Li Shuhua, male, is a character of Runzhang. Born in Changli, Hebei Province, he is a physicist and educator. His main works are the characteristics and upbringing of scientists.
Around 1920, Li Shuhua was engaged in the research on the permeability of polarized membrane at the University of Paris, France, and obtained the doctor's degree of science of France. organic film in acid or alkali solution will polarize, that is, charges with different symbols are adsorbed on both sides of the film. At the beginning of this century and before, this phenomenon was often used to explain the process of hydrochloric acid (HCl) production by differentiated cells of gastric glands, that is, it was assumed that there were carbonic acid (H2CO3) and chlorides (such as NaCl) around gastric cells. However, this chemical reaction can never happen in a glass tube, because carbonic acid is the weakest acid that is not easy to decompose. Moreover, the popular interpretation method has not been proved by any physical and chemical methods. Under the guidance of Professor P. Girard, Li Shuhua carried out relevant research. He tried to build a physical model in a test tube to give a general description of the physical properties of living cells.
Li Shuhua made a series of experiments with the following experimental system. when a film (such as the film made of cattle, sheep, large intestine or pig bladder) is inserted between (a) and (b) of the system, the change value of its potential difference (between a and b) can be measured. He experimented with different concentrations of HCl, K2CO3, Na2SO4, HNO3, hi, HNO3 + BaCl2, BaCl2 + hi and other solutions or mixed solutions. The results fully confirmed the previous conclusion about film polarization, that is, only when the film is inserted into two kinds of solutions with different concentrations of acid or alkaline, the potential difference can change; and when the film is inserted into two kinds of completely neutral solutions with different concentrations, the potential difference can change The membrane does not change the potential difference. In these experiments, Li Shuhua found that the film polarization is transient. As soon as the membrane is placed between the two solutions, the polarization potential difference is very close to its maximum value, which is independent of the thickness of the membrane. This is different from the phenomenon of polarization. Another important discovery is that H + and oh - ions are really active in the process of adsorptive charging of film polarization.
Li Shuhua focused on the experimental study of the permeation of the polarized membrane, that is, the diffusion process of some electrolyte through the membrane in water. The experimental method is the same as above. Through experiments, he found the phenomenon of selective permeation of polarized membrane: in the electrolyte of salt, the cation is not easy to pass through the membrane, but its anion is completely opposite; in the various anions passing through the membrane, the crossing speed is also different, and the order of speed is Cl - > I - > no3-ccl3c2o -. Li Shuhua's theoretical explanation for this phenomenon is that it is caused by different ionic volumes. The smaller the volume is, the easier it is to pass through the holes in the film. If the salt containing Ba and Mg is added to the solution (such as HNO3), the amount of cation (H +) passing through the film will increase. When experimenting with the diffusion of a mixture of two electrolytes (such as BaCl2 and H2CO3) through the film, he found a phenomenon that could not be explained in the chemical reaction. In these two electrolytes, the anion (Cl -) passes through the film quickly, the cation (Ba2 +) and the anion (CO32 -) in the weak acid tend to balance gradually, and H - and Cl - appear in the medium. Because of these ions, a significant amount of HCl is formed. This is equivalent to the reaction process of forming strong acid from weak acid in chemical reaction. This phenomenon is completely similar to the previous example in which HCl is formed in the stomach. Li Shuhua's Experimental Study on the selective permeability of polarized membrane shows that the physical properties of inert membrane in vitro are similar to the separation process of cell wall in organic body to the medium wetting it. His experiment not only completed the test tube simulation of the physical characteristics of living cells, but also obtained laboratory evidence for the role of gastric gland cells in the formation of gastric acid, which is difficult to be successful in organic body. Therefore, Li Shuhua's research is of great significance to biophysics, biochemistry and understanding of related phenomena in organisms. in terms of academic research, in the early 1950s, Li Shuhua, who was over 60, also cooperated with M. badoche to explore some physical properties of macromolecules. In his later years, he also wrote papers or monographs on the compass of China, the origin and spread of Chinese paper, Chinese printing and so on, which played a certain role in spreading Chinese traditional science and culture.
