Zhang Yinhuan (1837-1900), named qiaoye, was born in Nanhai County, Guangzhou Prefecture, Guangdong Province (now Foshan City), and was a minister in the late Qing Dynasty. It's hard to meet a young boy. In the third year of tongzhi (1864) of the Qing Dynasty, he was donated to the county magistrate of Shandong Province. He was highly respected by the governors Yan Jingming and Ding Baozhen, and led to Muzhong to take charge of official documents. He was quick and capable. In the seventh year of tongzhi (1868), he was recommended as a Taoist priest and went to Hubei Province. He worked in the general office of governor Li Hanzhang Muzhong for seven years. Tongzhi 13 years (1874) transferred back to Shandong, recommended as Deng, Lai, Qingdao member. After that, he served as Shandong salt transportation envoy, Wuhu Taoist official and Anhui inspection envoy.
Guangxu 11 years (1885) sent as Prime Minister yamen minister, reward three grade minister title. Soon after, he made up for Shaoqing of Taichang temple and released Zhili Daming Taoist. Xuandiao returned to Beijing and sent ministers to the United States, Japan and Peru. Guangxu 16 years (1890), re Prime Minister yamen minister. In 1892, he was promoted to the right Minister of the Ministry of household affairs, transferred to the left Minister of the Ministry of household affairs, and still served as the Ministry of rites. In February of 1897, he was sent to England to enjoy riding in the Forbidden City. The next year, it hosted the Railway General Mining Bureau. In November of the 20th year of Guangxu (1894), he was appointed Minister of plenipotentiary and sent to Japan. From then on, he was responsible for both foreign affairs and finance, and became one of the important ministers of the Qing Dynasty. During the reform movement of 1898, he had close contacts with Kang Youwei. After the failure of the reform, he was dismissed and exiled to Xinjiang. In the 26th year of Guangxu (1900), the Boxer Uprising was falsely accused of communicating with Russia and beheaded in the garrison. After the collegiate agreement was signed, there was a decree to Zhaoxue and Kaifu the original official.
Zhang Yinhuan refused the British proposal to set up Yantai during his term of office. During his term in Wuhu, he was able to rectify the customs affairs and make great progress in tariff. He was sent to the United States, Japan, and Peru. When he was in trouble, he held the national body, protected the overseas Chinese, and set up Jinshan school and hospital. During the Sino Japanese War of 1894-1895, he went to Japan to negotiate with Shao Youlian as Minister of plenipotentiary. Zhang Yinhuan was an important promoter behind the reform movement of 1898. He was Kang Youwei's sponsor and the "seventh gentleman" who sacrificed for the reform.
Zhang Yinhuan (1837-1900), named qiaoye, was born in Nanhai County, Guangzhou Prefecture, Guangdong Province. He was very talented and adventurous when he was young. The first time I took part in the county examination, I didn't pass the examination, so I stopped taking the examination. Instead, I immersed myself in foreign languages, studied foreign affairs, and found another way to be an official. At the age of 21, he donated money to buy the official title of county magistrate and became a secretary in charge of the governor's shogunate of Shandong Province. He was promoted to a Taoist priest and appointed as an inspector of Anhui Province with outstanding knowledge, great talent, meticulous mind, and precise administration.
In 1884 (the 10th year of the reign of Emperor Guangxu), Zhang Yinhuan was recognized by Empress Dowager Cixi, and was awarded the title of minister of three grades. He was ordered to enter the premier's national affairs yamen, and became an important official in Beijing. The next year, he was appointed as the Minister of special mission to the United States, Peru and Spain. He lived in Washington for three years, handled the murder of Chinese workers, obtained compensation, and made a comprehensive investigation of Western society. After returning to China, he was appointed as Minister of the prime minister's Yamen and Minister of the Ministry of household affairs. He was awarded the title of minister. From then on, he was responsible for both foreign affairs and finance, and became one of the important ministers of the Qing Dynasty. According to the Qing Dynasty system, Zhang Yinhuan, who was not from a professional background, and who did not establish special meritorious deeds like Zuo Zongtang, was very rare. This was mainly due to his ability. He is versatile and has his own poetry and prose. He is highly praised by celebrities at that time. He is good at painting and is known as a world-renowned talent.
