Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(Martin Van Buren, December 5, 1782 - July 24, 1862), the eighth vice president of the United States (1833 - 1837) and the eighth president (1837 - 1841). He was the first President born after the official signing of the declaration of American independence.
Born in Holland, he is the first Dutch American president. In 1821, Van Buren was elected to the U.S. Senate, and later served as the eleventh governor of New York state. During Andrew Jackson's first term as president, Van Buren entered the cabinet as secretary of state. Van Buren was nominated as Jackson's vice president (the eighth vice president of the United States) in 1832, and was nominated as a presidential candidate in 1835. In 1836, Van Buren defeated four opponents of the Whig Party (now the predecessor of the Republican Party) and was elected president. Four years later, the election failed. Later, he took part in the election twice, both of which were defeated, and then he withdrew from the political arena, affecting his hometown. On July 24, 1862, he died at his estate near kendhook.
1962 historian poll: Martin
Van Buren is 17th out of 31 presidents and 6th out of 12 "ordinary presidents.". He was above Monroe and below Taft.
Life of the characters
Van Buren family's ancestral home is bimarsen village in Holland's herdland province. Its earliest American immigrant is Cornelius Masson, Martin Van Buren's great grandfather. In 1631, he came to North America as a free contract slave. At the time of registration, he mistakenly wrote his hometown as Bren Marsen due to his negligence. Since then, Van Buren has been used as a family name. Van Buren's father, Abraham Van Buren (1737-1817), was a small planter and innkeeper with six slaves. Although Van Buren did not enter the political arena, he was very concerned about current affairs. During the first revolution, he took part in the anti British struggle and became a follower of the Democratic Republican Party after the founding of the people's Republic of China. Van Buren's mother, Maria HOS Van Allen Van Buren (1747-1818), was also born in the Netherlands. Abraham Van Buren was her second husband. On December 5, 1782, Martin Van Buren was born in the village of kindehuck, New York. Dutch is the first language in Van Buren's family, so Van Buren occasionally shows a Dutch accent when speaking English. Young Van Buren's family is not well-off, and he often lives in debt. After school, Van Buren often went to help his father carry goods or do chores. Because he was short, he was nicknamed "little pubao". In little Van Buren's eyes, his father's hotel is a colorful world, it is a place that adults often patronize. They drank, chatted and talked about politics here. At that time, some famous politicians often held political debates here. Here, little Van Buren was initially influenced by politics and fell in love with this profession. Although he did not intervene in the debate, he gradually became a staunch anti Federalist. Van Buren's earliest place of education was the village school in his hometown. The shabby school buildings and the bleak bell accompanied him through his childhood and adolescence. Later, he was a short-term student at kindhook college. At that time, lawyer was an enviable profession and a shortcut to wealth and official career. In order to change his fate as soon as possible, Van Buren began to study law at the age of 14, read a large number of legal and literary and historical works, and laid a solid professional foundation. In order to live on his own, he often went out to work during the whole period of his schooling. For fear of being looked down upon, Van Buren paid great attention to the tidiness and propriety of his clothes. This habit later became a tool for him to be ridiculed by his political opponents. Van Buren became a practicing lawyer at the age of 20. Van Buren's lawyer business mainly covers the region of kindehuck and its surrounding areas. Due to his profound knowledge, outstanding eloquence and proficient in lawyer business, his lawyer work is very successful. During this period, he began to enter the political arena and became a follower of Clinton Livingston, the leader of the local democratic republican party. He used to borrow money to support the election of the leader of the party. Van Buren married and married on February 21, 1807. The bride is Miss Hannah Hoth, also a Dutch descendant. She is pure and lovely, warm and sincere. She and Van Buren are primary school classmates. They fell in love with each other. After marriage, they lived in harmony and raised four children.
