Deng Zhongxia (October 5, 1894 - September 21, 1933), male, Han nationality, also known as Deng Kang, was born in Yizhang County, Hunan Province. Member of the second and fifth CPC Central Committee, alternate member of the third and sixth CPC Central Committee, and alternate member of the provisional Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee. Marxist theorist, leader of the workers' movement.
In 1915, he studied literature and history in Changsha Hunan Normal University. In 1917, he entered Peking University to study Chinese. In October 1920, he joined the early organization of the Communist Party in Beijing. In 1923, he participated in the founding of Shanghai University and served as the dean. After the founding of the all China Federation of trade unions in 1925, he served as secretary general and Minister of propaganda, and participated in the organization and leadership of the general strike in Hong Kong. After the failure of the great revolution, he participated in the party's August 7th meeting and was elected as an alternate member of the provisional Political Bureau of the Central Committee. In 1928, he went to Moscow as the international representative of all China Federation of trade unions in red. After returning to China in 1930, he was appointed as a representative of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and went to the base areas in Western Hunan and Hubei. He served as secretary of the special committee of Western Hunan and Hubei, political commissar of the 2nd Red Army Corps (later changed to the 3rd red Army), Secretary of the former enemy Committee, and member of the Central Revolutionary Military Commission. In 1932, he came to Shanghai as director and party secretary of the National Association of red mutual aid. He was arrested in May 1933. On September 21, 1933, shouting the slogan "long live the Communist Party of China", he walked to the execution ground with his head held high and died bravely.
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Life of the characters
In 1901, Deng Zhongxia established a private school in his family to increase the school of Confucian classics. In 1911, he entered Yizhang County Primary School of higher education, and then he was admitted to Chenjun No.7 United middle school (now Chenzhou No.1 Middle School). In the spring of 1915, he was admitted to Changsha Hunan Normal University, majoring in literature and history.
Peking University Students
In 1917, Deng Zhongxia went to Beijing with his father and was admitted to the Department of Chinese literature of Peking University. Under the guidance of Li Dazhao, a teacher at Peking University, and inspired by the October Revolution, Deng Zhongxia began to study Marxism Leninism and actively participated in the anti imperialist patriotic struggle at that time, becoming an active member of the school. In March 1919, Deng Zhongxia and others organized a lecture group of Peking University for civilian education, which aimed at "enhancing the knowledge of the common people and arousing the consciousness of the common people". They led the comrades of the lecture group to make speeches in the streets, which made the masses understand a lot of anti imperialist and anti feudal principles. On May 4, Deng Zhongxia and his classmates from Peking University took part in the historic anti imperialist patriotic movement. On May 6, the student union of secondary and higher schools in Beijing was established, and Deng Zhongxia was promoted as the general affairs officer of the union. In March 1920, under the leadership of Li Dazhao, Deng Zhongxia, he Mengxiong, Huang sunkui, Gao Shangde and Luo Zhanglong secretly organized the Research Society of Marxist theory. On May 18, 1920, Deng Zhongxia came to Changsha to discuss with his old friend Mao Zedong the establishment of Hunan students' Union and to participate in the National Students' Union.
Labor movement leader
In October 1920, Deng Zhongxia was one of the earliest members of the Beijing Communist group. In November 1920, the Beijing Socialist Youth League was founded, and Deng Zhongxia became a member of the organization. After the formal establishment of the Communist Party of China in 1921, the Provisional Central Bureau of the Chinese Socialist Youth League was also formed in Shanghai. At the request of the Provisional Central Bureau, the Beijing local executive committee of the Socialist Youth League was established in December of the same year, and Deng Zhongxia was elected secretary. At the beginning of 1921, Deng Zhongxia founded Changxindian labor Tutorial school. In November, he published the progressive journal "labor voice" to publicize Marxism among the workers. In August 1921, as the general organization of the Communist Party of China leading the workers' movement, the Secretary Department of the Chinese labor union was established in Shanghai. Deng Zhongxia served as the director of the North Branch and was responsible for leading the northern workers' movement. On May 1, 1922, Deng Zhongxia was elected as the representative of Changxindian workers, attended the first National Labor Conference held in Guangzhou, and was elected director of the Secretary Department of China's labor mix. In July of the same year, he attended the second National Congress of the Communist Party of China, participated in the formulation of the Manifesto of the second National Congress of the Communist Party of China and the party's democratic revolutionary program, and was elected as the executive member of the Central Committee. In February 1923, Deng Zhongxia took part in initiating and leading the 27 th strike of Beijing Han railway workers, and launched the labor legislation movement throughout the country. In April 1923, he was recommended by Li Dazhao to join the founding of Shanghai University, which was jointly run by the Kuomintang and the Communist Party. During his two years in Shanghai University, he hired a large number of Communist Party members, such as Cai Hesen, Qu Qiubai, Yun Daiying, Zhang Tailei, Ren Bishi, Li Da, Xiao Chunv, Li Lisan, to teach at the University, and used Shanghai University to train talents for the party. In August 1923, the second congress of the Chinese Socialist Youth League was held in Nanjing. The Congress accepted the Communist Party's policy of establishing a revolutionary united front, and agreed that members of the Youth League should join the Kuomintang in their own name. Deng Zhongxia was elected as a member of the central executive committee. Deng Zhongxia was elected chairman of the Provisional Central Bureau to preside over the work of the Central Committee. in October 1923, he participated in the founding of China Youth magazine. In November 1924, Deng Zhongxia published his article "our strength" in the second issue of Chinese workers, criticizing Chen Duxiu's argument that the Chinese working class is naive in quantity and quality. Deng Zhongxia cited facts: the number of industrial workers has reached 1.895 million, and the number of organized workers has reached 270000. It is pointed out that China's proletariat is the bourgeoisie in its own country. Although it is naive, China's proletariat can grow and grow. The article opposes the explanation of social phenomenon by psychology. It is pointed out that the proletariat, on the one hand, strengthens its own strength, on the other hand, urges and unites the weak and scattered strength of all classes to form a revolutionary force, so as to achieve the two great undertakings of national revolution and social revolution. In 1924, the Chinese workers' movement set off a climax again. Deng Zhongxia left the Youth League and devoted himself to the Shanghai workers' movement. During his work in Shanghai, he wrote many articles and put forward many outstanding opinions on important issues such as the workers' movement, the youth movement, the peasants' movement and the soldiers' movement. In April 1925, Deng Zhongxia, appointed by the party, left Shanghai to prepare for and organize the second National Labor Conference and set up the all China Federation of trade unions as secretary general and Minister of propaganda. In response to the call of the May 30th Movement, he organized and led the famous provincial and Hong Kong strike.