In 1897 (the 23rd year), Zhang Yinhuan went to London on behalf of China to attend the celebration of Queen Victoria's 60th anniversary in office, and then went to France, Germany, Russia and the United States. He was able to introduce Kang Youwei, 20 years younger than him, to Weng Tonghe and recommend him to Emperor Guangxu. In 1898 (twenty-four years), when the political reform was discussed, Yin Huan and Kang Youwei "went back very closely.". The General Administration of mines and railways was set up in the capital.
Zhang Yinhuan went abroad many times to understand the principles of prosperity in Europe and America. Every time he came back, he told the emperor about it. The emperor felt that he had benefited a lot and often called him in. This was especially true on the eve of the reform movement. Only in March of 1898 (the 24th year of the reign of Emperor Guangxu, 1898), they were summoned seven times in a row. The conservative ministers impeached him, bewitched the emperor and demanded that he be severely punished and imprisoned. However, this did not shake Emperor Guangxu's determination to reform and his trust in Zhang Yinhuan. On June 11 (April 23), he resolutely issued an imperial edict announcing the reform and employing reformers.
During the 103 day reform period, Zhang Yinhuan did four major things: first, he contacted Emperor Guangxu with Kangliang reformers; second, he presided over the General Administration of railway and mining; third, he formulated new policy proposals; fourth, he led former Japanese Prime Minister ITO Bowen to meet Emperor Guangxu. For this reason, Cixi deeply hated it.
On September 21 (August 6), Cixi launched a coup, announced political training, arrested Zhang Yinhuan and prepared to be executed. Due to the intervention of foreign powers, Zhang Yinhuan was saved from death. On September 29 (August 14), the day after Tan Si's six gentlemen were killed, Cixi ordered Zhang Yinhuan to be "sent to Xinjiang and handed over to the governor for strict control" on empty and false charges such as "Zhang Yinhuan's cunning intentions, secretive whereabouts, aggressive and capricious". He was escorted on the road the next day.
On the eve of the armed invasion of the Eight Allied forces, Cixi declared war on the powers and sought peace. She poured out her resentment to the ministers who disagreed with the war. Before the execution of the five ministers, she first thought of Zhang Yinhuan, who had been dealing with the powers for a long time, and ordered him to be executed in the garrison. Zhang Yinhuan was killed on July 31, 1900 (July 16, Guangxu 26th year). He was 64 years old. He was another person who died for the reform after the Six Gentlemen, and also the only martyr in the imperial court who participated in the reform. The coffin was temporarily placed at the foot of the red mountain. In the spring of the next year, his son Long Zheng transported the coffin back to Foshan for burial. Under the note of the US and British envoys in China, Cixi rehabilitated Zhang Yinhuan and restored his official post.
When it comes to the reform movement of 1898 in modern Chinese history, people always talk about Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao and Tan Sitong, one of the Six Gentlemen, but often ignore Zhang Yinhuan. In fact, he is one of the important figures. For this reason, he was dismissed and exiled to Xinjiang and killed at the time of the 1898 coup. After the coup, Kang Youwei deliberately played down the close relationship between him and Zhang Yinhuan, publicized the emperor's teacher Weng Tonghe's recommendation of Kang Youwei, in order to win the world's support for his activities of emperor protection. As a result, people ignored the relationship between Zhang Yinhuan and the reform movement of 1898, and he disappeared quietly in his later years.
