Lu Jia (about 240-170 BC), Han nationality, was born in Chu state in the early Han Dynasty. He was a thinker, statesman and diplomat in the Western Han Dynasty.
In his early years, Lu Jia followed Liu Bang and often sent envoys because of his eloquence. Liu Bang and Emperor Wen sent envoys to Nanyue twice to persuade Zhao Tuochen to serve the Han Dynasty and made great contributions to stabilizing the situation in the early Han Dynasty. After LV, Chen Ping and Zhou Bo were persuaded to punish Lv. His works include Xinyu, etc.
Lu Jia was the first thinker who advocated Confucianism in the Han Dynasty. Aiming at the specific needs of the times and politics in the early Han Dynasty, he put forward the idea of "benevolence and justice, law and sagehood" based on Confucianism and integrating the thoughts of Taoism and Legalism
"The combination of etiquette and law, governing by inaction" laid a basic model for the ruling thought in the early Western Han Dynasty.
(overview of the source of Lu Jia's portrait)
Lu Jia, a native of Chu state in the early Han Dynasty, followed Liu Bang as an aide in the battle between Chu and Han Dynasty. Because of his eloquence, he often sent envoys to lobby various princes, which won Liu Bang's recognition and was known as "eloquent debater".
In the third year of the second Qin Dynasty (207 BC), Zhao Gao killed the second Qin Dynasty and sent people to see Liu Bang to sign a treaty to divide up the central Shaanxi. Liu Bang thought it was a trick, so he sent Li Sheng and Lu Jia to lobby and seduce the Qin generals with private interests, and took the opportunity to break through the military barrier. In the fourth year of emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty (203 BC), Liu Bang sent Lu Jia to persuade Xiang Yu to release his captured father, empress Lu and others.
On Chen Nanyue
After Liu Bang pacified the Central Plains, Zhao Tuo (also known as Wei TA and Wei Tuo) became king in Nanyue. Because of the initial determination of the country, Liu Bang sent Lu Jia to Nanyue to persuade Zhao Tuo to return to the Han Dynasty. After Lu Jia arrived, Zhao Tuo was very impolite. Lu Jia then recounted Zhao Tuo's origin in the Central Plains and scolded him for forgetting his origin and not paying attention to etiquette. Then, combining with the history of the Chu Han dispute, he pointed out the great disparity between the strength of South Vietnam and Han Dynasty, and made Zhao Tuo change his face and apologize.
Zhao Tuo asked him who was better than Xiao He, Cao Shen and Han Xin. Lu Jia replied that Zhao Tuo seemed to be better. Zhao Tuo was very happy, and compared himself with Liu Bang. Lu Jia clearly replied that the king of Han Dynasty was far superior to Zhao Tuo. Zhao Tuo was very satisfied with Lu Jia's words. He was willing to abide by the Han Dynasty's restrictions, accept the title of Nanyue King, become a minister to Han Dynasty, and stay Lu Jia for a banquet for several months. When Lu Jia reported back to the court, Liu Bang was very satisfied and served as Taizhong doctor.
After the Han Dynasty conquered the world, Lu Jia often quoted Confucian classics such as the book of songs and Shangshu in front of Liu Bang. Liu Bang hated Confucian scholars, so he scolded, "I'll fight the world right away. What's the use of poetry and books!" Lu Jia retorted: "if you get the world at once, how can you govern it at once?" Later, citing history and taking the rise and fall of Shang, Zhou and Qin Dynasties as examples, Lu Jia explained to Liu Bang the importance of benevolence and justice.
Liu Bang felt ashamed after hearing this, so he ordered Lu Jia to write a book to discuss the reason why Qin Dynasty perished and Han Dynasty prospered and the world gained and lost. Lu jiasui wrote 12 articles, each of which was highly praised by Liu Bang, calling his book "Xinyu".
Go to seclusion
After Liu Bang's death, Emperor Hui was cowardly and empress Lu came to power. She wanted to make all the people surnamed Lu king, but worried that the ministers would not accept and argued for the right. In such a dangerous environment, Lu Jia knew that nothing could be done, so he resigned and settled down in Haowan.
Lu Jia sold off all the money he got when he was sent to Nanyue, and gave each of his five sons 200 gold, so that each of them could produce. Lu Jia himself rode in an expensive car, took ten dance attendants and a sword worth 100 gold, and took turns to live in the house of five sons. Each family lived for ten days, and he would get his belongings from which son he would die in the future. As Lu Jia often visits other places, each of them takes turns only two or three times a year, so he avoids the dilemma of being an old comer.
Cooperate to destroy LV
When empress Lu came to power, many of her relatives' surnames were granted the title of king, and they were in charge of the imperial power, intending to hijack the young emperor and usurp the Liu family. Chen Ping was very worried, but he was not able to do so, and he was afraid of harming himself. So he often lived in silence and thought about the countermeasures. Lu Jia went to greet him and went directly into the room without notice. Chen Ping was thinking about the problem and didn't see it. Lu Jia pointed out that Chen Ping was worried about the fact that zhulv usurped power and the young master was in danger. He said, "when the country is stable, we should pay attention to the prime minister; when the country is dangerous, we should pay attention to the general; when the general is harmonious, the people will submit to the imperial court." Therefore, it is suggested that Chen Ping make friends with Zhou Bo to protect the country.
Chen Ping adopted Lu Jia's plan and offered five hundred gold coins to celebrate Zhou Bo's birthday. Zhou Bo also reciprocated his efforts. Since then, he made friends with Lu Jia, and LV's plot has been frustrated again and again. In order to thank Lu Jia, Chen Ping gave him 100 slaves, 50 carriages and five million yuan in the name of "food expenses". Lu Jia used these properties to lobby among the ministers, which made him famous. In the process of killing Lu Shi and supporting Emperor Wen, he made a lot of efforts.
