Xu shoushang (1883-february 18, 1948), a famous scholar and biographer in modern China, was born in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province.
In his early years, he studied in Shaojun Zhongxi school and Hangzhou Qiushi Academy. In 1902, he was sent to Japan to study Japanese at Zhejiang government expense. He went to Tokyo Hongwen college to study Japanese. He met Lu Xun and Li suizhi and became lifelong friends. In 1937, he and Zhou Zuoren jointly compiled Lu Xun's Almanac. He has been a professor of Peking University, Beijing Normal University, Chengdu West China University and northwest Associated University. In 1946, at the invitation of Chen Yi, Taiwan's chief executive, he presided over the Taiwan Provincial Library of translation and translation. Soon after it was abolished, it was incorporated into the jurisdiction of the Department of education and transferred to Taiwan University to teach. He often criticized the Kuomintang's fascist education reform. He was assassinated in the dormitory of National Taiwan University on February 18, 1948.
Life of the characters
Xu shoushang once studied in Shaojun Zhongxi school and Hangzhou Qiushi Academy. In 1902, he met Lu Xun and went to Suiqing university to study. He once wrote "Zhejiang tide" and later transferred to Tokyo Normal University. In 1908, he joined the revolutionary group recovery association with Lu Xun. In April of the next year, he returned to China and became the dean of Zhejiang two-level normal schools.
After the revolution of 1911, he served as secretary of the military and Political Department of Zhejiang Province. After the establishment of the Nanjing Provisional Government, at the invitation of Cai Yuanpei, the general Minister of education, he served as the minister, section chief, counselor of the Ministry of education, director of the general education department, and professor of Peking University and Beijing Normal University.
Since the winter of 1917, he has been director of Jiangxi Provincial Department of education, editor of the Ministry of education and President of Beijing Women's normal university.
In 1925, the "women's normal university wave" broke out in Beijing, supporting Lu Xun and progressive teachers and students in their just struggle. Wanted by Duan Qirui's government, he left school angrily and became a professor in the Chinese Department of Sun Yat sen University. Soon after, at the invitation of Cai Yuanpei, he went to Nanjing to serve as counselor and secretary-general of the University (later Academia Sinica), and later as director of the clerical Office of Academia Sinica. In 1934, he went north and became the dean of the College of Arts and Sciences of Peking University. After the outbreak of the Anti Japanese War, he served as director of the Department of history, Dean of business school, Professor of Chinese culture department and professor of West China University.
In the summer of 1946, at the invitation of Chen Yi, a student studying in Japan, a fellow countryman and the chief executive of Taiwan Province, he served as the director of the Taiwan Provincial translation and translation Museum. After being dismissed, Chen Yi became a professor and head of the Department of Chinese at Taiwan University. On February 18, 1948, he was killed by gangsters at his residence in Taipei.
Wang Yifu, President of the all China Taiwan Federation, believes that Xu shoushang has made two major contributions. On the one hand, as members of the pronunciation Unification Association at that time, he and Lu Xun established the principles of using phonetic symbols and established the rules of Taiwan Mandarin Movement. Many Taiwan compatriots learned and mastered Mandarin by phonetic symbols. On the other hand, Mr. Xu personally wrote the book how to learn Mandarin and Chinese, and pushed the right direction from "Taiwan language recovery" to "learning Mandarin" in the Mandarin Movement, which made an important contribution to the Mandarin Movement in the early days of Taiwan's recovery.
Biography of Zhang Binglin (the earliest critical biography of Zhang Taiyan in China), chronicle of Lu Xun, impression of Lu Xun, Lu Xun I know, biography of Yu Yue, Chinese philology, textual research on Li yueman's autumn dream, biography research, how to learn Mandarin and language, and introduction to examination system, etc.
Xu shoushang was mainly engaged in education all his life. After the revolution of 1911, entrusted by Cai Yuanpei, the director general of education, he drafted the education purpose of the Republic of China and the new education opinions, which were promulgated by the Ministry. During his tenure in the Ministry of education and Jiangxi Provincial Department of education, he did a lot of hard work for the development of general education and social education. Since then, he has taught in Peking University, Beijing Normal University, women's Normal University, women's College of Arts and Sciences of Peking University, Sun Yat sen University, northwest temporary University, School of law and business of northwest United University, West China University, Normal College of Sun Yat sen University, Hua Da Wen College of Guangyi society, Taiwan University, focusing on education, psychology, philology, western history, famous works of Chinese history, University Chinese, memorial literature Many courses, such as the history of Chinese novels, are devoted to cultivating talents. The students compared him to a lighthouse of progress and freedom, so that ships sailing on the sea at night could be guided and not be engulfed by the wind and waves. When Cai Yuanpei imitated the French educational system to build the University and served as the president of the University, Xu shoushang successively served as the Secretary, counselor and Secretary General of the University, and was Cai Yuanpei's main assistant.
