzhou for future generations. He tried to coordinate the relationship between the local people and actively absorb the culture of the Central Plains, so as to promote the steady development of cultural economy in Guangdong during the late Qin and early Han Dynasties.
The Han Dynasty and the Yue Dynasty are hostile to each other
In 195 B.C., after the death of emperor Gaozu, empress Lu faced the court and began to fight against Zhao Tuo. In 181 BC, empress Lu issued a ban on the sale of iron and other articles in the border area with South Vietnam. The relationship between Zhao Tuo and the central government of the Han Dynasty under the rule of empress Lu was tense for a time, and the contradiction between the Han Dynasty and the South Vietnam was intensified. Empress Lu then sent General long Sihou and Zhou Zao to attack Zhao Tuo. However, because the soldiers in the Central Plains did not adapt to the hot and humid climate in Nanyue, they got sick one after another and even failed to cross Nanling. Zhao Tuo thought that empress Lu might annex him through the state of Changsha (another vassal state of Han Dynasty, located in the northern part of Nanyue, now in Hunan Province). Therefore, Zhao Tuo announced that he would leave the Han Dynasty, called himself "Nanyue Wudi", sent troops to attack the state of Changsha, and withdrew after defeating several counties on the border of Changsha.
In the eighth year of empress Lu (180 BC), empress Lu collapsed and the Han Dynasty ordered Zhou Zao to return. Zhao Tuo, by virtue of his success in fighting against the Han Dynasty, took advantage of the opportunity to exert economic influence on Minyue in the East, and strengthened control over the Western ou, Luoyue and other tribes in the West. Therefore, Zhao Tuo, the king of Nanyue, called himself "Nanyue Wudi". Zhao Tuo also began to give orders as an emperor, which was in opposition to the Han Dynasty.
A new minister to the Han Dynasty
In the first year of Emperor Wen of Han Dynasty (179 BC), after empress Lu died, Emperor Wen of Han Dynasty Liu Heng ascended the throne. He sent people to rebuild the cemetery of Zhao Tuo's ancestors, set up grave keepers to offer sacrifices on time every year, and rewarded Zhao Tuo's cousins with official Posts and property.
Then, on the recommendation of Prime Minister Chen Ping, Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty appointed Lu Jia, who had been sent to Nanyue for many times when Emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty, as the Taizhong official, and ordered him to go to Nanyue again
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