Exile in Xinjiang
As for Zhang Yinhuan's exile in Xinjiang, there are few official historical records in the late Qing Dynasty. We can only know a little from his collection of Hege in his poem notes of tiehualou. When he went out of Jiayuguan, he rented a four horse high axle cart with awning, which was available day and night. In Hami, he was warmly entertained by shamuhusute, the king of Hami, and tasted the famous specialty of Hami melon, which is "hoarding autumn flower". He has been an envoy of the Qing Dynasty for a long time, and has traveled all over Europe and the United States. He has seen a lot of knowledge, but he is full of praise for Hami melon: "Europe boasts a unique product, who can compare it with Hami?" and his poem "Hami visits zuowenggong Temple": "the incense of chongci is burning through the sky, and the gate of flowers is far away. The ice and snow polar sky once stayed in the festival, and the mountains and rivers went back as before. " He highly praised Zuo Zongtang's great contributions to the establishment of the Chinese nation by stationed in Hami, commanding the recovery of Xinjiang.
On April 1, 1899 (February 21, 1899), Zhang Yinhuan arrived in Dihua (today's Urumqi City), the capital of Xinjiang Province, and rented Zhifeng Yiyuan (formerly Hongshan Hotel, now in the area of new century building), facing Jianhu across the Urumqi River. Xu Shi missed the Emperor Guangxu who was imprisoned in Yingtai. He hoped that his exile would be better. He donated the Jianhu Pavilion in Jianhu in summer and autumn.
Next spring, he wrote a poem "spring equinox": "who is the guest in the Dushi wine flag, who is the key to the north gate. Yinshan snow to open the real face, when you see the peaks embracing a hundred cities In the poem, the style and features of Urumqi in the late Qing Dynasty are outlined simply by means of white line drawing. The key to the north gate not only refers to Urumqi as an important town in the north, but also refers to the garrison outside the north gate of Dihua city. Yinshan Mountain is Tianshan Mountain. People in Yuan Dynasty often called Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang Yinshan Mountain. In spring, with snow melting and clear sky, Urumqi under Bogda peak has a unique frontier scenery.
During the Qingming Festival, he went out of the north gate to sweep the tombs of the villagers in Guangdong and Guangxi, and wrote a poem: "when you are worried, you will feel the tears of the LongQian River, and when you go to the country, you will only have the peace of the country." When he was sad about his country, he could not help but burst into tears. He was in exile in the frontier, but he wished the peace of the country and the people.
Negotiation in Japan
In August 1894, after the Sino Japanese war broke out, the Qing army lost one after another by sea and land, and the towns in eastern and southern Liaoning fell into the enemy successively. The Qing government had to send envoys to Japan to beg for peace.
On January 5, 1895, Cixi sent Zhang Yinhuan and Shao Youlian as plenipotentiary ministers to "go to Japan to discuss the event. All the festivals that should be discussed should be recorded at any time in Japan, waiting for the order to be followed." Zhang Yinhuan left Beijing on the 6th and went to Shanghai on the 13th to meet with Shao Youlian. On the 16th, they set out from Shanghai, arrived in Nagasaki on the 29th, and arrived in Hiroshima on the 31st.
Before the Chinese diplomatic envoys went to Japan, Japanese Prime Minister ITO Bowen and Foreign Minister Lu aozongguang, according to the war situation at that time, thought that peace talks "nine times out of ten, no agreement can be reached" and decided to find an excuse on the issue of "full power" of Chinese representatives and sabotage the negotiations.
February - the plenipotentiaries of China and Japan held their first meeting in Hiroshima Prefecture hall. First, check each other's credentials. Although the certificate held by Zhang Menghuan and others clearly contained the word "full power", the Japanese representative insisted that the Chinese representative had "insufficient full power", refused to negotiate and asked for a written reply.
On February 2, Zhang Yinhuan and others first sent a written note to the representative of Japan. He pointed out: "the minister was granted by the great emperor of the country the full power to sign the pictorial pledge to conclude the terms of negotiation, so as to deal with all the terms in question quickly and answer the telegram of the country,
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