Re entering South Vietnam
After killing the Lu family, Emperor Wen ascended the throne and announced to the princes and the countries on the four sides of the border to spread Shengde. At that time, Zhao Tuo had taken the opportunity to call himself "Nanyue Wudi". So Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty sent people to repair the tomb of Zhao Tuo's ancestors in Zhending, added tomb keepers, offered sacrifices on time, treated Zhao Tuo's brothers who were still in the Central Plains well, and looked for people who could be sent to Nanyue. Chen Ping and others recommended Lu Jia, and Emperor Wen agreed.
Lu Jia was sent to Nanyue for the second time. After seeing Zhao Tuo, he announced the imperial edict of Emperor Wen (i.e. the letter to Zhao Tuo, the king of Nanyue). Zhao Tuo indicated that he was willing to give up the imperial title and remove the various rituals of transgression. He was a vassal forever and had the same status as a vassal. Lu Jia lived up to his mission and reported back to the court. Emperor Wen was very happy.
In 170 BC, Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty, Lu Jia died.
The idea of governing the country
To practice benevolence and justice and to be a sage
Lu Jia was the first thinker who advocated Confucianism in the Han Dynasty. His thoughts mainly integrated the thoughts of Taoism and Legalism, and finally came back to the Confucian concept of benevolence and justice. He made a new development of Confucianism, played an important role in the development and evolution of Confucianism in the early Western Han Dynasty, and became an indispensable link in the process of transformation from pre Qin Confucianism to Han Confucianism.
Confucianists strongly advocated that "people control the appearance of the world, advocate harmony, and follow the officials first". They emphasized that the monarch must set an example in the political and moral life of the country, and believed that the destiny of the country is closely related to the moral cultivation level of the monarch. Lu Jia inherited the moral theory of pre Qin Confucianism, and believed that the death of Qin Dynasty was due to the failure of benevolence and justice, full-time punishment, arrogance and extravagance, and the reuse of Zhao Gao's treacherous and sycophantic officials. Therefore, he believed that if the Han Dynasty wanted not to repeat the mistake of Qin's death, it must act against Qin's principles: "benevolence and justice with light punishment; closed door with morality and justice; weeding sycophants with sages" Three political principles of Confucianism.
At the same time, in order to make Confucianism more adapt to the needs of political rule in the early Han Dynasty, while adhering to the basic ideological trend of Confucianism, he has publicly absorbed reasonable ideological materials from Taoism, Yinyang school, Legalists and other schools to enrich the Confucian ideological system, opening the precedent of the reconstruction of Confucianism in the Han Dynasty.
Rule by doing nothing
Lu Jia's thought of "the way of doing nothing is greater than the way of doing nothing" comes from the Taoist School of Huang Lao. Lu Jia's inaction is not derived from the inaction of Tao, which is the root of the universe, but from the lessons of the sudden death of the Qin Dynasty, which is opposite to Qin Shihuang's abusing punishment. He transformed and blended Legalism and Confucianism with the principles of Taoism, which made Taoism's idea of "governing by doing nothing" closer to reality and more able to solve problems.
Lu Jia doesn't exclude promising. He thinks that if there is no man-made effort, society can't progress. Since all saints are promising, the gentleman should also be promising. Promising is not reckless, but must be based on the Tao. He holds that all the things that human resources can and must do should be done to the best of their ability.
In Lu Jia's thought, Wuwei and Youwei are organic unity, and they are both sides of the way of governance. Based on Wuwei, the highest realm of Wuwei is achieved. That is to say, the monarch should be active and active, and formulate a set of social order according to his self-cultivation, and then implement this set of political and social order in real life, making rites and music, and educating the world.
The combination of civil and military, the combination of morality and punishment
At the same time, Lu Jia also improved the law. He criticized Qin's "rule of law" too much, advocated "the combination of civil and military, the combination of morality and punishment", and reduced and abolished Qin's law. But he still insisted that the rule of law must rely on the rule of law, but the rule of law is no longer the foundation of the rule of law, but the end of the rule of law. Lu Jia further proposed to reduce taxes and corvee to benefit the people. We should rest with the people, do not interfere with the people, do not disturb the people, do not add taxes, so that "the country does not prosper, the family does not hide useless tools, and sparing efforts to save contributions.".
In the view of history, Lu Jia inherited Han Fei's view and divided the development of human society into three different historical periods: the first sage, the middle sage and the later sage. Lu Jia not only realized the progress of human material civilization, but also came into contact with the origin of state and law. Lu Jia's contingency theory, which was formed on the basis of inheriting and exerting legalist theory, expressed the desire of the landlord class to consolidate and develop the new system of feudal rule after seizing power in the early Han Dynasty.
The relationship between man and nature and the restriction of man
Lu Jia's theory of heaven and man originated from the Yin Yang school. On the one hand, Lu Jia inherited and developed the materialist views of Yi Zhuan and Xun Zi, but at the same time, he also absorbed some superstitious ideas of Yin Yang family, such as the interaction between heaven and man, and the disaster of Yin Yang. Although Lu Jia asked the monarch to rule by virtue from the perspective of the separation of heaven and man, in feudal society, the monarch was the highest authority in the world. The monarch could rule all the people, but no one could restrict the monarch. Therefore, he had to use this kind of heaven to warn and intimidate the monarch, to make him correct his loss due to the change of heaven, and to make him reasonable and correct his root, so as to play a role of exhortation and restriction The role of the king's misdeeds
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