Jia Sidao (November 14, 1213 - November 2, 1275) was born in Tiantai County, Taizhou (now wanglixi village, Pingqiao Town, Tiantai County, Zhejiang Province). He was a prime minister in the late Southern Song Dynasty.
In the first year of Duanping (1234), he took his father Yin as the order of Sikang and Jitian in Jiaxing. In the second year of Jiaxi's reign (1238), he became a Jinshi and relied on his elder sister to be his imperial concubine. He was highly valued by Emperor LiZong of Song Dynasty. His official position has been flourishing all the way. He has successively served as a Bachelor of Baozhang Pavilion, a deputy envoy along the Yangtze River, a magistrate of Jiangzhou, a magistrate of Jiangling, and a pacifying envoy of Jinghu. In the second year of Baoyou (1254), Jia Sidao began to enter the core of the Southern Song Dynasty. He was granted the title of "Tongzhi Privy Council Affairs" and "Linhai County founder". Later he was promoted to "Shenzhi political affairs" and "zhiprivy Council Affairs".
In the first year of Deyou (1275), Jia Sidao led 130000 elite troops to fight against the yuan army in dingjiazhou (now in the northeast of Tongling, Anhui Province). After a great defeat, he fled to Yangzhou in a single boat. The officials asked to kill Jia Sidao, so Jia Sidao was demoted to Gaozhou regiment training Deputy envoy, along the state resettlement. He went to Mumian nunnery in Zhangzhou, where he was killed by Zheng Huchen, a county captain of Kuaiji County, an envoy in custody. He was 63 years old.
(overview chart source:)
Life of the characters
First official career
Jia Sidao was born in Tiantai County, Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province on November 14, 1213.
In the second year of Duanping (1235), Jia Sidao became an official in Jiaxing.
In the second year of Jiaxi (1238), Jia Sidao ascended to the first rank of Jinshi. At that time, his sister Jia had already been the imperial concubine of song LiZong (i.e. imperial concubine Jia), so she was promoted to taichangcheng and military supervisor. But at this time, Jia Sidao did not change his dandy spirit. He relied on himself as an official and favored, and his manners were not refined. He often went to prostitutes during the day and spent the night in the lake. Once, LiZong ascended the mountain and looked far away. When he saw the lights on the West Lake, he asked his entourage. The attendant opened his mouth and said, "this must be Jia Sidao there." LiZong went to check the next day, and it was so. So LiZong asked shiyanzhi (Shi Song's younger brother) of Jingyin to warn Jia Sidao. As a result, Shi Yanzhi said to LiZong, "although Jia Sidao has the romantic habit of a young man, his talent can be greatly used." So LiZong sent Jia Sidao to Lizhou for training.
In the first year of Chunyou (1241), Jia Sidao became the commander of Huguang and began to take charge of the military affairs of Huguang.
In 1243, Jia Sidao was appointed Minister of the Ministry of household.
In the fifth year of Chunyou (1245), Jia Sidao served as the Deputy envoy of the system along the Yangtze River as the direct Bachelor of Baozhang Pavilion, knowing Jiangzhou and pacifying envoy of Jiangnan West Road.
In the sixth year of Chunyou (1246), Jia Sidao moved to Jinghu again to set up an envoy and know Jiangling mansion. Jia Sidao could grasp the rewards and punishments flexibly.
In 1249, Jia Sidao was promoted to be a Bachelor of baowenge and an ambassador of Jinghu pacification system.
In the 10th year of Chunyou (1250), Jia Sidao guarded the Huaihe River with a Bachelor of Duanming palace.
In the second year of Baoyou's reign (1254), Jia sidaojia became more and more powerful.
In 1256, Jia Sidao served as a political adviser.
In 1257, Jia Sidao knew more about the Privy Council.
In the sixth year of Baoyou (1258), Jia Sidao was appointed ambassador Xuanfu.
Fight against Mongolia
On September 28, the first year of Kaiqing (1259), Emperor LiZong of Song Dynasty ordered Jia Sidao to control Jiangxi and Guangdong troops, to help Ezhou and command the battle of Ezhou as a whole. He worshipped Jia Sidao as the right prime minister and granted him the title of Duke of Mao. Later, Jia Sidao led the troops to rescue Ezhou. On the first day of November, LV Wende arrived in Ezhou. On that day, LiZong issued an imperial edict to make Jia Sidao break through to Huangzhou and command the battle as a whole. Accompanied by sun Hucheng, Zhang Shijie, and fan Wenhu, Jia Sidao successfully broke through to Huangzhou, which greatly boosted the morale of the song army. During the siege period, Kublai Khan ordered Zhang Rou to build a goose cart and dig a hole into the city. In order to defend the Mongolian army from digging holes, Jia Sidao made people besiege the city with wooden bars to resist the Mongolian army. Later, when Mongolian Khan mengge was defeated in the first World War of fishing City, Jia Sidao saw the opportunity and sent song Jing to negotiate peace with Kublai Khan. In November of the same year, the Mongolian army retreated, and Jia Sidao even received a successful report: "with the great victory of all roads, the encirclement of Ezhou began to unravel, and the yuan army of Jianghan was eliminated. It is a boundless blessing for the imperial court to turn the corner. "
Li Zong of Song Dynasty gave Jia Sidao the Duke of Wei and Shaoshi, praised him more, and made the civil and military officials of the court welcome Jia Sidao's "triumphant return", thus Jia Sidao embarked on the road of dictatorship.
Jia Sidao and his party's Fu Hua Bian are used to "praise" his "heroic deeds" in the anti Mongolian army.
