Zhao Zhongyao (June 27, 1902 - May 28, 1998), born in Zhuji, Zhejiang Province, is a physicist and a pioneer of nuclear physics research and accelerator construction in China.
He was admitted to Nanjing Normal University (the predecessor of Nanjing University) in 1920 (the ninth year of the Republic of China). In 1930 (the 19th year of the Republic of China), he received a doctor's degree from California Institute of technology. In 1948 (the 37th year of the Republic of China), he was elected as an academician of Academia Sinica. In 1949, he studied nuclear reaction at California Institute of technology. In June 1955, he was employed as an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Zhao Zhongyao is mainly engaged in the research of nuclear physics, especially the interaction between hard g-rays and matter. He presided over the construction of the first and second proton electrostatic accelerators in China and made important contributions to the establishment of nuclear physics experimental bases in China. Zhao Zhongyao discovered the existence of positron for the first time. He was the first scientist to discover antimatter in the history of human physics. The positive and negative electron annihilation radiation he observed was two years earlier than the positron track Anderson saw later. Zhao Zhongyao's research results not only provide a theoretical basis for the development of the electron positron collider, but also establish his position in the world physics.
On the afternoon of May 28, 1998, Zhao Zhongyao died of illness at the age of 96.
Life of the characters
Zhao Zhongyao was born on June 27, 1902 in Zhuji County, Zhejiang Province. In 1920, Zhao Zhongyao was admitted to Nanjing Normal University. In 1924 (the 13th year of the Republic of China), Zhao Zhongyao became a teaching assistant of National Southeast University after graduation. In 1925 (the 14th year of the Republic of China), Zhao Zhongyao graduated from Southeast University and became a teaching assistant of Tsinghua University. In 1927 (the 16th year of the Republic of China), Zhao Zhongyao went to California Institute of technology to study under the Nobel Prize winner Professor Millikan. At the end of 1929 (the 18th year of the Republic of China), Zhao Zhongyao found that the high-energy photon beam of hard gamma rays appeared "abnormal absorption" when passing through the heavy metal lead. In 1930 (the 19th year of the Republic of China), Zhao Zhongyao received his doctorate and went to work in the Institute of physics, harrow University, Germany. In September, Zhao Zhongyao discovered that "extra scattered radiation" coexisted with "abnormal absorption", and wrote a paper entitled "scattering of hard gamma rays", which was published in the American Journal of Physical Review. In the autumn of 1931 (the 20th year of the Republic of China), Zhao Zhongyao went to Cavendish Laboratory of Cambridge University to work with E. Rutherford. At the end of the same year, after returning to China, Zhao Zhongyao became a professor in the Department of physics of Tsinghua University. While teaching, he used Geiger counter to carry out research work on gamma ray, artificial radioactivity and neutron physics. His papers were published in physics guide of China and nature of Britain. Rutherford added a note before the paper "interaction between hard gamma rays and nuclei" written by Mr. Zhao Zhongyao: "this result provides another evidence for the production of" positive negative "electron pairs." In the same year, he opened the course of nuclear physics for the first time in China and presided over the establishment of China's first nuclear physics laboratory. In 1932, Anderson won the Nobel Prize for the discovery of positron track. It is recognized that Zhao Zhongyao was the first to observe the production and annihilation of electron positron pair. In 1937 (the 26th year of the Republic of China), the war of resistance against Japan broke out. Mr. Zhao Zhongyao left Peking and taught in Yunnan University, southwest United University and Central University. In 1946 (the 35th year of the Republic of China), Zhao Zhongyao was appointed by the government of the Republic of China to visit the American atomic bomb test in the bikini islands. After that, Zhao Zhongyao conducted research on nuclear physics and cosmic rays at MIT and Caltech. In March 1950, Zhao Zhongyao formally went through the formalities of returning to China. At the end of August, Zhao Zhongyao boarded the "President Wilson" from Los Angeles and left for China. However, under the investigation of the FBI, the ship passed Yokohama, Japan on September 12 and refused to visit the representative of the Taiwan authorities in Japan to work in Taiwan. In November 28th, Zhao Zhongyao returned to Chinese mainland. In January 1951, Professor Zhao Zhongyao arrived in Beijing. Guo Moruo, vice premier of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and director of the culture and Education Commission, presided over a welcome banquet attended by dozens of scientists including Li Siguang, Zhu Kezhen, Wu Youxun and Qian Sanqiang. In 1958, Zhao Zhongyao was responsible for the establishment of the Department of modern physics of University of science and technology of China and served as the director of the Department. In 1972, Zhao Zhongyao participated in the preparatory work for the establishment of the Institute of high energy physics, and made many specific suggestions to the relevant departments for the development of Science in China. In 1973, the Institute of high energy physics was established and Zhao Zhongyao resumed his work. He served as deputy director and was in charge of the Department of experimental physics. In 1979, Mr. Zhao Zhongyao, on behalf of the Chinese scientific community, went to Germany to attend the Physics Conference and pay a visit. In October 1995, the He Liang He Li Foundation Committee awarded Zhao Zhongyao a prize of HK $100000. Zhao Zhongyao donated all of it to the Department of mathematical physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences as a science foundation to reward the successful young people. At 15:55 p.m. on May 28, 1998, Zhao Zhongyao died of illness at the age of 96.