From the early 1920s to the end of 1940s, Li Shuhua was engaged in the organization and management of science education and scientific research in China, which promoted the development of Chinese Science in the first half of the 20th century. In September 1922, Li Shuhua came to Peking University as a professor of physics. At that time, the head of physics department was Yan Renguang, and the professors were he Yujie, Xia Yuanzhen and Ding Xielin. Over the years, Li Shuhua has taught General Physics (including physical properties, thermology, thermodynamics and phonology), elementary mechanics and general physics experiments in grade one, General Physics (including optics and Electromagnetics) and general physics experiments in grade two, and modern physics in grade three and four (then called "radiology and X-ray", including ions, electrons, positive rays and x-rays) Light and radiology, etc.); preparatory physics, elementary physics experiments and specialized physics experiments of the fourth year undergraduate. In 1925 and 1926, Li Shuhua was elected as a member of the faculty Council. In November 1926, he was elected as the director of the Physics Faculty, which is today's director of the physics department. However, he still serves as the first grade general physics and general physics experiment, and the fourth grade specialized physics experiment course. A group of new professors (first Yan Renguang and Ding Xielin, then Li Shuhua, Wen Yuqing and Yang zhaofen) came to the Physics Department of Peking University, which greatly improved the curriculum standard of Peking University in the 1920s. In 1925 and 1926, the Beiyang government often defaulted on education funds and teachers' salaries, and professors were only paid five months a year. Therefore, the number of teachers leaving school and changing from others is increasing. This makes the school not only unable to carry out scientific research, and even maintain normal classes and experiments are very difficult. Li Shuhua suffered from this misfortune when he was the head of the Department. After the March 18th massacre in 1926, the acting president of the University of China and France, Li Shi, was falsely accused by Duan Qirui of "gathering the masses under the guise of communism and leading the mob to attack the State Council", and was ordered to be wanted. It was in this difficult time that Li Shuhua took the post of acting president of the University of China and France. He wrote papers or monographs on Chinese compass, the origin and spread of Chinese paper, and Chinese printing, which played a certain role in spreading Chinese traditional science and culture. In June 1928, Zhang zuolin withdrew from Beijing, and the central political conference of the Kuomintang decided to change Zhili Province into Hebei Province, and Beijing into Peking. In late June, Cai Yuanpei, President of the University, sent Gao Lu to take over the original national school in Beijing, and Li Shuhua was invited to be one of the recipients. In September, the national government meeting passed the "organization outline of Peking University District". The original nine national universities in Beijing and Tianjin National Beiyang University were merged into the National Peking University. Li Shi was the former president and Li Shuhua was the vice president. The Department of education of Hebei Province was abolished, and the education administration of Hebei Province was managed by Peking University. Before long, Li Shuhua was also acting president of Peking University. During the period of Beiping University District, although Li Shuhua was extremely busy, he still taught physics two hours a week in the Department of physics as usual. He did not leave Peking University until the university district system was abolished in the summer of 1929, when Li Shuhua participated in the work of Beiping Research Institute. At the same time as Peiping University, Peiping Research Institute was initially a research institution of Peiping University, which was composed by President Li Shizeng and vice president Li Shuhua of Peiping University. In July 1929, it was officially established as the local research institute, with Li Shi as the former president and Li Shuhua as the vice president. The Beiping Research Institute and the Academia Sinica were founded almost at the same time, which marked the establishment of modern Chinese science. Li Shuhua participated in the establishment of Beiping Research Institute, which played an extremely important role in the construction, organization and development of the Institute from its establishment to 1949. From 1929 to 1936, the Institute had a three-level structure, including 10 departments (such as the Department of natural calculation, the Department of physics and chemistry, the Department of publishing, and the overseas department), and 17 institutes (such as the Institute of physics, the Institute of chemistry, the Institute of biology, as well as museums, libraries, and publishing committees). After 1936, the hospital was a secondary structure. At first, Li Shuhua was in charge of the daily affairs of the whole hospital. He also served as director of the publishing department, director of the physical and chemical department, director of the Institute of physics, and director of the water conservancy research association of the physical and chemical department. In 1930, when Dr. Yan Keats returned to China and became director of the Institute of physics and radium, Li Shuhua's affairs at the Institute level were slightly relieved. Since 1936, the name of the director of each research institute has been changed to the director. In the 12 years before and after the July 7 Incident, Li Shuhua did a lot of organizational work for the evacuation and internal relocation of Peking Research Institute. In August 1938, he set up an office in Kunming and arranged for various research institutes to move to Kunming and other places. Due to the influence of the war, he stopped paying several menstrual expenses. Under extremely difficult conditions, he maintained the research work and daily affairs of the whole Academy. In the special environment and period of the whole Anti Japanese War, the existence and development of Beiping Research Institute was due to the hard work and organizational management ability of Li Shuhua and his colleagues
Chinese PinYin : Li Shu Hua
Mardan. Ma Dan
Yuan Weiren. Yuan Wei Ren
Chen Gang. Chen Gang
Cao Dayuan. Cao Da Yuan
Chen Wenrui. Chen Wen Rui
Gu Jingsheng. Gu Jing Sheng
Zeng Chunhua. Ceng Chun Hua