Xu shoushang is pure and virtuous, knowledgeable, knowledgeable in classics and history, good at poetry and prose, and has a high reputation in the education field. He is proficient in Japanese, English and German. He has absorbed the nourishment of Western progressive culture, and even his life style is quite Europeanized. His calligraphy is unique in the field of calligraphy. His achievements in literary and artistic creation are few, but he has special attainments in the field of academic research. His early classical Chinese paper "the history of the spirit of rejuvenating the country" cited the historical facts of the rejuvenation of the motherland in European countries, in order to prove the role of spiritual power in the historical process, and accordingly put forward the urgent task of transforming the national spirit. This paper was serially published in two issues of Henan magazine published in Japan in 1908. It is quite consistent with Lu Xun's classical Chinese papers, such as the theory of Cultural Deviation and the theory of Moro's poetic power, in terms of argument, argument method and even the choice of words. His academic papers, such as "the new preface of Dunhuang secret book Liuzhen" and "Li Ciming's" autumn dream "Yuefu skill test", are well quoted, well argued and highly academic.
Among Xu shoushang's academic achievements, the most valuable one is biographical literature research and writing. He believes that successful biographical literature can produce artistic effect of seeing and hearing people, help readers understand the interaction of times and characters, and cultivate readers' personality. In May 1945, his book Zhang Binglin was published by Chongqing Shengli publishing house, which comprehensively reviewed Mr. Taiyan's life and academic achievements. It can be called the earliest biography of Zhang Taiyan. His two memoirs, impression of a dead friend Lu Xun and Lu Xun I know, have a long time span, full and accurate content, wide range, deep feelings and honest writing style. They are second to none in the same type of works of Lu Xun's contemporaries and are the introductory books for Lu Xun's researchers and lovers. His analysis of Lu Xun's lonely state of mind: "after 30 years of fighting, he still can't wake up his heavy dream and sweep away the filthy pit that has been silted up for thousands of years. The so-called "right" is not reliable, the self styled "left" is not reliable, and the young people are not reliable. ") has also been deleted.
On June 25, 1946, at the invitation of Chen Yizhi, the chief executive of Taiwan Province, Xu shoushang flew from Shanghai to Taipei alone to set up the provincial compilation hall. Taiwan has been a Japanese colony for half a century since it was ceded to Japan in 1895. In the past 50 years, Japanese imperialism has been carrying out the "imperial movement" in Taiwan, trying to completely cut off the national consciousness of Taiwan compatriots. For example, Tanshui public school has opened a total of 13 courses. The key subjects are "Dufang" (learning to read Japanese Books), "Zhufang" (Japanese composition class), "Shufang" (Japanese writing class), "Huafang" (Japanese conversation class), "calendar" (Japanese History), "geography" (Japanese Geography), "self-cultivation" (making Taiwan compatriots voluntarily submit to the enslavement education of the Japanese emperor), but only one course takes up the majority“ The "Chinese language" course was not included in the entrance examination. As a result of the long-term implementation of this kind of education, most of the 6 million Taiwan compatriots at that time were not good enough to read ordinary Chinese books. Therefore, Xu shoushang's primary task is to promote Chinese culture and eliminate the legacy of Japanese colonial culture. He set two goals for the Library: one is to popularize the knowledge of Mandarin, Chinese language and Chinese history and geography; the other is to carry forward the advantages of Taiwan culture in order to create a new situation in Chinese academic research.
To this end, the library has set up a school textbook group, a social reading group, a masterpiece compilation group, and a Taiwan research group. In compiling textbooks for central primary schools, Xu shoushang stressed the need to have the concept of evolution, the spirit of mutual assistance, the public position, the propaganda of the concept of democracy and patriotism, and the opposition to retrogression. He asked that the work of compiling teaching materials should be synchronized with the work of compiling teaching reference books. The main purpose of the social reading group is to educate the people, such as popularizing legal knowledge and improving family education Xu shoushang specially stressed the need to write a general history of China in line with the new trend of the new era and to compile a popular and interesting Chinese geography book, so that readers can understand the historical traces of the Chinese nation and spontaneously have the concept of loving the country and the nation. In addition to translating and introducing world famous works of philosophy, literature and art, Xu shoushang also emphasized the translation and introduction of books promoting democracy and science, such as biography of Lincoln, biography of Roosevelt and introduction to science. Xu shoushang, like Lu Xun, emphasized the courage and courage of the Jin and Tang people in translating Buddhist classics. After Xu shoushang broke paintings with great intention, in less than a year, the compilation hall has translated Jixin's four seasons essays, the translation of the poems of gomer by Bohr, the bird and beast by hadson of England, and my school life by yakshakov, Russia.
The Taiwan Research Group focuses on the construction of local culture. Xu shoushang's initial plan is to first complete the compilation of Taiwan Literature catalogue and prepare materials for Taiwan studies. Among the rare books published in Taiwan, Xu shoushang thinks that they should be printed first, such as the little Ryukyu chronicle collected by NTU, the general chronicle of Taiwan collected by provincial library, and the envoy's leisure collection collected by Yang's Xi Jingzhai. In order to open up a new way to study Taiwan culture
Chinese PinYin : Xu Shou Shang
Zhang Li. Zhang Li
Chen Yanyan. Chen Yan Yan
Shihu. Shi Hu
Xue Jianing. Xue Jia Ning
Lu Jiayi. Lu Jia Yi
Gao Lian. Gao Lian
Peng Liyao. Peng Li Yao
Huang Shuyu. Huang Shu Jing
Guo Rugui. Guo Ru Gui