The good deeds of Kota
In 1261, Jia Sidao advocated strong measures to prevent the rich from hoarding grain, and then advocated the public land law. At that time, the concentration of land in the hands of big landlords was a serious problem, because these landlords were usually big officials. At that time, the government made up for this problem with the plan of "he buy", which required landlords to sell rice to the state voluntarily. However, when the government bought more rice, it had to issue more paper money, causing inflation. Therefore, Jia Sidao proposed to abolish and buy, reduce the circulation of banknotes to stabilize prices, and then limit the number of real estate owned by the owner. The land beyond the limit should be purchased by the state and turned into public land, and then the income of public land should be used to pay for military supplies. The plan was strongly opposed by the big landlord class, but Jia Sidao tried his best to carry out it, so that the public land law was implemented until he went out of power, from the fourth year of JINGDING (1263) to the first year of Deyou (1275), a total of 12 years.
In April of the first year of Xianchun (1265), Jia Sidao was worshipped as a grand master and granted the title of Duke of Wei. He was called "Duke of Zhou" by the emperor.
In February of the second year of Xianchun (1266), Jia Sidao served as an important official of the Pingzhang army.
In 1268, in order to test his position in the court, Jia Sidao told duzong that he was old and needed to return to his hometown to accept the blessing of heaven and earth. In order not to lose the military genius, duzong ordered that Jia Sidao could go to court only once in six days, and he didn't need to salute like a hundred officials. Later, he went to court once in ten days, and Jia Sidao had proved that he was in the court The position in the court is almost similar to that of the emperor. Another view is that not having to go to the early Dynasty is the "phenomenon of prime ministers" in the Southern Song Dynasty, which is the courtesy of every prime minister. In September, the Mongolian army built a large-scale city outside Xiangyang and besieged Xiangyang. Xiangyang garrison general LV Wenhuan was in an emergency and Jia Sidao ignored him.
In 1269, Jia Sidao resigned and returned to his hometown.
In April of 1271, Jia Sidao became an official again. Fan Wenhu, the deputy commander of the hall, led the army to escort grain and grass to Xiangyang. He was defeated by the Mongolian army at tuantan. In June, he ordered fan Wenhu to lead more than 1000 warships, and 100000 people from the imperial guards and the Lianghuai water army to come to Xiangyang and enter the area of lumen mountain, where they were defeated by the Mongolian army. After that, Xia GUI sent a boatman to escort Li mi Qiangshi to Xiangyang and was defeated. Later, huyande was sent to help Xiangyang with firewood, cloth and silk. In July, Xingguo led 100 warships and tens of thousands of army troops to attack baizhangshan camp, which was defeated by the Mongolian army.
In 1272, sun Huchen and Gao Shijie, the vice envoys of Yanjiang Zhizhi and Hubei pacification, were sent to escort clothes, grain and grass into Xiangyang, but they were defeated when they retreated. In May, Yuan soldiers surrounded Xiang and fan for a long time, but they were unable to enter the border. They ordered the generals of Jing and Xiang to move to Xinying. Zhang Shun and Zhang Gui led three thousand militia to enter Xiangyang by boat in the middle of the night. When they retreated, they were defeated and Zhang Shun died for his country.
In 1271, he was defeated by the army of Jia Shixian. The front line of Xiangfan and other defense lines at the same time were attacked by the Mongolian army, except Xiangfan. In this situation, there was no commander in charge of the frontier forces. Therefore, in November 1272, the collapse of Xiangyang was imminent. Li Tingzhi, the commander in chief of the Jinghu system, sent a letter to Jia Sidao, urging him to go to the front line to direct the battle.
However, Jia Sidao still decided that the main strategic direction of the Mongolian army was not Xiangyang at this time. He made mistakes in his judgment of the strategic direction of the Mongolian army and failed to go to the front line in time to command various armies. Xiangfan fell one after another in 1273.
Ding Jiazhou war
In 1274, song duzong died, and the yuan army captured Ezhou. Under the pressure of public opinion, Jia Sidao led the army, led 130000 troops and 2500 warships, with sun Huchen as the vanguard and Xia GUI as the commander of the Navy, and stationed in dingjiazhou.
In the first year of Deyou (1275), because sun Huchen and Xia GUI were defeated one after another, Jia Sidao was in a panic. Without resistance, he fled with several subordinates by boat (the battle of dingjiazhou). In the Southern Song Dynasty, the army was defeated, and countless soldiers were killed and wounded. There was a great uproar of public opinion in the world, and the soldiers of the Yuan Dynasty came close to Lin'an. The government and the public were terrified and demanded to kill them to thank the world. Under strong pressure, Empress Dowager Xie was forced to remove him from his post, but this could not calm the public anger. Both inside and outside the court insisted on the execution of Jia Sidao. The Empress Dowager had no choice but to demote him to the remote area of Guangdong. Jia Rudao was killed by Zheng Huchen, the county captain of Kuaiji County, the detaining envoy, when he arrived at the Mumian nunnery in Zhangzhou. Yu Dayou, a famous Anti Japanese general of the Ming Dynasty, went down the stone tablet in the stone pavilion in front of the kapok nunnery, and wrote a personal letter "the Huchen of song and Zheng killed Jia Sidao here".
In order to collect money, Jia Sidao increased tax exploitation in the name of pushing and arranging rules in the economic circles. In fact, he was a kind of dancing for personal gain by the gentry and officials
Chinese PinYin : Jia Si Dao
Zhang Ziyi. Zhang Zi Yi
Wang Ye. Wang Ye
Wu Gan. Wu Gan
Jing Gangshan. Jing Gang Shan
Cao Zijian. Cao Zi Jian
He Zhonghan. He Zhong Han
Qian Qin. Qian Qin
Niuyutian. Niu Yu Tian
Zhang Pu. Zhang Pu