Augusto Cesar Sandino (1893-1934) is the leader of Nicaraguan anti American guerrillas. In 1920, he fled to Honduras in Central America, to Guatemala and to Mexico in northern Latin America. He returned to China in 1926 and led the Nicaraguan people to revolt against the American occupation forces in 1927. On June 25, 1929, he went to Mexico again and got some military material assistance from the Mexican government. Although he was described as a bandit by the U.S. government at that time, his resolute and tenacious will to resist made him one of the symbolic heroes of Latin American countries against the control of the United States. The guerrilla war led by him eventually forced the United States to withdraw from Nicaraguan, but he was assassinated by Anastasio Somoza Garcia, the head of the National Guard, who was plotting to seize dictatorship.
Sandino was born on May 19, 1893, in a small family of coffee growers and businessmen in Nicaraguan. His father was a manor owner, and his mother was a maid of Indian descent. Sandino's childhood coincided with the transformation of American Latin American policy from "Monroe Doctrine" to "carrot and stick policy". Many Latin American countries, including Nicaragua, became the "backyard" of the United States. Sandino's father is a patriot, influenced by him, Sandino has been very disgusted with the United States since childhood.
After graduating from primary school, Sandino went into business with his father. In 1912, the U.S. army invaded Nicaraguan, Sandino's father was arrested and jailed for participating in the anti American struggle. Nicaraguan became the United States protectorate in 1914. According to the treaty, the United States obtained the right to supervise Nicaraguan affairs and obtained a large area of permanent leased land for the United States to dig canals and build naval bases. The US Army has been stationed in Nicaraguan for many years.
Sandino often worked in the manor when he was a teenager. He knew the hardship of life and the pain of labors. He also witnessed the American invasion of Nicaraguan violence and the tragedy of the motherland being ravaged by bandits, laying the seeds of revenge against the aggressors. Later, Sandino wandered in China and the United States, sometimes working as a miner in a mine, sometimes picking fruits and vegetables in a manor, sometimes working as a typesetter, machinist, and storekeeper in a printing factory. He was half hungry and half full. Sandino's long-term wandering life has accumulated his insight and cultivated his alertness, calmness and foresight. During the Mexican Revolution, when the people began to fight against the United States for the recovery of oil exploitation rights, Sandino was in Mexico. He took part in the Mexican people's struggle against the United States, further accumulated experience in the struggle, and strengthened his belief and determination to drive away the aggressors from his motherland.
In 1926, in order to oppose the pro american dictatorship of Adolf DIAS supported by the United States, the people of ogalagua established a new liberal party government under the leadership of the Nicaraguan Liberal Party and formed a national liberation army. Unwilling to fail, the U.S. aggressors once again sent out the army and navy to land on a large scale in Nicaraguan and armed to support the diash regime. The Nicaraguan people are furious. A national liberation movement against the American aggressor and his running dog diash regime swept across the country like a storm. In this year, Sandino returned to his motherland, where he had been away for five years, and ascended to the forefront of Nicaraguan modern political struggle.
Holding the banner of righteousness for the first time
After returning to the motherland, Sandino devoted himself to the armed struggle against the United States. With all his savings of three thousand dollars, he bought a batch of weapons and ammunition and organized a small guerrilla group. At the beginning, there were only 29 guerrillas. They were short of guns and ammunition, as well as food and clothing. But it's hard for Sandino and his players who have been training for many years. Under Sandino's leadership, the guerrillas used local materials and made all kinds of local weapons. A Sandino hand grenade made of Mining Explosives and glass flakes packed into cans, easy to use, powerful, has become the best weapon for soldiers. The guerrillas continued to seize the enemy's weapons and expand their ranks. It was with this small guerrilla group as the core that Sandino led the bombing of an American run gold mine, raised the red and black flags, which symbolized freedom or death, and led the group northward into the mountainous area of segovias, where the guerrilla war against the diaspora regime began. People from all walks of life are very excited by the news and come to join us one after another. Soon there were 800 well-organized cavalry. He actually united with the Liberal Party, and the momentum of struggle was even more magnificent.
Sandino is brave in battle and flexible in command. He often leads the guerrillas to advance and retreat by taking advantage of the complex terrain, winning more with less, and making the enemy cry and howl. The guerrillas are stronger in Vietnam. One Uruguayan writer wrote: "the material base of Sandino's army is the people. The farmer provided him with soldiers and correspondents. With a tough trunk, you can make a big catapult and kill the enemy. Weapons, ammunition and clothing all come from their wonderful spoils. "
Soon, Sandino won the title of "General of the free man" in Nicaraguan. His guerrillas expanded tenfold and became the most powerful force in the struggle against the United States and dictatorship in Nicaraguan. In 1927, Sandino united with other revolutionary forces to attack malagua and win the final victory. At this time, the leaders of the Liberal Party, greedy for wealth, laid down their weapons and compromised with the enemy. Sandino scoffed at this kind of betrayal. He rejected the temptation of liberals to offer huge sums of money and to appoint him as mayor, declaring that he would rather die in battle than live like a slave. In July of that year, the US aggressors issued an ultimatum to Sandino, demanding that he surrender within 48 hours. Sandino responded with two months of continuous offensive. In one battle, Sandino guerrillas captured okotal, a military town, and bombed the headquarters of the enemy, the municipal government and the houses of the traitors, which shocked the whole of Central America. The enemy was terrified.
In September 1927, Sandino used the gap between battles to reorganize the guerrillas. He clearly put forward such political programs as driving out the aggressors, distributing land to the peasants, and organizing cooperatives, and stipulated that the guerrillas should not infringe upon peaceful residents or fight for wages. He also put forward the guerrilla strategy of "dispersing troops, attacking at night, using obstacles to ambush the enemy.". After the whole army was established in September, Sandino guerrillas took on a new look and further developed. In 1931, Sandino commanded 3000 guerrillas and divided them into eight groups to occupy eight major states and control half of the country. In order to eliminate the Sandinista guerrillas, the United States dispatched 12000 troops, dozens of planes, and replaced several commanders. After six years, it was still at a loss. Under the attack of Sandino guerrillas, Herbert Clark Hoover's government had to order the U.S. troops to withdraw from Nicaraguan in 1931 and give up the policy of intervention in Nicaraguan. On January 2, 1933, the United States withdrew the last invading army from Nicaraguan, and the Nicaraguan people won a great victory in the anti American struggle.
After seven years of hard struggle, the guerrillas won a great victory in the struggle against the invasion of the United States. They laid down their arms, took up their tools, dug up canals, searched for gold, established plantations, and invested in the economic construction of Nicaraguan. The Nicaraguan people believe that a free, peaceful and happy life will come.
Unfortunately, he was killed
However, the United States and its agents are not willing to fail. Sandino has become a thorn in their side. On February 21, 1934, Anastasio Somoza Garcia, commander-in-chief of the Nicaraguan National Guard, set up a trap and pretended to invite Sandino to malagua to hold the national negotiations. However, he ambushed Sandino on his way home and killed him. The general, a free man who made the enemy afraid, galloped in the anti imperialist battlefield, but unfortunately died of the conspiracy of the domestic reactionaries.
Memorial after death
However, the people still remember Sandino, the "General of the free man", who stood up to fight against the aggressors for national independence and set up an immortal monument. In 1960s, Nicaraguan democratic revolutionary movement against Somoza was named Sandino movement after him. After overthrowing Somoza family in 1979, it was renamed Sandino national liberation front. Today, the International Airport in Managua, the capital of Nicaraguan, is still called Augusto Cesar Sandino International Airport in memory of this national hero.
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Release Time:2022-01-26 23:05:54
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