Party affairs activities
After Chiang Kai Shek launched a counter revolutionary coup on April 12, 1927, Deng Zhongxia firmly advocated holding an armed uprising in Nanchang, and was sent by the CPC Central Committee to Jiujiang on July 20, 1927 to hold a meeting with Li Lisan, Tan Pingshan, Ye Ting, Nie Rongzhen, etc. to analyze the situation and put forward suggestions. Later, he took part in the August 7th Meeting of the CPC Central Committee held in Hankou to save the revolution. He firmly supported the general policy of the agrarian revolution and armed resistance against the Kuomintang reactionaries, and was elected as an alternate member of the provisional Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee. Later, he served as secretary of Jiangsu Province, editorial board member of Bolshevik, the organ publication of the CPC Central Committee, and acting Minister of the Central Military Department. In the severe white terror after the failure of the great revolution, he was sent to Shanghai by the Central Committee to restore the party organization, convey the spirit of the August 7th conference, and lead the armed struggle. In February 1928, Deng Zhongxia was sent to Hong Kong as Acting Secretary of Guangdong provincial Party committee. At the end of February, Deng Zhongxia was arrested and jailed in Hong Kong because the spy got the tip off. On March 18, 1928, the Fourth International Congress of red workers was held in Moscow. Although Deng Zhongxia did not attend the Congress, he was elected member of the Executive Board of the International Central Committee of red workers because of the great influence of Deng Zhongxia in leading the Chinese workers' movement at home and abroad. In May, after being rescued by Zhou Enlai and other organizations, he got out of prison from Hong Kong and returned to Shanghai. He was immediately informed to go to Moscow to attend the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of China and went to the Soviet Union. After arriving in Moscow, he, together with Zhou Enlai and Qu Qiubai, organized the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of China. On June 18, Deng Zhongxia, together with Zhou Enlai and Qu Qiubai, attended the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of China in Moscow and was elected as an alternate member of the Central Committee. On July 19, 1930, Deng Zhongxia returned to Shanghai from Moscow. In September, with the strong support of Zhou Enlai and Qu Qiubai, Deng Zhongxia was sent to the Soviet Area by the Party Central Committee to lead the work of the second Red Army Corps and the revolutionary base areas in Western Hunan and Hubei, and resolutely stopped the implementation of the third line. In January 1931, after Wang Ming usurped the leadership of the CPC Central Committee, Deng Zhongxia was removed from all his posts. At the end of 31, he returned to Shanghai, waiting for the Central Committee's decision. In the autumn of 1932, the party organization appointed Deng Zhongxia as the director and Secretary of the National Red Mutual Aid Association, engaging in underground work in the Kuomintang ruled areas.
Arrested and killed
On the evening of May 15, 1933, Deng Zhongxia was arrested by the French concession after studying and arranging the rescue work for the chief family of the Mutual Aid Association. Deng Zhongxia's pseudonym is Shi Yi. He argues and asks his lawyer Shi Liang to help him defend himself. He never revealed his identity despite the severe torture of the enemy. Later, Lin Suqin, the rescue Minister of the mutual aid association who was arrested together, could not withstand the threat and inducement of the enemy, and confessed Deng Zhongxia's true identity. The Central Party headquarters of the Kuomintang immediately bought the French Concession patrol house. Deng Zhongxia was extradited to Nanjing and escorted to the prison of the Nanjing Kuomintang military police headquarters. In prison, with the firm belief and iron will of the Communist Party members, he stood up to the enemy's inducement and torture. At dawn on September 21, 1933, under the rain flower terrace, Deng Zhongxia called out "down with the Kuomintang!" Long live the Communist Party of China Slogans for the cause of communism
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