Early political experience
In 1808, Van Buren became a probate judge in Columbia County. His professional level is very high, his work attitude is serious, and he is fully qualified for this job. In 1812, Van Buren was elected to the New York State Senate by the Democratic Republicans and became a firm supporter and admirer of President Madison. He agreed with a series of measures taken by the government to develop the economy, actively safeguarding the interests of debtors, and advocated that the state should intervene in fraudulent activities in the banking industry. He made many speeches in parliament, strongly supporting the war against Britain in 1812, and later supporting the diplomatic action taken by the government to end the war. At this time, in the New York political arena, the competition between the two major factions of the democratic and Republican Party was very fierce. Van Buren became the Attorney General of the state with the support of the "RAM tail faction", but he lost power in the party competition three years later. He and a group of local politicians controlled the political machine in New York, trying to manipulate the local election politics. Around this time, his political image was artificially distorted. His political opponents attacked him for being cunning, fickle, tricky, and gave him some indecent nicknames, such as "little magician" and "King hook red fox". In 1821, Van Buren was elected to the Senate. Although his political opponents have poured a lot of sewage on him, and there are a lot of stories about his evasion and success in politics, his colleagues have noticed that he is not only quick minded and well managed, but also not a hypocrite. At this time, Van Buren still insisted on the basic idea of Jefferson doctrine: a thrifty government, whose power was strictly limited. Therefore, in the Senate, he soon became the successor and defender of Jefferson's democratic tradition. He reiterated Jefferson's democratic principles and ideals, opposed the political ideas of some people in the Democratic Republic and the Federalists, and opposed some measures taken by the government to undermine state power. He also lashed out at the Supreme Court for its review practice. in the 1824 general election, there were many candidates and the situation was complicated. Finally, people's attention focused on five people: John C. Calhoun, John Quincy Adams, William Harris Crawford, Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson. Van Buren was a supporter of Crawford, but the latter withdrew from the competition due to a stroke, and Adams Jr. stood out and was elected president, carrying out the "nationalism" policy. In Congress, Van Buren stirred up the banner of anti nationalism and criticized young Adams' domestic and foreign policies, which made it difficult for him to make a difference. However, Van Buren's political reputation rose all the way. After the election in 1828, Van Buren fully supported Andrew Jackson as the faithful successor of Jefferson doctrine. He spared no effort in lobbying around, enlisted all kinds of opposition forces of President Adams junior, and formed a strong campaign. In 1829, Van Buren took the post of governor of New York state. During that time, he issued a law to curb banking fraud and took corresponding safeguard measures. But Van Buren's main purpose as governor was to run Jackson. Through his efforts, Jackson won the election in New York State, paving the way for his election as president.
Secretary of state
After Jackson became president, he immediately appointed Van Buren as the 10th Secretary of state of the United States. In the diplomatic field, Van Buren has made some important achievements. Through negotiations with Britain, Britain opened up direct trade between the West Indies and the United States. Van Buren also sent people to negotiate with Turkey to conclude a bilateral treaty beneficial to the United States; he also negotiated with Mexico on the purchase of Texas. In terms of domestic affairs, Van Buren is President Jackson's right-hand man, helping Jackson solve many problems and crises. He supported Jackson in replacing a large number of officials appointed by former president Adams junior. During the incident, the relationship between President Van Buren and the cabinet members became closer. In order to win the president's trust, Van Buren, who is 50 years old, also learned to ride a horse to accompany Jackson when he walks his horse. In return, Jackson chose Van Buren as his successor. Vice President Calhoun is not only Jackson's running partner for president, but also his political successor, but his position is gradually replaced by Van Buren. Calhoun is not willing to suffer from this dumb loss, and he and his party members are also looking for revenge. After brewing behind the scenes, Van Buren resigned as secretary of state in 1831 and was sent to the United Kingdom to make Jackson adjust the cabinet comprehensively. Taking advantage of the political shock caused by the adjustment, Calhoun's followers vetoed Van Buren's appointment in the Senate. Calhoun triumphantly asserted: Van Buren is completely finished! But in fact, Calhoun's move made people's sympathy turn to Van Buren, thus creating conditions for his comeback. Very soon, Van Buren was nominated as vice presidential candidate and took up the post in 1833.
As vice president, Van Buren fully supports Jay
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