Achievements in scientific research
In 1929, Zhao Zhongyao and several British and German physicists independently discovered that when hard gamma rays pass through heavy elements, there is abnormal absorption besides Compton scattering and photoelectric effect. In order to further study the mechanism of anomalous absorption, Zhao Zhongyao carried out the study of hard gamma ray scattering, and first observed that hard gamma rays can also cause a special radiation in lead. These results have been published in "absorption coefficient of hard gamma ray" and "scattering of hard gamma ray". Zhao Zhongyao's work is the pioneer of positron discovery. Two years later, after his classmate c.d.anderson discovered the positron, people realized that the "abnormal absorption" he discovered was actually the effect of electron pair produced by g-line in matter; and the "special radiation" he discovered was actually the first observation of annihilation radiation of positive and negative electron pairs. After returning to China, Zhao Zhongyao participated in the establishment of the Institute of modern physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Using the components and experimental equipment of the electrostatic accelerator that he brought back when he returned to China, he built China's earliest 700000v and 200000v high-pressure proton electrostatic accelerators in 1955 and 1958, which provided scientific basis for the research of nuclear physics, accelerator and vacuum technology, and ion source technology in China Based on the electrostatic accelerator, he also presided over the establishment of a nuclear physics laboratory and led and participated in the research of nuclear reactions. In 1945, Zhao Zhongyao went to California Institute of technology and Massachusetts Institute of technology for research on nuclear physics and cosmic rays. Zhao Zhongyao carried out research on "mixed cosmic ray shower" in the cosmic Laboratory of the Department of physics of Massachusetts Institute of technology, and wrote many papers, such as "mixed cosmic ray shower" published in the "Physics Review" of the United States. In the spring of 1946, Zhao Zhongyao returned to the California Institute of technology and participated in the nuclear physics research jointly supported by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the Navy Department at the nuclear physics laboratory. His research paper is "the study of low-energy alpha particles produced when protons bombard F19.". At that time, this was the frontier topic of the world's nuclear reaction research, and Mr. Zhao Zhongyao was well known in the scientific community of the United States. In the 1930s, Zhao Zhongyao first found that when hard g-rays pass through heavy elements, there is abnormal absorption and a special radiation. Zhao Zhongyao's work is the pioneer of positron discovery.
In 1931, after returning to China, Zhao Zhongyao became a professor of physics at Tsinghua University. Zhao Zhongyao opened China's first nuclear physics course and presided over the establishment of China's first nuclear physics laboratory. Zhao Zhongyao, together with his teacher ye Qisun, also cultivated a group of talents who later made important contributions to China's atomic energy cause: Wang Ganchang, Peng Huanwu, Qian Sanqiang, Deng Jiaxian, Zhu Guangya, Zhou Guangzhao, Cheng Kaijia, Tang Xiaowei. Nobel laureates Yang Zhenning and Li Zhengdao were also employed by Zhao Zhongyao.
In 1995, he won the He Liang He Li science and technology progress award. In 1955, he was selected as a member (academician) of the academic department of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Zhao Zhongyao was a researcher and deputy director of Institute of high energy physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, deputy director of Institute of atomic energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, professor and director of Department of physics, University of science and technology of China, and honorary president of China Nuclear Society. He has successively served as deputy director of Institute of physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. 4、 Member of the Standing Committee of the fifth and Sixth National People's Congress.
Zhao Zhongyao is a real Nobel Prize winner in the hearts of physicists all over the world! (comments by ex director of the Nobel Prize Committee in Physics) Mr. Zhao should have been the first Chinese to win the Nobel Prize in physics, but his glory was buried by other people's mistakes at that time. " "We remember Mr. Zhao's outstanding contribution to the development of quantum mechanics in modern physics and the cause of science and technology education in New China, as well as his honest, devoted to science, devoted to research, simple and practical scientific spirit all his life." (Nobel laureate Li Zhengdao comments) if it were not for Professor Zhao's great contribution to the discovery of positron and positron annihilation in the 1930s, he was the first discoverer of the process of positron and positron production and annihilation. Without his discovery, there would be no present Positron Collider, nor today's physical research.
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